Regulatory T-cell Function (regulatory t-cell + function)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cell contact interaction between adipose-derived stromal cells and allo-activated T lymphocytes

Monique E. Quaedackers
Abstract Mesenchymal stromal cells regulate immune cell function via the secretion of soluble factors. Cell membrane interactions between these cell types may play an additional role. Here, we demonstrate that subpopulations of allo-activated T cells are capable of binding to human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC). The bound T-cell population contained CD8+ T cells and was enriched for CD4,CD8, T cells, whereas the proportion of CD4+ T cells was decreased compared with the non-bound T-cell population. Bound CD4+ T cells had high proliferative activity and increased CD25 and FoxP3 expression. However, they also expressed CD127, excluding regulatory T-cell function. In CD8+ T cells, IL-2 sensitivity, as determined by the analysis of phosphorylated STAT5, was lower in the presence of ASC and even lower in bound cells. In contrast, IL-2-induced phosphorylated STAT5 levels were higher in bound CD4+ T cells than in non-bound CD4+ T cells. Additionally, pro-proliferative TGF-, signalling via endoglin and SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation was detected in bound CD4+ T cells. Even after prolonged co-culture with ASC, the activated phenotype of bound CD4+ T cells persisted. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the binding of lymphocytes to ASC represents an immunomodulatory mechanism in which CD8+ T cells are inhibited in their responsiveness to pro-inflammatory stimuli and reactive CD4+ T cells are depleted from the immune response. [source]

Induction and mechanism of action of transforming growth factor-,-secreting Th3 regulatory cells

Howard L. Weiner
Summary: Th3 CD4+ regulatory cells were identified during the course of investigating mechanisms associated with oral tolerance. Different mechanisms of tolerance are induced following oral antigen administration, including active suppression, clonal anergy and deletion. Low doses favor active suppression whereas high doses favor anergy/deletion. Th3 regulatory cells form a unique T-cell subset which primarily secretes transforming growth factor (TGF)-,, provides help for IgA and has suppressive properties for both Th1 and Th2 cells. Th3 type cells are distinct from the Th2 cells, as CD4+ TGF-,-secreting cells with suppressive properties have been generated from interleukin (IL)-4-deficient animals. In vitro differentiation of Th3 cells from Th precursors from T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic mice is enhanced by culture with TGF-,, IL-4, IL-10, and anti-IL-12. Th3 CD4+ myelin basic protein regulatory clones are structurally identical to Th1 encephalitogenic clones in TCR usage, MHC restriction and epitope recognition, but produce TGF-, with various amounts of IL-4 and IL-10. Because Th3 regulatory cells are triggered in an antigen-specific fashion but suppress in an antigen-non-specific fashion, they mediate "bystander suppression" when they encounter the fed autoantigen at the target organ. In vivo induction of Th3 cells and low dose oral tolerance is enhanced by oral administration of IL-4. Anti-CD86 but not anti-CD80 blocks the induction of Th3 cells associated with low dose oral tolerance. Th3 regulatory cells have been described in other systems (e.g. recovery from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis) but may be preferentially generated following oral antigen administration due to the gut immunologic milieu that is rich in TGF-, and has a unique class of dendritic cells. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell function also appears related to TGF-,. [source]

Special regulatory T cell review: How I became a T suppressor/ regulatory cell maven

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Ethan M. Shevach
Summary I have briefly reviewed the factors that motivated me to change my views about the existence and importance of suppressor/regulatory T cells and to devote the majority of my laboratory efforts to this newly revitalized area of immunologic research. I am optimistic that manipulation of regulatory T-cell function will shortly be applicable to the clinic. [source]

Regulatory T cells in human disease and their potential for therapeutic manipulation

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Leonie S. Taams
Summary Regulatory T cells are proposed to play a central role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance in the periphery, and studies in many animal models demonstrate their capacity to inhibit inflammatory pathologies in vivo. At a recent meeting [Clinical Application of Regulatory T Cells, 7,8 April 2005, Horsham, UK, organized by the authors of this review, in collaboration with the British Society for Immunology and Novartis] evidence was discussed that certain human autoimmune, infectious and allergic diseases are associated with impaired regulatory T-cell function. In contrast, evidence from several human cancer studies and some infections indicates that regulatory T cells may impair the development of protective immunity. Importantly, certain therapies, both those that act non-specifically to reduce inflammation and antigen-specific immunotherapies, may induce or enhance regulatory T-cell function. The purpose of this review was to summarize current knowledge on regulatory T-cell function in human disease, and to assess critically how this can be tailored to suit the therapeutic manipulation of immunity. [source]

Regulatory T cells in bronchial asthma

ALLERGY, Issue 3 2009
K. Ryanna
The main focus of this review was the role of a specific subset of T cells with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive activities, termed regulatory T cells (Tregs), in the pathogenesis and treatment of bronchial asthma. Evidence that these cells are important in maintaining immune homeostasis in health and exhibit impaired activity in active disease will be discussed. Their therapeutic potential is perhaps best highlighted by evidence that therapies with demonstrated efficacy in allergic and asthmatic disease are associated with the induction or restoration of regulatory T-cell function, e.g. glucocorticoids, allergen immunotherapy. Strategies to improve the safety and efficacy of these treatments and that induce or boost Tregs in bronchial asthma are discussed. [source]