Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Audit

  • chart audit
  • clinical audit
  • external audit
  • financial audit
  • internal audit
  • national audit
  • performance audit
  • prospective audit
  • quality audit
  • retrospective audit
  • second audit

  • Terms modified by Audit

  • audit approach
  • audit commission
  • audit committee
  • audit committee independence
  • audit cycle
  • audit data
  • audit department
  • audit evidence
  • audit fee
  • audit fee premium
  • audit firm
  • audit function
  • audit independence
  • audit market
  • audit opinion
  • audit period
  • audit planning
  • audit practice
  • audit procedure
  • audit process
  • audit profession
  • audit program
  • audit qualification
  • audit quality
  • audit report
  • audit scheme
  • audit score
  • audit services
  • audit task
  • audit tool
  • audit work

  • Selected Abstracts


    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    C. Womack
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
    Letters for inclusion in Cytopathology must be with the Editor at least 6 weeks before the issue in which they are to appear is published
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    C. Womack

    Hazardous alcohol consumption and other barriers to antiviral treatment among hepatitis C positive people receiving opioid maintenance treatment

    Abstract Amongst people on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), chronic hepatitis C (HCV) is common but infrequently treated. Numerous barriers, including misuse of alcohol may limit efforts at anti-viral treatment. The aim of this study was to define barriers, including alcohol misuse, to the effective treatment of HCV amongst OMT recipients. Ninety-four OMT patients completed the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). A semi-structured interview was used in 53 subjects to assess alcohol use in detail, psychological health, discrimination and access to HCV treatment. Feasibility of brief intervention for alcohol misuse was assessed. Of the screening participants, 73% reported they were HCV positive. Of the detailed interview participants, 26% reported no drinking in the past month, but 53% scored 8 or more on AUDIT and 42% exceeded NHMRC drinking guidelines. Twenty subjects received brief intervention and among 17 re-interviewed at one month, alcohol consumption fell by 3.1 g/day (p = 0.003). Severe or extremely severe depression, stress and anxiety were found in 57%, 51% and 40% of interviewees respectively. Episodic heavy drinking, mental health problems, perceived discrimination, limited knowledge concerning HCV were all common and uptake of HCV treatment was poor. Brief intervention for alcohol use problems was acceptable to OMT patients, and warrants further study. [source]

    The development and validation of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS): a 13-item screening instrument for alcohol and drug and mental health risk

    Abstract The study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS) as a screening instrument for determining (i) the presence of alcohol and drug and mental health risk in Indigenous adult Australians and (ii) the cut-off scores that discriminate most effectively between the presence and absence of risk. A cross-sectional survey was used in clinical and non-clinical Indigenous and non-Indigenous services across Queensland Australia. A total of 175 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from urban, rural, regional and remote locations in Queensland took part in the study. Measures included the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS), the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ). Additional Mental Health measures included the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ). Principle axis factoring analysis of the IRIS revealed two factors corresponding with (i) alcohol and drug and (ii) mental health. The IRIS alcohol and drug and mental health subscales demonstrated good convergent validity with other well-established screening instruments and both subscales showed high internal consistency. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to generate cut-offs for the two subscales and t-tests validated the utility of these cut-offs for determining risky levels of drinking. The study validated statistically the utility of the IRIS as a screen for alcohol and drug and mental health risk. The instrument is therefore recommended as a brief screening instrument for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. [source]

    Validation of the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): report of results from the Australian site

    Abstract The concurrent, construct, discriminative and predictive validity of the World Health Organization's Alcohol Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) were examined in an Australian sample. One hundred and fifty participants, recruited from drug treatment (n = 50) and primary health care (PHC) settings (n = 100), were administered a battery of instruments at baseline and a modified battery at 3 months. Measures included the ASSIST; the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite); the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS); the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus); the Rating of Injection Site Condition (RISC); the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST); the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); the Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (RTQ); and the Maudsely Addiction Profile (MAP). Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and scores from the ASI-lite, SDS, AUDIT and DAST; and significantly greater ASSIST scores for those with diagnoses of abuse or dependence. Construct validity was established by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and measures of risk factors for the development of drug and alcohol problems. Participants diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or antisocial personality disorder had significantly higher ASSIST scores than those not diagnosed as such. Discriminative validity was established by the capacity of the ASSIST to discriminate between substance use, abuse and dependence. ROC analysis was able to establish cut-off scores for an Australian sample, with suitable specificities and sensitivities for most substances. Predictive validity was demonstrated by similarity in ASSIST scores obtained at baseline and at follow-up. The findings demonstrated that the ASSIST is a valid screening test for psychoactive substance use in individuals who use a number of substances and have varying degrees of substance use. [source]

    The validity of an Australian modification of the AUDIT questionnaire

    Abstract The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been used widely and is reported to be superior to conventional questionnaires in detection of current hazardous and harmful alcohol use. We assessed the validity of an Australian modification of the AUDIT (the AusAUDIT), which has been employed widely in Australian and New Zealand early intervention programmes. We used a cross-sectional study of 370 subjects from the follow-up phase of a randomized controlled trial of early intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol consumption. Scores on the AusAUDIT were compared against 12-month ICD-10 diagnoses of harmful alcohol use and dependence, as determined by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and against self-report of alcohol consumption exceeding Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NH&MRC) recommended limits. AusAUDIT had good internal consistency and discriminated significantly between persons meeting criteria for ICD-10 alcohol use disorders, and drinkers who did not. At currently recommended cut-off scores, AusAUDIT detected more than 85% of people meeting criteria for ICD-10 alcohol use disorders, or drinking over NH&MRC recommended limits, but its specificity was limited (29% in men, and 58% in women for drinking over NH&MRC limits). No subset of questions performed as well as the full AusAUDIT in detection of drinking problems, but the alcohol consumption items provided a reasonable screen for drinking over NH&MRC limits. We conclude that AusAUDIT is effective in detecting problematic drinking, but positive cases should be confirmed by clinical assessment. The findings illustrate the need for validation of questionnaire modifications, and the difficulty in increasing test sensitivity without reducing specificity. [source]

    Identifying young people who drink too much: the clinical utility of the five-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)

    HELEN MILES Researcher
    Abstract The current study investigated the patterns and consequences of alcohol use among young people and their perceptions of associate health risk, and explored the clinical utility of the five-item version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in screening young people for hazardous drinking. A cross-sectional sample of 393 young people aged 16,19 years were accessed through two tertiary colleges in South London and self-completed an anonymous, confidential questionnaire recording the five-item AUDIT, patterns of alcohol consumption, hazardous consequences and perception of associate health risk. Over 90% of the sample reported drinking alcohol regularly, commonly excessive weekend use and related physical, psychological and social consequences. A significant minority (20.4% of males, 18.0% of females) reported consumption of alcohol in excess of UK recommended limits, while almost a third (34.2% of males, 30.2% of females) reported scores in the ,hazardous' range of the five-item AUDIT. However, the majority had little perception of associate health risk, perceiving their use to be ,light' and unproblematic. Only one in 10 of those drinking at ,hazardous' levels recognized their alcohol use as problematic, most believing the hazardous consequences of this use were acceptable. Self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption (except age first used) and total number of psychological and social hazardous consequences were found to significantly predict AUDIT scores using linear regression analysis. Therefore the five-item AUDIT appears to have predictive validity, reflecting self-reported alcohol consumption, perception of associate health risk and hazardous consequences among young people. It is concluded that it may consequently have clinical utility as a simple screening tool (suitable for use by a variety of professionals in contact with young people) for the identification of hazardous alcohol consumption among this population. [source]

    Brief screening questionnaires to identify problem drinking during pregnancy: a systematic review

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    Ethel Burns
    ABSTRACT Aims Although prenatal screening for problem drinking during pregnancy has been recommended, guidance on screening instruments is lacking. We investigated the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of brief alcohol screening questionnaires to identify problem drinking in pregnant women. Methods Electronic databases from their inception to June 2008 were searched, as well as reference lists of eligible papers and related review papers. We sought cohort or cross-sectional studies that compared one or more brief alcohol screening questionnaire(s) with reference criteria obtained using structured interviews to detect ,at-risk' drinking, alcohol abuse or dependency in pregnant women receiving prenatal care. Results Five studies (6724 participants) were included. In total, seven instruments were evaluated: TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, Kut down), T-ACE [Take (number of drinks), Annoyed, Cut down, Eye-opener], CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener], NET (Normal drinker, Eye-opener, Tolerance), AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), AUDIT-C (AUDIT-consumption) and SMAST (Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test). Study quality was generally good, but lack of blinding was a common weakness. For risk drinking sensitivity was highest for T-ACE (69-88%), TWEAK (71,91%) and AUDIT-C (95%), with high specificity (71,89%, 73,83% and 85%, respectively). CAGE and SMAST performed poorly. Sensitivity of AUDIT-C at score ,3 was high for past year alcohol dependence (100%) or alcohol use disorder (96%) with moderate specificity (71% each). For life-time alcohol dependency the AUDIT at score ,8 performed poorly. Conclusion T-ACE, TWEAK and AUDIT-C show promise for screening for risk drinking, and AUDIT-C may also be useful for identifying alcohol dependency or abuse. However, their performance as stand-alone tools is uncertain, and further evaluation of questionnaires for prenatal alcohol use is warranted. [source]

    Estimating driver risk using alcohol biomarkers, interlock blood alcohol concentration tests and psychometric assessments: initial descriptives

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2010
    Paul Marques
    ABSTRACT Aim To identify alcohol biomarker and psychometric measures that relate to drivers' blood alcohol concentration (BAC) patterns from ignition interlock devices (IIDs). Design, setting, participants, measurements In Alberta, Canada, 534 drivers, convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI), installed IIDs and agreed to participate in a research study. IID BAC tests are an established proxy for predicting future DUI convictions. Three risk groups were defined by rates of failed BAC tests. Program entry and follow-up blood samples (n = 302, 171) were used to measure phosphatidyl ethanol (PETH), carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and other biomarkers. Program entry urine (n = 130) was analyzed for ethyl glucuronide (ETG) and ethyl sulphate (ETS). Entry hair samples were tested for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) (n = 92) and ETG (n = 146). Psychometric measures included the DSM-4 Diagnostic Interview Schedule Alcohol Module, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the time-line follow-back (TLFB), the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DRINC) and the Temptation and Restraint Inventory (TRI). Findings Except for FAEE, all alcohol biomarkers were related significantly to the interlock BAC test profiles; higher marker levels predicted higher rates of interlock BAC test failures. PETH, the strongest with an overall analysis of variance F ratio of 35.5, had significant correlations with all nine of the other alcohol biomarkers and with 16 of 19 psychometric variables. Urine ETG and ETS were correlated strongly with the IID BAC tests. Conclusions The findings suggest that several alcohol biomarkers and assessments could play an important role in the prediction and control of driver alcohol risk when re-licensing. [source]

    Reactivity to alcohol assessment measures: an experimental test

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    Scott T. Walters
    ABSTRACT Aims Previous research has suggested that alcohol screening and assessment may affect drinking. Design This study was a randomized test of reactivity to alcohol assessment questionnaires among a group of heavy drinking college students. Setting and participants A total of 147 university students completed a screening questionnaire and were randomized to either immediate assessment or delayed assessment. The immediate assessment group completed a set of drinking questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months, while the delayed assessment group completed questionnaires only at 12 months. Measurements Primary outcomes included overall volume of drinking, risky drinking and use of risk reduction behaviors. Findings We found a significant effect of assessment on measures of risky drinking and risk reduction behaviors, but not on overall volume of drinking. Specifically, at 12 months, participants who had previously completed drinking assessments had a lower peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) (d = ,0.373), were more likely to report a low score on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; odds ratio = 2.55) and tended to use more strategies to moderate their alcohol consumption (d = 0.352). Risk reduction behaviors that were affected tended to be those that limited alcohol consumption, rather than those that minimized consequences. Conclusions These results may have implications for the development of brief interventions. [source]

    Bayes' Theorem to estimate population prevalence from Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    David R. Foxcroft
    ABSTRACT Aim The aim in this methodological paper is to demonstrate, using Bayes' Theorem, an approach to estimating the difference in prevalence of a disorder in two groups whose test scores are obtained, illustrated with data from a college student trial where 12-month outcomes are reported for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Method Using known population prevalence as a background probability and diagnostic accuracy information for the AUDIT scale, we calculated the post-test probability of alcohol abuse or dependence for study participants. The difference in post-test probability between the study intervention and control groups indicates the effectiveness of the intervention to reduce alcohol use disorder rates. Findings In the illustrative analysis, at 12-month follow-up there was a mean AUDIT score difference of 2.2 points between the intervention and control groups: an effect size of unclear policy relevance. Using Bayes' Theorem, the post-test probability mean difference between the two groups was 9% (95% confidence interval 3,14%). Interpreted as a prevalence reduction, this is evaluated more easily by policy makers and clinicians. Conclusion Important information on the probable differences in real world prevalence and impact of prevention and treatment programmes can be produced by applying Bayes' Theorem to studies where diagnostic outcome measures are used. However, the usefulness of this approach relies upon good information on the accuracy of such diagnostic measures for target conditions. [source]

    Validation of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST)

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2008
    Rachel Humeniuk
    ABSTRACT Aim The concurrent, construct and discriminative validity of the World Health Organization's Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) were examined in a multi-site international study. Participants One thousand and 47 participants, recruited from drug treatment (n = 350) and primary health care (PHC) settings (n = 697), were administered a battery of instruments. Measurements Measures included the ASSIST; the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite); the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS); the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus); the Rating of Injection Site Condition (RISC); the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST); the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); the Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (RTQ); and the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP). Findings Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and scores from the ASI-Lite (r = 0.76,0.88), SDS (r = 0.59), AUDIT (r = 0.82) and RTQ (r = 0.78); and significantly greater ASSIST scores for those with MINI-Plus diagnoses of abuse or dependence (P < 0.001). Construct validity was established by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and measures of risk factors for the development of drug and alcohol problems (r = 0.48,0.76). Discriminative validity was established by the capacity of the ASSIST to discriminate between substance use, abuse and dependence. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to establish cut-off scores with suitable specificities (50,96%) and sensitivities (54,97%) for most substances. Conclusions The findings demonstrated that the ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying psychoactive substance use in individuals who use a number of substances and have varying degrees of substance use. [source]

    Randomized controlled trial of the effects of completing the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test questionnaire on self-reported hazardous drinking

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2008
    Jim McCambridge
    ABSTRACT Aims The direct effects of screening on drinking behaviour have not previously been evaluated experimentally. We tested whether screening reduces self-reported hazardous drinking in comparison with a non-screened control group. Design Two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT), with both groups blinded to the true nature of the study. Setting and participants A total of 421 university students aged 18,24 years, recruited in five London student unions. Interventions Both groups completed a brief pen-and-paper general health and socio-demographic questionnaire, which for the experimental group also included the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) screening questionnaire. Measurements The primary outcome was the between-group difference in AUDIT score at 2,3-month follow-up. Eight secondary outcomes comprised other aspects of hazardous drinking, including dedicated measures of alcohol consumption, problems and dependence. Findings A statistically significant effect size of 0.23 (0.01,0.45) was detected on the designated primary outcome. The marginal nature of the statistical significance of this effect was apparent in additional analyses with covariates. Statistically significant differences were also obtained in three of eight secondary outcomes, and the observed effect sizes were not dissimilar to the known effects of brief interventions. Conclusions It is unclear to what extent these findings represent the effects of screening alone, a Hawthorne effect in which drinking behaviour has changed in response to monitoring, or whether they indicate reporting bias. These possibilities have important implications both for the dissemination of screening as an intervention in its own right and for behavioural intervention trials methodology. [source]

    Concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and AUDIT zones in defining levels of severity among out-patients with alcohol dependence in the COMBINE study

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2006
    Dennis M. Donovan
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine among alcohol-dependent out-patient clients the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) total score and ,zones' suggested by the World Health Organization for defining levels of severity of alcohol use problems. Design Participants were classified into AUDIT zones (AUDIT total score = 8,15, 16,19, 20,40) and compared on measures of demographics, treatment goals, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, severity of dependence, physiological dependence, tolerance, withdrawal and biomarkers of alcohol use. Setting Eleven out-patient academic clinical research centers across the United States. Participants Alcohol dependent individuals (n = 1335) entering out-patient treatment in the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions (COMBINE) study. Measurements The AUDIT was administered as part of an initial screening. Baseline measures used for concurrent validation included the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) Disorders, the Alcohol Dependence Scale, the Drinker Inventory of Consequences, the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale, the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, the Thoughts about Abstinence Scale, the Form-90, %carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Findings Indicators of severity of dependence and alcohol-related problems increased linearly with total score and differed significantly across AUDIT zones. The highest zone, with scores of 20 and above, was markedly different with respect to severity from the other two zones and members of this group endorsed an abstinence goal more strongly. Conclusions The AUDIT total score is a brief measure that appears to provide an index of severity of dependence in a sample of alcohol-dependent individuals seeking out-patient treatment, extending its potential utility beyond its more traditional role as a screening instrument in general populations. [source]

    Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors: a population-based study using AUDIT in southern Brazil

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2003
    Raúl A. Mendoza-Sassi
    ABSTRACT Aims To assess the prevalence of potential alcohol use disorders and associated factors using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A town in southern Brazil. Participants A representative sample of 1260 people aged 15 and over. Measurements Demographic, socioeconomic, smoking habit and mental health data were collected. Logistic regression was used in the multivariate analysis, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Findings Overall prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 7.9%, with 14.5% prevalence among men and 2.4% among women. The risk of alcohol misuse increased across social class (P linear trend = 0.03) and compared with the highest classes (A and B), groups C through E had ORs of 1.48, 1.51 and 2.36, respectively. Males had an OR of 6.89 (CI 3.61,13.16) compared with women. A linear trend was found (P = 0.001) between smoking categories, and smokers (OR 3.27; CI 1.91,5.58) and ex-smokers (OR 1.30; CI 0.56,2.98) were at higher risk than non-smokers. Those with minor psychiatric disorders had a 2.48 OR (CI 1.35,4.56) of presenting a positive test. Conclusions The AUDIT detected a high prevalence of potential alcohol use disorders in the population sampled. Those identified are potential targets for preventive measures implemented through health policies. [source]

    BIOMARKER: The validity of the laboratory marker combinations DOVER and QUVER to detect physician's diagnosis of at-risk drinking

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Michael Bentele
    ABSTRACT Especially in situations where it might be favorable for the patient to dissimulate the existing alcohol problem, ,objective' laboratory tests can be helpful. In this study we report validation of the two combinations DOVER (DOctor VERified) and QUVER (QUestionnarie VERified) of the biological markers percent carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) and gamma-glutamyl-transferase (,-GT) to detect patients that have been identified by their physicians with at-risk drinking behavior. Fifty-eight general practitioners (GPs) participated at two study sites in South-West Germany. Patients filled in a questionnaire that included the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and gave a blood sample. The GP recorded his/her assessment about the presence of an alcohol-related disorder in the patient. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses of the marker combinations DOVER and QUVER were performed. A total of 2940 patients participated in the study, of which 2496 completed data sets that could be used for further analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) of 79.5% for DOVER and 77.2% (QUVER) are in a higher range than the values for gamma%CDT (75.7%) or ,-GT (72.5%) and %CDT (64.5%) and suggest superiority of the proposed marker combinations. Cross-validation results were almost identical with 76.6% and 73.3% for DOVER and QUVER, respectively. Our analysis demonstrated that the combination of the markers ,-GT and %CDT with the physician's judgement of the condition as reference was superior to the use of single markers. [source]

    Acceptability of Emergency Department-based Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Problems

    Daniel W. Hungerford DrPH
    Abstract. Objectives: To adapt screening and brief intervention for alcohol problems (SBI) to a high-volume emergency department (ED) setting and evaluate its acceptability to patients. Methods: Patients at a large public-hospital ED were screened with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Screen-positive drinkers (AUDIT score , 6) were provided brief, on-site counseling and referral as needed. Three months later, project staff blinded to baseline measures reassessed alcohol intake, alcohol-related harm, alcohol dependence symptoms, and readiness to change. Results: Of 1,034 patients approached, 78.3% (810) consented to participate (95% CI = 75.5% to 81.2%), and 21.2% (172) screened positive (95% CI = 18.4% to 24.0%). Of 88 patients with complete intervention data, 94.3% (83) accepted an intervention (95% CI = 89.5% to 99.2%), with acceptance rates ranging from 93% to 100% across four alcohol-problem-severity levels (p = 0.7). A majority (59.0%) set goals to decrease or stop drinking (95% CI = 48.4% to 69.6%). The group recontacted (n= 23) experienced statistically significant decreases in alcohol intake, alcohol-related harm, and dependence symptoms, with measures decreasing for 68%, 52%, and 61% of the patients. Readiness to change also showed statistically significant improvement, with scores increasing for 43% of the patients. Moreover, two-thirds of the patients (15/23) reported at follow-up that SBI was a helpful part of their ED visit. Conclusions: High rates of consent and acceptance of counseling for alcohol problems by patients across a wide range of problem severity indicate that this protocol was acceptable to at-risk patients in a public-hospital ED. Improvements in alcohol-related outcome measures at follow-up were strong enough to warrant controlled studies of intervention efficacy. [source]


    Arthur Midwinter
    This paper appraises the theory and practice of Best Value Audit in Scotland, and in particular the central assumption that a robust performance management system is essential for continuous improvement in service delivery, within a rational planning model of governance. The reviews of Best Value Audit in practice reveal important gaps between theory and practice, with an overemphasis on monitoring process rather than performance. There is, therefore, considerable scope to reduce the demands of the audit process on local government, and Best Value Audit, needs to move from a theoretical model to an evidence-based model of good practice if real progress is to be made. [source]

    Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Health Care Utilization in a Managed Care Organization

    Gary A. Zarkin
    Objective. To estimate the relationship between current drinking patterns and health care utilization over the previous two years in a managed care organization (MCO) among individuals who were screened for their alcohol use. Study Design. Three primary care clinics at a large western MCO administered a short health and lifestyle questionnaire to all adult patients on their first visit to the clinic from March 1998 through December 1998. Patients who exceeded the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) guidelines for moderate drinking were given a more comprehensive alcohol screening using a modified version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Health care encounter data for two years preceding the screening visit were linked to the remaining individuals who responded to one or both instruments. Using both quantity,frequency and AUDIT-based drinking pattern variables, we estimated negative binomial models of the relationship between drinking patterns and days of health care use, controlling for demographic characteristics and other variables. Principal Findings. For both the quantity,frequency and AUDIT-based drinking pattern variables, current alcohol use is generally associated with less health care utilization relative to abstainers. This relationship holds even for heavier drinkers, although the differences are not always statistically significant. With some exceptions, the overall trend is that more extensive drinking patterns are associated with lower health care use. Conclusions. Based on our sample, we find little evidence that alcohol use is associated with increased health care utilization. On the contrary, we find that alcohol use is generally associated with decreased health care utilization regardless of drinking pattern. [source]

    Quantitative EEG in Patients With Alcohol-Related Seizures

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
    Trond Sand
    Background:, To investigate whether quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) recorded within a few days after a generalized seizure can improve the discrimination between alcohol-related seizures (ARSs), seizures in epilepsy and other seizures. In addition, we wanted to evaluate the influence of various external factors on QEEG, e.g., drug use, time from seizure occurrence, and alcohol intake. Methods:, An ARS was defined by (i) scores ,8 in the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and (ii) no history of epilepsy. Twenty-two ARS patients, 21 epileptic patients with seizures (ES), 30 AUDIT-negative patients with seizures (OS), and 37 well-controlled epileptic outpatients (EPO) were included. EEG from 79 sciatica patients (SC) served as an additional control group. EEG was recorded in relaxed wakefulness with eyes closed. Spectral analysis of ongoing resting EEG activity was performed. For the main analysis, spectral band amplitudes were averaged across 14 electrodes. Results:, Major quantitative EEG abnormalities were mainly seen in the ES group. AUDIT score correlated negatively with QEEG band amplitudes in patients with seizures unrelated to alcohol, but not in the ARS group. Recent alcohol intake correlated negatively with delta and theta amplitude. We could not confirm that beta activity is increased in ARS subjects. Conclusions:, A QEEG with slightly reduced alpha amplitude supports a clinical diagnosis of ARS. An abnormally slow QEEG profile and asymmetry in the temporal regions indicates ES. QEEG predicted the clinical diagnosis better than standard EEG. [source]

    Interactive Effects of Cumulative Stress and Impulsivity on Alcohol Consumption

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
    Fox Helen C.
    Background:, Alcohol addiction may reflect adaptations to stress, reward, and regulatory brain systems. While extensive research has identified both stress and impulsivity as independent risk factors for drinking, few studies have assessed the interactive relationship between stress and impulsivity in terms of hazardous drinking within a community sample of regular drinkers. Methods:, One hundred and thirty regular drinkers (56M/74F) from the local community were assessed for hazardous and harmful patterns of alcohol consumption using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). All participants were also administered the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) as a measure of trait impulsivity and the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Checklist (CSC) as a comprehensive measure of cumulative adverse life events. Standard multiple regression models were used to ascertain the independent and interactive nature of both overall stress and impulsivity as well as specific types of stress and impulsivity on hazardous and harmful drinking. Results:, Recent life stress, cumulative traumatic stress, overall impulsivity, and nonplanning-related impulsivity as well as cognitive and motor-related impulsivity were all independently predictive of AUDIT scores. However, the interaction between cumulative stress and total impulsivity scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance, indicating that a high to moderate number of adverse events and a high trait impulsivity rating interacted to affect greater AUDIT scores. The subscale of cumulative life trauma accounted for the most variance in AUDIT scores among the stress and impulsivity subscales. Conclusions:, Findings highlight the interactive relationship between stress and impulsivity with regard to hazardous drinking. The specific importance of cumulative traumatic stress as a marker for problem drinking is also discussed. [source]

    Is the Full Version of the AUDIT Really Necessary?

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
    Internal Construct of Its Abbreviated Versions, Study of the Validity
    Background:, This study was aimed at assessing the psychometric qualities of the abbreviated versions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-3, AUDIT-4, AUDIT-C, AUDIT-PC, AUDIT-QF, FAST, and Five-Shot) and at comparing them to the 10-item AUDIT and the CAGE in 2 samples of Brazilian adults. Methods:, The validity and internal consistency of the scales were assessed in a sample of 530 subjects attended at an emergency department and at a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and Drugs. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used as the diagnostic comparative measure for the predictive validity assessment. The concurrent validity between the scales was analyzed by means of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results:, The assessment of the predictive validity of the abbreviated versions showed high sensitivity (of 0.78 to 0.96) and specificity (of 0.74 to 0.94) indices, with areas under the curve as elevated as those of the AUDIT (0.89 and 0.92 to screen for abuse and 0.93 and 0.95 in the screening of dependence). The CAGE presented lower indices: 0.81 for abuse and 0.87 for dependence. The analysis of the internal consistency of the AUDIT and its versions exhibited Cronbach's alpha coefficients between 0.83 and 0.94, while the coefficient for the CAGE was 0.78. Significant correlations were found between the 10-item AUDIT and its versions, ranging from 0.91 to 0.99. Again, the results for the CAGE were satisfactory (0.77), although inferior to the other instruments. Conclusions:, The results obtained in this study confirm the validity of the abbreviated versions of the AUDIT for the screening of alcohol use disorders and show that their psychometric properties are as satisfactory as those of the 10-item AUDIT and the CAGE. [source]

    Preference Conditioning in Healthy Individuals: Correlates With Hazardous Drinking

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2010
    Iris M. Balodis
    Background:, Conditioned reward is a classic measure of drug-induced brain changes in animal models of addiction. The process can be examined in humans using the Conditioned Pattern Preference (CPP) task, in which participants associate nonverbal cues with reward but demonstrate low awareness of this conditioning. Previously, we reported that alcohol intoxication does not affect CPP acquisition in humans, but our data indicated that prior drug use may impact conditioning scores. Methods:, To test this possibility, the current study examined the relationship between self-reported alcohol use and preference conditioning in the CPP task. Working memory was assessed during conditioning by asking participants to count the cues that appeared at each location on a computer screen. Participants (69 female and 23 male undergraduate students) completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) as measures of hazardous drinking. Results:, Self-reported hazardous drinking was significantly correlated with preference conditioning in that individuals who scored higher on these scales exhibited an increased preference for the reward-paired cues. In contrast, hazardous drinking did not affect working memory errors on the CPP task. Conclusions:, These findings support evidence that repeated drug use sensitizes neural pathways mediating conditioned reward and point to a neurocognitive disposition linking substance misuse and responses to reward-paired stimuli. The relationship between hazardous drinking and conditioned reward is independent of changes in cognitive function, such as working memory. [source]

    Detecting Alcohol-Related Problems in Developing Countries: A Comparison of 2 Screening Measures in India

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2009
    Madhabika B. Nayak
    Background:, There is inadequate recognition of alcohol misuse as a public health issue in India. Information on screening measures is critical for prevention and early intervention efforts. This study critically evaluated the full and shorter versions of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF as screening measures for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in a community sample of male drinkers in Goa, India. Methods:, Data from male drinking respondents in a population study on alcohol use patterns and sexual risk behaviors in randomly selected rural and urban areas of North Goa are reported. Overall, 39% (n = 743) of the 1899 screened men, age 18 to 49, reported consuming alcohol in the last 12 months. These current drinkers were administered the screening measures as part of detailed interviews on drinking patterns and AUD symptoms. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted for each combination of screening measure and criterion (alcohol dependence or any AUD). Reliability and correlations among the 4 measures were also examined. Results:, All 4 measures performed well with area under the curves of at least 0.79. The full screeners that included both drinking patterns and problem items (the AUDIT and the RAP4-QF) performed better than their shorter versions (the AUDIT-C and the RAPS4) in detecting AUDs. Performance of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF improved with lowered and raised thresholds, respectively, and alternate cut-off scores are suggested. Scores on the full measures were significantly correlated (0.80). Reliability estimates for the AUDIT measures were higher than those for the RAPS4 measures. Conclusions:, All measures were efficient at detecting AUDs. When screening for alcohol-related problems among males in the general population in India, cut-off scores for screeners may need to be adjusted. Selecting an appropriate screening measure and cut-off score necessitates careful consideration of the screening context and resources available to confirm alcohol-related diagnoses. [source]

    Screening Trauma Patients With the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Biomarkers of Alcohol Use

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2009
    Tim Neumann
    Background:, Alcohol screening and brief interventions have been shown to reduce alcohol-related morbidity in injured patients. Use of self-report questionnaires such as the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) is recommended as the optimum screening method. We hypothesized that the accuracy of screening is enhanced by combined use of the AUDIT and biomarkers of alcohol use in injured patients. Methods:, The study was conducted in the emergency department of a large, urban, university hospital. Patients were evaluated with the AUDIT, and blood sampled to determine carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyl-transferase, and mean corpuscular volume. Alcohol problems were defined as presence of ICD-10 criteria for dependence or harmful use, or high-risk drinking according to World Health Organization criteria (weekly intake >420 g in males, >280 g in females). Screening accuracy was determined using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. Results:, There were 787 males and 446 females in the study. Median age was 33 years. The accuracy of the AUDIT was good to excellent, whereas all biomarkers performed only fairly to poorly in males, and even worse in females. At a specificity >0.80, sensitivity for all biomarkers was <0.43, whereas sensitivity for the AUDIT was 0.76 for males and 0.81 for females. The addition of biomarkers added little additional discriminatory information compared to use of the AUDIT alone. Conclusions:, Screening properties of the AUDIT are superior to %CDT, MCV, and GGT for detection of alcohol problems in injured patients and are not clinically significantly enhanced by the use of biomarkers. [source]

    Brief Intervention for Problem Drinkers in a Chinese Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Hospital Setting

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2009
    Yun-Fang Tsai
    Background:, Alcohol is a legal and accessible substance in Taiwan. As excessive alcohol has been linked to health and social problems, it is necessary to develop a brief, rapid, and low-cost tool to help health care providers deal with persons in Taiwan whose alcohol consumption has become hazardous or harmful to their health. Methods:, A randomized controlled clinical trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups was designed. Eighteen medical/surgical units at a medical center in northern Taiwan were randomly assigned to 2 groups: experimental (n = 9) and control (n = 9). Inpatients on the units were enrolled if they met the following criteria: were older than 18 years, had no severe psychiatric illness, and were not pregnant. The experimental group (n = 138) received the intervention, a 15-minute counseling visit in which nurses screened participants using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), provided a health promotion booklet for adults, and individually discussed the booklet contents with patients based on their drinking level (AUDIT score). The control group (n = 137) received no treatment. Patterns of alcohol consumption were determined by AUDIT scores at baseline, 6, and 12 months later. Results:, Alcohol use disorders identification test scores decreased significantly in both groups at 6 months after the intervention, but did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. However, 12 months after the brief alcohol intervention, experimental subjects' AUDIT scores were significantly better than those of the control group. Conclusions:, Our brief alcohol intervention provided a 12-month benefit for problem drinkers in Taiwan. [source]

    The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: An Update of Research Findings

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2007
    Duane F. Reinert
    Background: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been extensively researched to determine its capability to accurately and practically screen for alcohol problems. Methods: During the 5 years since our previous review of the literature, a large number of additional studies have been published on the AUDIT, abbreviated versions of it, its psychometric properties, and the applicability of the AUDIT for a diverse array of populations. The current article summarizes new findings and integrates them with results of previous research. It also suggests some issues that we believe are particularly in need of further study. Results: A growing body of research evidence supports the criterion validity of English version of the AUDIT as a screen for alcohol dependence as well as for less severe alcohol problems. Nevertheless, the cut-points for effective detection of hazardous drinking as well as identification of alcohol dependence or harmful use in women need to be lowered from the originally recommended value of 8 points. The AUDIT-C, the most popular short version of the AUDIT consisting solely of its 3 consumption items, is approximately equal in accuracy to the full AUDIT. Psychometric properties of the AUDIT, such as test,retest reliability and internal consistency, are quite favorable. Continued research is urged to establish the psychometric properties of non-English versions of the AUDIT, use of the AUDIT with adolescents and with older adults, and selective inclusion of alcohol biomarkers with the AUDIT in some instances. Conclusions: Research continues to support use of the AUDIT as a means of screening for the spectrum of alcohol use disorders in various settings and with diverse populations. [source]

    Effectiveness of Structured Questionnaires for Screening Heavy Drinking in Middle-Aged Women

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2006
    Mauri Aalto
    Background: There is a need for an effective and feasible alcohol screening instrument. The aim of the study was to evaluate how the abbreviated versions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire perform in comparison with the original AUDIT and what the optimal cutoffs are when screening for heavy drinking among women. Methods: All the 40-year-old women in the city of Tampere, Finland, are invited yearly for a health screening. From 1 year, data from 894 women (response rate 68.2%) invited for a health screening were utilized in the study. The original 10-item AUDIT, AUDIT-C, Five Shot, AUDIT-PC, AUDIT-3, AUDIT-QF, and CAGE were evaluated against the Timeline Followback. Consumption of at least 140 g of absolute ethanol per week on average during the past month was considered heavy drinking. Results: In the Timeline Followback, the mean±SD weekly reported alcohol consumption was 45±67 g (range 0,936 g) of absolute ethanol. Of the women, 6.2% (55/894) were heavy drinkers. The optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity was reached for the AUDIT with cutoff ,6, for the AUDIT-C with cutoff ,5, for the Five Shot with cutoff ,2.0, for the AUDIT-PC with cutoff ,4, and for the AUDIT-QF with cutoff ,4. When choosing the optimal cutoffs, the AUDIT-C, the Five Shot, the AUDIT-PC, and the AUDIT-QF performed as well as the 10-item AUDIT. With these cutoffs, sensitivities were 0.84 to 0.93 and specificities were 0.83 to 0.90. The AUDIT-3 and the CAGE did not perform as well as the other questionnaires. Conclusions: The 10-item AUDIT, AUDIT-C, Five Shot, AUDIT-PC, and AUDIT-QF seem to be equally effective tools in screening for heavy drinking among middle-aged women. However, their applicability is achieved only if the cutoffs are tailored according to gender. [source]

    Validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in College Students

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2004
    Patricia K. Kokotailo
    Background: High-risk alcohol use among college students is associated with accidents, partner violence, unwanted sexual encounters, tobacco use, and performance issues. The identification and treatment of high-risk drinking students is a priority for many college campuses and college health centers. The goal of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in college students. Methods: A convenience sample of students coming into a college health clinic was asked to complete the 10-question AUDIT and then participate in a research interview. The interview focused on assessing students for alcohol abuse and dependence by using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Substance Abuse Module and timeline follow-back procedures to assess a 28-day drinking history. Results: A total of 302 students met the eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in the study. The sample consisted of 185 females (61%) and 117 males (39%), with a mean age of 20.3 years. Forty students were abstinent, 88 were high-risk drinkers, and 103 met criteria for a 12-month history of dependence. Receiver operator curves demonstrated that the AUDIT had the highest area under the cure for detecting high-risk alcohol use (0.872) and the lowest for identifying persons with a lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence (0.775). An AUDIT cutoff score of 6 or greater demonstrated a sensitivity of 91.0% and a specificity of 60.0% in the detection of high-risk drinkers. Conclusions: The AUDIT has reasonable psychometric properties in sample of college students using student health services. This study supports the use of the AUDIT in this population. [source]