Religious Institutions (religious + institution)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Speaking Truth to Power: Religious Institutions as Both Dissident Organizational Stakeholders and Organizational Partners

First page of article [source]

Land Administration in Medieval Japan: Ito no shô in Chikuzen Province, 1131,1336

HISTORY, Issue 289 2003
Judith Fröhlich
The topic of land administration is central in historical studies of medieval Japan, since it provides insight into the social and economic development during the medieval period and highlights the lives of various social groups, courtiers, clerics, warriors and peasants. Based on the case of Ito no shô, an estate in northern Kyushu, this article analyses the establishment of a wide system of land administration under courtiers and central religious institutions during the twelfth century and its decline during the thirteenth century. The concurrent rise of local land managers and their social and economic activities during the thirteenth century are also explored. Finally, an assessment is made of the impact of the Mongol invasions of 1274 and 1281 on economic and social development during the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, in particular the loss of influence of central authorities in regions remote from the capital and the formation of rural communities under the leadership of local warriors. [source]

"Living Our Faith:" The Lenten Pastoral Letter of the Bishops of Malawi and the Shift to Multiparty Democracy, 1992,1993

Maura Mitchell
From 1964 to 1993, Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda ruled the nation of Malawi by a singular mixture of terror and ritualized paternalism, relying on religious institutions to bolster his own moral authority. In the changing global and regional political context of the early 1990s, however, it was the Roman Catholic bishops of Malawi who challenged the prevailing culture of silence. In the lenten pastoral letter entitled "Living Our Faith," the seven bishops reproached the Banda regime for its authoritarianism. Relying on New Testament images of Christians as inherently free, the bishops ultimately contributed to the development of representative democracy. Acting not as biased proponents of specific political groups but rather as the champions of government accountability and human dignity, Malawan Catholic clerics and the external rituals and symbols of their faith have attained (at least in the short term) a greater prestige and popular appeal in a religiously heterodox nation. [source]

Religion and the secularisation of health care

John Paley
Aims and objectives., To assess the claim that conceptualisations of religion and spirituality should be grounded in theology, and acknowledge the global resurgence of religion. Background., Although there is widespread agreement in the nursing literature that ,spirituality' is a broader concept than ,religion,' and should be understood generically, this approximate consensus has occasionally been challenged. A recent paper by Barbara Pesut and colleagues argues that the generic view not only empties spirituality of powerful religious symbols and narratives, but underestimates the continuing social influence of religion, and its resurgence on a global scale. Accordingly, these authors suggest three principles for conceptualising spirituality and religion in health care, one of which is that conceptualisations should be grounded in philosophical and theological thinking, and should not ignore the global resurgence of religion. Method., Critical review. Conclusion., The Pesut principle privileges theology, disregarding other disciplines which theorise religion. Arguably, it privileges specifically Christian theology, the history of which suggests a politics of orthodoxy and an epistemology of authority and obedience. The global resurgence of religion is not, in fact, global, as the industrialised countries have experienced a marked shift towards secular-rational values; and the postindustrial phase of development is associated with self-expression values, which represent a challenge not merely to religious institutions (arguably an affirmation of ,spirituality') but to traditional elites and structures of all kinds. Finally, religion ,resurgent' is not an attractive model for health care, since many of its most obvious manifestations are incompatible with the ideology of health professionals. Relevance to clinical practice., In the secular societies of Europe, if not North America, there should be no expectation that nurses provide spiritual care. It is a requirement of the great separation between civil order and religion that the health services, as a public space, should remain thoroughly secular. [source]


This essay argues that modern sovereignty is not simply a legal or political concept that is coterminous with the modern nation-state. Rather, at the theoretical level modern sovereign power is inscribed into a wider theological dialectic between "the one" and "the many". Modernity fuses juridical-constitutional models of supreme state authority with a new, "biopolitical" account of power whereby natural life and the living body of the individual are the object of politics and are subject to state control (section 1). The origins of this dialectic go back to changes within Christian theology in the late Middle Ages and the early modern period. In particular, these changes can be traced to Ockham's denial of the universal Good in things, Suárez's priority of the political community over the ecclesial body and Hobbes's "biopolitical" definition of power as state dominion over life (section 2). At the practical level, modern sovereignty has involved both the national state and the transnational market. The "revolutions in sovereignty" that gave rise to the modern state and the modern market were to some considerable extent shaped by theological concepts and changes in religious institutions and practices: first, the supremacy of the modern national state over the transnational papacy and national churches; second, the increasing priority of individuality over collectivity; third, a growing focus on contractual proprietary relations at the expense of covenantal ties and communal bonds (section 3). By subjecting both people and property to uniform standards of formal natural rights and abstract monetary value, financial capitalism and liberal secular democracy are part of the "biopolitical" logic that subordinates the sanctity of life and land to the secular sacrality of the state and the market. In Pope Benedict's theology, we can find the contours of a post-secular political economy that challenges the monopoly of modern sovereignty (sections 4,5). [source]

Identity processes and the positive youth development of African Americans: An explanatory framework

Dena Phillips Swanson
This chapter presents Spencer's phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory, or PVEST (1995), as a conceptual framework for examining positive youth development. Contextual factors affecting racial and gender identity of African American youth are discussed, with the focus on the influence of schools and religious institutions. [source]

Temple, Economy, and Religion in First Millennium Babylonia

Michael Kozuh
The study of economy and religion in Babylonia during the first millennium bc is primarily that of two well-documented temples, the Eanna temple of the city of Uruk and the Ebabbar of Sippar. The administrative archives of those temples , consisting of tens of thousands of cuneiform texts , allow us to understand parts of the temple economy in great detail, while at the same time this abundance of material frustrates traditional approaches to Babylonian religion. This essay aims in general to emphasize that Babylonian temples were large-scale, multifaceted religious institutions. Capitalizing on recent advancements in our technical understanding of the temple economy, it integrates these advancements into issues of broader religious, historical, intellectual, and economic significance. In particular, it stresses three points: first, the temples' amalgamated ruling structure fostered institutional permanence and should therefore be understood as a challenge to the ,temple-as-household' metaphor; second, large-scale centralization of wealth in the temples was necessary for advancements in Babylonian learned culture (especially in astronomy and mathematics); and, finally, the centralization of manpower in the temples gave them particular advantages in the politics of the first millennium bc. In the end, I argue that all of these are in fact manifestations of Babylonian religion in themselves. [source]

The art of expenditure: the court of Paola Malatesta Gonzaga in fifteenth-century Mantua

Evelyn Welch
The paper draws on four surviving account books to examine the way a female court functioned during the first quarter of the fifteenth century. The documents, which have never received detailed attention, record Paola Malatesta Gonzaga's income and expenditure over an almost twenty-year period, revealing her close attention to her land, estates, and the welfare of her famiglia. They also provide considerable new information for Paola's important, and now almost entirely lost, patronage of religious institutions in Mantua. From her previous historiographic role as the wife of Mantua's first marquis, Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, or as the mother of Ludovico and Cecilia Gonzaga, Paola emerges as an energetic, ambitious and culturally sensitive figure whose biography deserves re-examination. [source]

The Emergent Role of Social Intermediaries in the New Economy

Michael J. Piore
This paper focuses on the role of social intermediaries in the evolution of the economy. By ,social intermediaries' I mean those institutions that mediate between the economy and other realms of social activity and maintain a balance between them. Among institutions of this kind are trade unions and governmental organizations but also cooperatives, household-based enterprises, religious institutions, and, increasingly, networks of professionals and business people based on race, sex, ethnicity and religion. [source]

The Sufic Paradigm for Stress Management and its Contribution to a Model of Social Work Practice

Zulkarnain A. Hatta
This article presents Sufism as a model for helping to alleviate human miseries. As the instability, contradictions, and stress of the socioeconomic structure create a frantic search for relevant modes of treatment, the theories and methods espoused in Sufism present an alternative approach to be taken up in the interest of more effective practice; especially in the field of social work, psychology, and counseling. Sufic masters or teachers, by the nature of their work are social workers; hence, their role in helping stressed people is discussed. Existing tools of measurement that can test stress levels are used in order to present Sufism as being compatible with the mode of scientific inquiry. The article shows that sticking to traditional psychoanalytic, behavioral, transactional and analytical practices, to name a few, limits the avenues of help that can be offered to those in need. Social workers and human service agencies have to work in collaboration with religious institutions and other spiritual organizations in order to better serve the population. [source]

History of the Care of Displaced Children in Korea

Jung-Woo Kim
The present article explores the current nature and history of welfare provision for displaced children in Korea. It examines the early examples of care and the perspectives on the issue from scholars, lawmakers, religion and society as a whole. This provides an understanding of the background and, especially, the cultural roots of existing care. A history of what may be considered the first modern displaced child welfare provision is also given with analysis of how Christian and local approaches and perceptions integrated. This was to form the basis for present-day transitional displaced child welfare in Korea. For this reason, the article examines the provision in a paradigm which looks at the provision as responses to Western influences. Features of congregate care, domestic/international adoptions, foster care and youth-headed households are examined. The authors conclude that global forces will continue to be influential and recommends that religious institutions which have thus far provided crucial contributions to the foundation of care should continue to play key roles with the government's facilitation. The need for wide participation from society and coordination from the government to manage systems, develop strategies and build consensus is highlighted. [source]

The Challenges of Socially Responsible Investment Among Institutional Investors: Exploring the Links Between Corporate Pension Funds and Corporate Governance

ABSTRACT During the last few decades, globalization of finance markets has come under increasing pressure to manage the many risks that companies face due to the negative impact that certain financial crises have had on securities quoted on the stock exchange. Simultaneously, there is a growing tendency among different institutional investors to take into account nonfinancial aspects,social, environmental, and ethical values,of company management. In this respect, increasing numbers of asset managers are aware of the importance of nonfinancial aspects of company management for finance markets. Asset managers integrate corporate social responsibility, sustainability policies and corporate governance strategies as indicators in risk management and the search for long-term investments. The largest segment of socially responsible investment (SRI) screened and mutual funds are portfolios that are privately managed on behalf of institutions. Socially responsible investors include private and public pension funds, mutual funds, and private accounts that are managed on behalf of institutional investors such as corporations, universities, hospitals, religious institutions, and nonprofit organizations, among others. The aim of this paper is to analyze the development of SRI-screened management corporate pension plans in the Spanish finance market. Spain is one of the European countries with a less developed SRI institutional market. Since SRI is still at the fledgling stage in the Spanish institutional market, this analysis is restricted to the awareness of SRI among a sample of the total number of corporate pension funds or schemes in Spain. The paper concludes with some proposals to encourage wider SRI acceptance and practice in Spain. [source]