Relationship

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Relationship

  • Arrheniu relationship
  • activity relationship
  • adolescent relationship
  • agency relationship
  • allometric relationship
  • ambivalent relationship
  • analytic relationship
  • anatomical relationship
  • apparent relationship
  • area relationship
  • attachment relationship
  • behavior relationship
  • business relationship
  • caring relationship
  • causal relationship
  • cause-and-effect relationship
  • cause-effect relationship
  • changing relationship
  • child relationship
  • clear relationship
  • client relationship
  • clonal relationship
  • close genetic relationship
  • close phylogenetic relationship
  • close relationship
  • close structural relationship
  • close temporal relationship
  • closer relationship
  • cointegrating relationship
  • collaborative relationship
  • committed relationship
  • complementary relationship
  • complex relationship
  • complicated relationship
  • consistent relationship
  • couple relationship
  • cross-sectional relationship
  • curvilinear relationship
  • density relationship
  • dialectical relationship
  • different relationship
  • direct relationship
  • distant relationship
  • diversity relationship
  • doctor relationship
  • dose-response relationship
  • dynamic relationship
  • ecological relationship
  • economic relationship
  • effect relationship
  • empirical relationship
  • employment relationship
  • energy relationship
  • epitaxial relationship
  • equilibrium relationship
  • evolutionary relationship
  • exchange relationship
  • exponential relationship
  • fetal relationship
  • firm performance relationship
  • free energy relationship
  • function relationship
  • functional relationship
  • general relationship
  • genetic relationship
  • geometrical relationship
  • good linear relationship
  • good relationship
  • group relationship
  • hierarchical relationship
  • historical relationship
  • hump-shaped relationship
  • important relationship
  • independent relationship
  • interactive relationship
  • interesting relationship
  • interpersonal relationship
  • intimate relationship
  • inverse linear relationship
  • inverse relationship
  • inverted u-shaped relationship
  • its relationship
  • linear free energy relationship
  • linear relationship
  • little relationship
  • local relationship
  • logarithmic relationship
  • long-run equilibrium relationship
  • long-run relationship
  • long-term relationship
  • longitudinal relationship
  • marital relationship
  • mathematical relationship
  • mechanistic relationship
  • mentoring relationship
  • negative relationship
  • new relationship
  • non-linear relationship
  • nonlinear relationship
  • observed relationship
  • obvious relationship
  • offender relationship
  • orientation relationship
  • output relationship
  • parent-child relationship
  • partner relationship
  • patient relationship
  • pd relationship
  • performance relationship
  • personal relationship
  • phylogenetic relationship
  • physical relationship
  • physician-patient relationship
  • poor relationship
  • positive linear relationship
  • positive relationship
  • possible causal relationship
  • possible relationship
  • potential relationship
  • power relationship
  • precise relationship
  • predictive relationship
  • pressure-volume relationship
  • productive relationship
  • property relationship
  • proposed relationship
  • provider relationship
  • quadratic relationship
  • quantitative relationship
  • quantitative structure activity relationship
  • quantitative structure-activity relationship
  • quantitative structure-property relationship
  • reciprocal relationship
  • response relationship
  • richness relationship
  • robust relationship
  • romantic relationship
  • same relationship
  • scaling relationship
  • sexual relationship
  • sibling relationship
  • significant inverse relationship
  • significant linear relationship
  • significant negative relationship
  • significant positive relationship
  • significant relationship
  • similar relationship
  • simple relationship
  • sister group relationship
  • sister relationship
  • sister-group relationship
  • social relationship
  • spatial relationship
  • special relationship
  • species-area relationship
  • specific relationship
  • stable relationship
  • statistical relationship
  • stress-strain relationship
  • strong inverse relationship
  • strong linear relationship
  • strong negative relationship
  • strong positive relationship
  • strong relationship
  • stronger relationship
  • strongest relationship
  • structural relationship
  • structure activity relationship
  • structure-activity relationship
  • structure-function relationship
  • structure-property relationship
  • student relationship
  • symbiotic relationship
  • systematic relationship
  • taxonomic relationship
  • temperature relationship
  • temporal relationship
  • their relationship
  • theoretical relationship
  • therapeutic relationship
  • therapist relationship
  • tight relationship
  • trade-off relationship
  • trusting relationship
  • u-shaped relationship
  • unimodal relationship
  • victim relationship
  • voltage relationship
  • volume relationship
  • weak relationship
  • weight relationship

  • Terms modified by Relationship

  • relationship analysis
  • relationship building
  • relationship characteristic
  • relationship closeness
  • relationship commitment
  • relationship conflict
  • relationship development
  • relationship difficulty
  • relationship existing
  • relationship experience
  • relationship factor
  • relationship functioning
  • relationship history
  • relationship information
  • relationship issues
  • relationship management
  • relationship marketing
  • relationship matrix
  • relationship model
  • relationship models
  • relationship partner
  • relationship pattern
  • relationship problem
  • relationship process
  • relationship quality
  • relationship questionnaire
  • relationship satisfaction
  • relationship scale
  • relationship status
  • relationship studies
  • relationship study
  • relationship success
  • relationship type
  • relationship variable
  • relationship violence
  • relationship well-being

  • Selected Abstracts


    SHORT-TERM CHANGES IN ADULT ARREST RATES INFLUENCE LATER SHORT-TERM CHANGES IN SERIOUS MALE DELINQUENCY PREVALENCE: A TIME-DEPENDENT RELATIONSHIP,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    RALPH B. TAYLOR
    The impacts of quarterly adult arrest rates on later male serious delinquency prevalence rates were investigated in Philadelphia police districts (N = 23) over several years using all male delinquents aged 10,15 years who were mandated to more than "straight" probation. An ecological deterrence model expects more arrests to lead to less delinquency later. A community justice or mass incarceration model, the ecological version of general strain theory, and an ecologized version of the procedural justice model, each anticipates more arrests lead to more delinquency later. Investigating quarterly lags from 3 to 24 months between adult arrests and later delinquency, the results showed a time-dependent relationship. Models with short lags showed the negative relationship expected by ecological deterrence theory. Models with lags of about a year and a half showed the positive relationship expected by the other three theories. Indicators needed so future works can gauge the relative merits of each theoretical perspective more accurately are described. The spatial distributions of current and 1920s delinquency rates were compared. [source]


    ESTIMATING A DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH OF STAY AND FUTURE RECIDIVISM IN SERIOUS JUVENILE OFFENDERS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    THOMAS A. LOUGHRAN
    The effect of sanctions on subsequent criminal activity is of central theoretical importance in criminology. A key question for juvenile justice policy is the degree to which serious juvenile offenders respond to sanctions and/or treatment administered by the juvenile court. The policy question germane to this debate is finding the level of confinement within the juvenile justice system that maximizes the public safety and therapeutic benefits of institutional confinement. Unfortunately, research on this issue has been limited with regard to serious juvenile offenders. We use longitudinal data from a large sample of serious juvenile offenders from two large cities to 1) estimate a causal treatment effect of institutional placement, as opposed to probation, on future rate of rearrest and 2) investigate the existence of a marginal effect (i.e., benefit) for longer length of stay once the institutional placement decision had been made. We accomplish the latter by determining a dose-response relationship between the length of stay and future rates of rearrest and self-reported offending. The results suggest that an overall null effect of placement exists on future rates of rearrest or self-reported offending for serious juvenile offenders. We also find that, for the group placed out of the community, it is apparent that little or no marginal benefit exists for longer lengths of stay. Theoretical, empirical, and policy issues are outlined. [source]


    ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAMILY STRUCTURE AND ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR: PARENTAL COHABITATION AND BLENDED HOUSEHOLDS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    ROBERT APEL
    In the last several decades, the American family has undergone considerable change, with less than half of all adolescents residing with two married biological parents. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we construct an elaborate measure of family structure and find considerable heterogeneity in the risk of antisocial and delinquent behavior among groups of youth who reside in what are traditionally dichotomized as intact and nonintact families. In particular, we find that youth in "intact" families differ in important ways depending on whether the two biological parents are married or cohabiting and on whether they have children from a previous relationship. In addition, we find that youth who reside with a single biological parent who cohabits with a nonbiological partner exhibit an unusually high rate of antisocial behavior, especially if the custodial parent is the biological father. [source]


    UNPACKING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADOLESCENT EMPLOYMENT AND ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR: A MATCHED SAMPLES COMPARISON,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    ROBERT APEL
    A large body of research has consistently found that intensive employment during the school year is associated with heightened antisocial behavior. These findings have been influential in prompting policy recommendations to establish stricter limits on the number of hours that students can work during the school year. We reexamine the linkage between first-time work at age 16 during the school year and problem behaviors. Our analysis uses group-based trajectory modeling to stratify youths based on their developmental history of crime and substance abuse. This stratification serves to control for preexisting differences between workers and nonworkers and permits us to examine whether the effect of work on problem behaviors depends on the developmental history of those behaviors. Contrary to most prior research we find no overall effect of working on either criminal behavior or substance abuse. However, we do find some indication that work may have a salutary effect on these behaviors for some individuals who had followed trajectories of heightened criminal activity or substance abuse prior to their working for the first time. [source]


    IMAGES OF GOD AND PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR CAPITAL PUNISHMENT: DOES A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH A LOVING GOD MATTER?,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    JAMES D. UNNEVER
    This study argues that the nature and intensity of a person's relationship with God creates a transposable cognitive schema that shapes people's views toward public policies such as executing convicted murderers. In this context, we investigate whether Americans who report having a close personal relationship with a loving God are less likely to support the death penalty. We hypothesize that such a relationship tempers the tendency to see punitiveness as an appropriate response to human failings. Individuals who hold a loving God image are more likely to believe that God responds to those who have "failed" or "sinned" by demonstrating unconditional love, forgiveness, and mercy. Accordingly, support for capital punishment is problematic because it contradicts the image of a merciful, forgiving deity; God's purpose,and admonition to believers,is to demonstrate compassion toward those who have trespassed against others. We test these possibilities using the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS). Controlling for a range of religious factors and other known predictors of death penalty attitudes, the results show that Americans with a personal relationship with a loving God are less likely to support capital punishment for convicted murderers. [source]


    EXPLAINING THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE-DELINQUENCY RELATIONSHIP,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    RICHARD B. FELSON
    We use data from the National Education Longitudinal Survey to examine the relationship between academic performance and delinquency. We estimate the effects of grades in tenth grade on delinquency in twelfth grade, and then introduce controls for social bonds and self-control (teacher-rated effort). The findings indicate that the feedback that adolescents receive in the form of grades does not affect their delinquent behavior, that academic performance and delinquency have instead a spurious relationship. Our evidence suggests that this relationship is attributable primarily to the effects of individual differences in self-control, not to those of social bonds. [source]


    MICROANOMIE: THE COGNITIVE FOUNDATIONS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANOMIE AND DEVIANCE,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    MARK KONTY
    Emile Durkheim and Robert Merton spawned a century of research on the effects of anomie on rule-breaking behavior. During that time "strain" emerged as the social psychological mechanism producing deviant behavior from the effects of anomie. This research challenges the primacy of the affective strain mechanism, arguing that anomie produces a cognitive state,referred to as microanomie,where self-enhancing values are higher priority than self-transcending values. Data from a sample of university students support the association between dominant self-enhancing values and deviant behavior. These data also demonstrate how the microanomie condition can explain gender differences in offending. A synthesis with the affective strain mechanism is suggested. [source]


    REASSESSING NONLINEARITY IN THE URBAN DISADVANTAGE/VIOLENT CRIME RELATIONSHIP: AN EXAMPLE OF METHODOLOGICAL BIAS FROM LOG TRANSFORMATION,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    LANCE HANNON
    Sociologists and criminologists have become increasingly concerned with nonlinear relationships and interaction effects. For example, some recent studies suggest that the positive relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and violent crime is nonlinear with an accelerating slope, whereas other research indicates a nonlinear decelerating slope. The present paper considers the possibility that this inconsistency in findings is partially caused by lack of attention to an important methodological concern. Specifically, we argue that researchers have not been sensitive to the ways in which logarithmic transformation of the dependent variable can bias tests for nonlinearity and statistical interaction. We illustrate this point using demographic and violent crime data for urban neighborhoods, and we propose an alternative procedure to log transformation that involves the use of weighted least-squares regression, heteroscedasticity consistent standard errors, and diagnostics for influential observations. [source]


    EXAMINING THE CONDITIONAL NATURE OF THE ILLICIT DRUG MARKET-HOMICIDE RELATIONSHIP: A PARTIAL TEST OF THE THEORY OF CONTINGENT CAUSATION

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    GRAHAM C. OUSEY
    Recently, Zimring and Hawkins (1997) have suggested that drug markets are a "contingent cause" of the increase in homicide rates. That is, where structural conditions known to produce violence are already in place, the drug distribution-homicide link may be exacerbated. This analysis uses hierarchical linear modeling to investigate two key research questions: (1) Is within-city variation in illicit drug market activity positively associated with within-city variation in homicide rates during the 1984,1997 period? (2) Is the illicit drug market-homicide association contingent on preexisting violence conducive socioeconomic conditions? Using three measures of drug market activity, analyses provide affirmative evidence on both questions. Theoretical and research implications of these findings are discussed. [source]


    FORGIVENESS AND FUNDAMENTALISM: RECONSIDERING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORRECTIONAL ATTITUDES AND RELIGION,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    BRANDON K. APPLEGATE
    Although research typically has failed to establish a relationship between religious affiliation and correctional attitudes, recent assessments have revealed that fundamentalist Christians tend to be more punitive than are nonfundamentalists. These studies have advanced our understanding considerably, but their conceptualization of religion and correctional attitudes has been limited. Using a statewide survey, the present study demonstrates that compassionate as well as fundamentalist aspects of religious beliefs are related to public correctional preferences. Further, our results reveal that religion influences support for rehabilitation as well as punitiveness. These findings suggest the need for scholars to think more broadly about the role of religion in criminology. [source]


    DIAGNOSIS AND CLINICAL COURSE OF ULCERATIVE GASTRODUODENAL LESION ASSOCIATED WITH ULCERATIVE COLITIS: POSSIBLE RELATIONSHIP WITH POUCHITIS

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 4 2010
    Takashi Hisabe
    Background and Aim:, Ulcerative colitis (UC) is not only characterized by pathological lesions localized to colonic mucosa, but also to various complications involving other organs, including postoperative pouchitis. Among these complications, diffuse gastroduodenitis with lesions resembling colonic lesions has been reported, albeit rarely. The aim of the present study was to attempt to characterize the lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract occurring as a complication of UC, and to assess the frequency and clinical course of these lesions. Methods:, A total of 322 UC patients who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were retrospectively analyzed. We assessed the frequency of endoscopic findings, including diffuse gastroduodenal lesions resembling colonic lesions. Ulcerative gastroduodenal lesion (UGDL) associated with UC was diagnosed if lesions satisfied the following criteria: (i) improvement of the lesions with treatment of UC; and/or (ii) resemblance to UC in pathological findings. Results:, UGDL satisfying the aforementioned criteria was found in 15 (4.7%) of 322 patients. All the 15 patients had UGDL accompanied by pancolitis or after proctocolectomy. Frequency in 146 patients with pancolitis was 6.2% (nine patients) and that in 81 patients who had undergone proctocolectomy was 7.4% (six patients). Four patients with diffuse ulcerative upper-gastrointestinal mucosal inflammation (DUMI) had pouchitis. In all patients except one, the lesions resolved easily with medical treatment. Conclusions:, In more than half of the post-proctocolectomy patients, UGDL was related to the occurrence of pouchitis. The existence of characteristic UGDL must be taken into account in the diagnosis and treatment of UC, and UGDL is possibly related to the occurrence of pouchitis. [source]


    J -SHAPE OR LINEAR RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND DEPRESSION: DOES IT MATTER?

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2005
    BENJAMIN TAYLOR
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ALCOHOL AND IN-PATIENT UTILIZATION: WHAT IS THE SHAPE OF THE RELATIONSHIP?

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2005
    MARY ANNE ARMSTRONG
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND HEALTH CARE UTILIZATION AMONG MEN IN JAPAN: A REPLY TO THE COMMENTARIES

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2005
    YUKIKO ANZAI
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    VIRULENCE AND COMPETITIVENESS: TESTING THE RELATIONSHIP DURING INTER- AND INTRASPECIFIC MIXED INFECTIONS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2010
    Peter A. Staves
    Understanding the reasons why different parasites cause different degrees of harm to their hosts is an important objective in evolutionary biology. One group of models predicts that if hosts are infected with more than one strain or species of parasite, then competition between the parasites will select for higher virulence. While this idea makes intuitive sense, empirical data to support it are rare and equivocal. We investigated the relationship between fitness and virulence during both inter- and intraspecific competition for a fungal parasite of insects, Metarhizium anisopliae. Contrary to theoretical expectations, competition favored parasite strains with either a lower or a higher virulence depending on the competitor: when in interspecific competition with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae, less virulent strains of the fungus were more successful, but when competing against conspecific fungi, more virulent strains were better competitors. We suggest that the nature of competition (direct via toxin production when competing against the nematode, indirect via exploitation of the host when competing against conspecific fungal strains) determines the relationship between virulence and competitive ability. [source]


    A NEGATIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MUTATION PLEIOTROPY AND FITNESS EFFECT IN YEAST

    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2007
    Tim F. Cooper
    It is generally thought that random mutations will, on average, reduce an organism's fitness because resulting phenotypic changes are likely to be maladaptive. This relationship leads to the prediction that mutations that alter more phenotypic traits, that is, are more pleiotropic, will impose larger fitness costs than mutations that affect fewer traits. Here we present a systems approach to test this expectation. Previous studies have independently estimated fitness and morphological effects of deleting all nonessential genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using datasets generated by these studies, we examined the relationship between the pleiotropic effect of each deletion mutation, measured as the number of morphological traits differing from the parental strain, and its effect on fitness. Pleiotropy explained ,18% of variation in fitness among the mutants even once we controlled for correlations between morphological traits. This relationship was robust to consideration of other explanatory factors, including the number of protein,protein interactions and the network position of the deleted genes. These results are consistent with pleiotropy having a direct role in affecting fitness. [source]


    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM AND HABITAT USE IN GREATER ANTILLEAN ANOLIS LIZARDS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2000
    Marguerite A. Butler
    Abstract., Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is the evolutionary result of selection operating differently on the body sizes of males and females. Anolis lizard species of the Greater Antilles have been classified into ecomorph classes, largely on the basis of their structural habitat (perch height and diameter). We show that the major ecomorph classes differ in degree of SSD. At least two SSD classes are supported: high SSD (trunk-crown, trunk-ground) and low SSD (trunk, crown-giant, grass-bush, twig). Differences cannot be attributed to an allometric increase of SSD with body size or to a phylogenetic effect. A third explanation, that selective pressures on male and/or female body size vary among habitat types, is examined by evaluating expectations from the major relevant kinds of selective pressures. Although no one kind of selective pressure produces expectations consistent with all of the information, competition with respect to structural habitat and sexual selection pressures are more likely possibilities than competition with respect to prey size or optimal feeding pressures. The existence of habitat-specific sexual dimorphism suggests that adaptation of Anolis species to their environment is more complex than previously appreciated. [source]


    STRICTLY LIABLE: GOVERNMENTAL USE OF THE PARENT,CHILD RELATIONSHIP AS A BASIS FOR HOLDING VICTIMS LIABLE FOR THEIR CHILD'S WITNESS TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2006
    Sharon N. ClarkeArticle first published online: 10 FEB 200
    Studies estimate that between three and ten million children in the United States witness domestic violence annually. Although studies have demonstrated a co-occurrence of domestic violence and child abuse, there is no concrete evidence to support the assumption that a child's exposure to domestic violence increases the risk to the child of abuse or neglect. Recently the New York State Court of Appeals determined that a child's witness to abuse does not suffice, in and of itself, to show that removal of the child is necessary or that removal is in the "best interests" of the child. Programs which have developed alternatives to presumptive removal understand the importance of viewing the interests of the battered parent and children as being in accord with each other rather than in opposition. Private and government sponsored programs have demonstrated some success in protecting the parent-child relationship, ensuring the safety of both parent and child, and increasing accountability of batterers while reducing the necessity for removals. Alternative programs are less costly to the state than foster care, and emotionally less costly to the families. [source]


    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIP FRACTURE SUBTYPES, SURGICAL PROCEDURE, AND ANALGESIA USE

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 12 2009
    FAFRM(RACP), FRACP, Jenson C. S. Mak MBBS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION AND CYTOKINES IN CACHECTIC PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 6 2003
    Shing-Shing Yeh PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    FOUR MODELS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONFUCIANISM AND DEMOCRACY

    JOURNAL OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY, Issue 1 2010
    BAOGANG HE
    First page of article [source]


    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIC MATTER, SULPHUR AND PHOSPHATE CONTENTS IN UPPER CRETACEOUS MARINE CARBONATES (KARABOGAZ FORMATION, SE TURKEY): IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY OIL GENERATION

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    S. Inan
    In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the organic matter, sulphur and phosphate contents of Upper Cretaceous marine carbonates (Karabogaz Formation) in the Adiyaman Petroleum Province of SE Turkey. The results of organic geochemical analyses of core samples obtained from the Karabogaz Formation suggest that phosphate deposition occurred in settings where the water column was oxic to sub-oxic. However, the preservation of organic matter was favoured in anoxic environments. Moreover, the presence of sulphur (especially sulphur incorporated into kerogen) in organic matter-rich layers led to early oil generation. The results of stepwise py-gc analyses are consistent with a model in which, with increasing maturity, S-S and C-S bonds are the first to be eliminated from the macromolecular kerogen structure. Study of the maturity evolution of S-rich kerogen by laboratory pyrolysis implies that marginally mature and/or mature kerogen in the Karabogaz Formation, which may be classified as classic "Type II" kerogen, was most probably Type II/S at lower maturity stages. This enabled oil generation to occur at relatively shallow burial depths and relatively early stages of maturation. It is reasonable to conclude that Type II/S kerogen, overlooked in previous studies, was abundant in TOC-rich intervals in the Karabogaz Formation. Early generation (and expulsion) from Type II/S kerogen may have sourced the sulphur-rich oils in the Adiyaman area oilfields. [source]


    ACCLIMATION TO VARYING LIGHT QUALITIES: TOWARD THE FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP OF STATE TRANSITIONS AND ADJUSTMENT OF PHOTOSYSTEM STOICHIOMETRY

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Thomas PfannschmidtArticle first published online: 31 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRESENCE OF A MOTHER CELL WALL AND SPECIATION IN THE UNICELLULAR MICROALGA NANNOCHLORIS (CHLOROPHYTA),

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    Maki Yamamoto
    The cell division mechanisms of seven strains from six species of Nannochloris Naumann were analyzed and compared with those of three species of Chlorella Beijerinck and Trebouxia erici Ahmadjian using differential interference microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Nannochloris bacillaris Naumann divides by binary fission and N. coccoides Naumann divides by budding. Distinct triangular spaces or mother cell walls were found in the dividing autosporangia of the other five strains from four species of Nannochloris, three species of Chlorella, and T. erici. In an attempt to infer an evolutionary relationship between nonautosporic and autosporic species of Nannochloris, we constructed a phylogenetic tree of the actin genes using seven strains from six species of Nannochloris, three species of Chlorella, and T. erici. Nannochloris species were polyphyletic in the Trebouxiophyceae group. Two nonautosporic species of N. bacillaris and N. coccoides were monophyletic and positioned distally. Moreover, to determine their phylogenetic position within the Trebouxiophyceae, we constructed phylogenetic tree of 18S rRNA genes adding other species of Trebouxiophyceae. Nannochloris species were polyphyletic in the Trebouxiophyceae and appeared in two different lineages, a Chlorella,Nannochloris group and a Trebouxia,Choricystis group. The nonautosporic species, N. bacillaris and N. coccoides, and three autosporic species of Nannochloris belonged to the Chlorella,Nannochloris group. Nannochloris bacillaris and N. coccoides were also monophyletic and positioned distally in the phylogenetic tree of 18S rRNA genes. These results suggest that autosporulation is the ancestral mode of cell division in Nannochloris and that nonautosporulative mechanisms, such as binary fission and budding, evolved secondarily. [source]


    CYST,THECA RELATIONSHIP, LIFE CYCLE, AND EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON THE CYST MORPHOLOGY OF GONYAULAX BALTICA SP.

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    NOV. (DINOPHYCEAE) FROM THE BALTIC SEA AREA
    A new species of Gonyaulax, here named Gonyaulax baltica sp. nov., has been isolated from sediment samples from the southeastern Baltic. Culture strains were established from individually isolated cysts, and cyst formation was induced in a nitrogen-depleted medium. Although G. baltica cysts are similar to some forms attributed to Spiniferites bulloideus and the motile stage of G. baltica has affinities with G. spinifera, the combination of features of cyst and motile stage of G. baltica is unique. The culture strains were able to grow at salinity levels from 5 to 55 psu and formed cysts from 10 to 50 psu. Cultures at each salinity level were grown at 12, 16, and 20░ C. Temperature- and salinity-controlled morphological variability was found in the resting cysts. Central body size varied with temperature and salinity, and process length varied with salinity. Cysts that formed at extreme salinity levels displayed lower average process length than cysts formed at intermediate salinity levels, and central body length and width were lowest at higher temperature and lower salinity. Models for the relationship between central body size and temperature/salinity and process length and salinity have been developed and may be used to determine relative paleosalinity and paleotemperature levels. Our results on salinity-dependent process length confirm earlier reports on short-spined cysts of this species found in low salinity environments, and the model makes it possible to attempt to quantify past salinity levels. [source]


    PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF COLEOCHAETE AND CHAETO-SPHAERIDIUM (COLEOCHAETALES) BASED ON THE CHLOROPLAST GENES RBCL AND ATPB

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2000
    Cimino M. T.
    The freshwater green algal genera Coleochaete and Chaetosphaeridium form the order Coleochaetales sensu Mattox and Stewart (Charophyceae). To test the monophyly of this order, a data set was compiled consisting of the chloroplast genes rbcL and atpB from nine species of Coleochaete, six strains of Chaetosphaeridium, and other representative green algae and embryophytes. Phylogenetic analyses of these data indicate that Coleochaete and Chaetosphaeridium form a monophyletic group that diverged late in basal streptophyte evolution. By contrast, published analyses of nuclear encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data for similar taxa do not support a monophyletic Coleochaetales. These analyses suggest Chaetosphaeridium is an early branching lineage within Streptophyta and/or that Chaetosphaeridium forms a lineage with the unicellular flagellate Mesostigma (Mesostigmatophyceae). A close relationship of Chaetosphaeridium and Mesostigma is not supported by the rbcL and atpB data. Reexamination of morphological characters suggests a monophyletic Coleochaetales is supported by several characters that include branching filamentous habit, unicellular apical growth, sheathed hairs, and rotating plastids. [source]


    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SENSORY AND TEXTURE MEASUREMENT OF JAMUN AND POSITIONING OF JAMUN SAMPLES

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 1 2002
    R. RAVI
    ABSTRACT Profilograms based on the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of jamun using nine attributes were drawn for four market samples and ten samples prepared using various instant mixes available in the local market. The instrumental texture measurement of shear values were determined for all the samples. Correlations between sensory and instrumental texture measurement (shear force) were studied. The shear values were found to be correlated positively with softness, juiciness and milkiness. Further canonical discriminant analysis was run to position the samples in relation to others. The results indicated that samples M1, M2, M4, S3, S4, S6 and S10 group together in the same quadrant which represents desirable attributes of jamun viz, color, softness, juiciness, milkiness and overall quality. The jamuns from the instant mixes (S) can replace the control samples, traditionally prepared market samples (M) as they match the product profile very closely. [source]


    STANDARD SCALES FOR CRISPNESS, CRACKLINESS AND CRUNCHINESS IN DRY AND WET FOODS: RELATIONSHIP WITH ACOUSTICAL DETERMINATIONS

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 4 2008
    MAITE A. CHAUVIN
    ABSTRACT A trained panel developed rating scales for crispness, crunchiness and crackliness for dry and wet foods based on the auditory perception of selected foods. The newly developed scales were then evaluated by 40 untrained panelists and the sound perception of standard foods was assessed through the analysis of the root mean square (RMS) of the 5-s audio waveforms and multidimensional scaling (MDS). The RMS was highly correlated to auditory sensory perception of crispness (r = 0.83 and 0.96), crunchiness (r = 0.99 and 0.99) and crackliness (r = 0.88 and 0.96) for dry and wet foods, respectively. MDS technique applied for the 40 untrained panelists was instructive in assessing auditory textural differences of na´ve panelists and a useful statistical instrument to graphically validate selected scales. Auditory perception of the selected foods were rated similarly using standard auditory texture scales for crispness, crunchiness and crackliness developed by the trained panel (oral evaluation) and MDS results from the untrained panel (recordings). PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Crispness, crunchiness and crackliness are not only important and useful descriptors of food texture, but are also desirable textural qualities in many foods. The lack of consistency in the procedures used for the evaluation of crunchy, crispy and crackly in sensory studies often results in confusion when training expert panels. Research will benefit textural studies through an improvement of consistent textural definitions and development of standard scales and evaluation techniques. The crispness, crunchiness and crackliness scales developed and applied in the current study represent a new potential standard frame of reference that may be used for training panelists in texture parameters related to food auditory perception. The scales may be considered illustrations demonstrating full and practical ranges for each texture attribute with regard to analyzing auditory parameters of foods and effective objective tools for assessing panelists in descriptive analysis. [source]


    ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WAGES AND MONITORING: COMMENT

    METROECONOMICA, Issue 1 2008
    Article first published online: 15 NOV 200, Katarina Bujdakova
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WAGES AND MONITORING: A REPLY

    METROECONOMICA, Issue 1 2008
    Laszlo Goerke
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]