Relative Supply (relative + supply)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


GROWTH AND WAGE INEQUALITY IN A SCALE-INDEPENDENT MODEL WITH R&D AND HUMAN-CAPITAL ACCUMULATION

THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL, Issue 2 2010
Article first published online: 15 JAN 2010, OSCAR AFONSO
We present a dynamic, non-scale general equilibrium model with two human-capital types where Schumpeterian R&D and human-capital accumulation are the engines of growth and wage inequality. In particular, wage inequality is encouraged by relative changes in supply and demand of both human-capital types. Relative supply restricts employed human-capital levels. Relative demand is instantly affected by a new general-purpose technology and, as in the skill-biased technological change literature, by technological-knowledge bias. By considering substitutability between technologies and complementarity between inputs, the bias is driven by the price channel (not by the market-size channel) and is affected by human-capital accumulation. [source]


Cities, Skills, and Inequality

GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 3 2005
CHRISTOPHER H. WHEELER
ABSTRACT The surge in U.S. wage inequality over the past several decades is now commonly attributed to an increase in the returns paid to skill. Although theories differ with respect to why, specifically, this increase has come about, many agree that it is strongly tied to the increase in the relative supply of skilled (i.e., highly educated) workers in the U.S. labor market. A greater supply of skilled labor, for example, may have induced skill-biased technological change or generated greater stratification of workers by skill across firms or jobs. Given that metropolitan areas in the U.S. have long possessed more educated populations than non-metropolitan areas, these theories suggest that the rise in both the returns to skill and wage inequality should have been particularly pronounced in cities. Evidence from the U.S. Census over the period of 1950 to 1990 supports both implications. [source]


Growth in epiphytic bromeliads: response to the relative supply of phosphorus and nitrogen

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
G. Zotz
Abstract Insufficient nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) frequently limit primary production. Although most nutrient studies on vascular epiphytes have focused on N uptake, circumstantial evidence suggests that P rather than N is the most limiting element for growth in this plant group. We directly tested this by subjecting a total of 162 small individuals of three bromeliad species (Guzmania monostachia, Tillandsia elongata, Werauhia sanguinolenta) to three N and three P levels using a full-factorial experimental design, and determined relative growth rates (RGR) and nutrient acquisition over a period of 11 weeks. Both N and P supply had a significant effect on RGR, but only tissue P concentrations were correlated with growth. Uptake rates of N and P, in contrast, were not correlated with RGR. Increased nutrient supply led to an up to sevenfold increase in tissue P concentration compared to natural conditions, while concentrations of N hardly changed or even decreased. All treatment combinations, even at the lowest experimental P supply, led to decreased N:P ratios. We conclude that P is at least as limiting as N for vegetative function under natural conditions in these epiphytic bromeliads. This conclusion is in line with the general notion of the prevalence of P limitation for the functioning of terrestrial vegetation in the tropics. [source]


Skill Premium, Biased Technological Change and Income Differences

CHINA AND WORLD ECONOMY, Issue 6 2009
Wei Zou
D24; D33; O14 Abstract Using 1987,2006 panel data for China, we explore the dynamics of the skill premium. The present paper focuses on the skill premium as an explanation for why income differences are so large in China. Our empirics show that: the rise in the relative supply of skilled labor results in an increase, instead of a decrease, in the skill premium; domestic investment is not complementary with skill formation; the skillpremium is higher in more developed provinces; economic openness facilitates an increase in the skill premium; whether foreign direct investment induces skill-based technology change or not, it drives up the skillpremium. An array of policy prescriptions for reducing income differences and ensuring sustained economic growth are provided. [source]