Regulatory T Cell Response (regulatory t + cell_response)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam3CSK4 enhances the induction of antigen-specific tolerance via the sublingual route

V. Lombardi
Summary Background Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been established in humans as a safe and efficacious treatment for type I respiratory allergies. Objective In this study, we compared three Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands (Pam3CSK4, Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid) as potential adjuvants for sublingual allergy vaccines. Methods These molecules were tested in co-cultures of adjuvant-pre-treated dendritic cells (DCs) with murine na´ve CD4+ T lymphocytes. Patterns of cytokine production, phenotype, proliferation and gene expression were analysed by ELISA, cytofluorometry and quantitative PCR, respectively. TLR2 ligands were subsequently tested in a model of SLIT in BALB/c mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). Results Among the three TLR2 ligands tested, the synthetic lipopeptide Pam3CSK4 is the most potent inducer of IL-12p35 and IL-10 gene expression in murine bone marrow-derived DCs, as well as in purified oral myeloid DCs. Only Pam3CSK4-treated DCs induce IFN-, and IL-10 secretion by na´ve CD4+ T cells. Sublingual administration of Pam3CSK4 together with the antigen in BALB/c mice sensitized to OVA decreases airway hyperresponsiveness as well as OVA-specific T-helper type 2 (Th2) responses in cervical lymph nodes dramatically. Conclusion Pam3CSK4 induces Th1/regulatory T cell responses, and as such, is a valid candidate adjuvant for sublingual allergy vaccines. [source]

Identification of a potent immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide from Streptococcus thermophilus lacZ

ABSTRACT Immunostimulatory sequences of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), such as CpG ODNs, are potent stimulators of innate immunity. Here, we identified a strong immunostimulatory CpG ODN, which we named MsST, from the lac Z gene of Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus ATCC19258, and we evaluated its immune functions. In in vitro studies, MsST had a similar ability as the murine prototype CpG ODN 1555 to induce inflammatory cytokine production and cell proliferation. In mouse splenocytes, MsST increased the number of CD80+CD11c+and CD86+CD11c+ dendritic cells and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. We also analyzed the effects of MsST on the expression of regulatory cytokines by real-time quantitative PCR. MsST was more potent at inducing interleukin-10 expression than the ODN control 1612, indicating that MsST can augment the regulatory T cell response via Toll-like receptor 9, which plays an important role in suppressing T helper type 2 responses. These results suggest that S. thermophilus, whose genes include a strong Immunostimulatory sequence-ODN, is a good candidate for a starter culture to develop new physiologically functional foods and feeds. [source]

PAN,DR-Binding Hsp60 self epitopes induce an interleukin-10,mediated immune response in rheumatoid arthritis

Huib de Jong
Objective Human Hsp60 is expressed in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can elicit a regulatory T cell response in the peripheral blood and synovial fluid. However, Hsp60 can also trigger strong proinflammatory pathways. Thus, to understand the nature of these Hsp60-directed responses in RA, it is necessary to study such responses at the molecular, epitope-specific level. This study was undertaken to characterize the disease specificity and function of pan,DR-binding Hsp60,derived epitopes as possible modulators of autoimmune inflammation in RA. Methods Lymphocyte proliferation assays (using 3H-thymidine incorporation and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester [CFSE] staining) and measurement of cytokine production (using multiplex immunoassay and intracellular staining) were performed after in vitro activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with RA, compared with healthy controls. Results A disease (RA),specific immune recognition, characterized by T cell proliferation as well as increased production of tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,), interleukin-1, (IL-1,), and IL-10, was found for 3 of the 8 selected peptides in patients with RA as compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). Intracellular cytokine staining and CFSE labeling showed that CD4+ T cells were the subset primarily responsible for both the T cell proliferation and the cytokine production in RA. Interestingly, the human peptides had a remarkably different phenotype, with a 5,10-fold higher IL-10:TNF, ratio, compared with that of the microbial peptides. Conclusion These results suggest a disease-specific immune-modulatory role of epitope-specific T cells in the inflammatory processes of RA. Therefore, these pan,DR-binding epitopes could be used as a tool to study the autoreactive T cell response in RA and might be suitable candidates for use in immunotherapy. [source]

Kinetics of CD8+ effector T cell responses and induced CD4+ regulatory T cell responses during Friend retrovirus infection

Gennadiy Zelinskyy
Abstract Cytolytic CD8+ T cells are critical for the control of acute Friend virus (FV) infection yet they fail to completely eliminate the virus during chronic infection because they are functionally impaired by regulatory T cells (Treg). We performed a kinetic analysis of T cell responses during FV infection to determine when dysfunction of CD8+ T cells and suppressive activity of CD4+ regulatory T cells develops. At 1,week post infection, virus-specific CD8+ T cells with effector phenotype and cytolytic potential expanded. Peak expansion was found at 12,days post infection, correlating with peak viral loads. After 2,weeks when viral loads dropped, numbers of activated CD8+ T cells started to decline. However, a population of virus-specific CD8+ T cells with effector phenotype was still detectable subsequently, but these cells had lost their ability to produce granzymes and to degranulate cytotoxic molecules. Contemporaneous with the development of CD8+ T cell dysfunction, different CD4+ T cell populations expressing cell surface markers for Treg and the Treg-associated transcription factor Foxp3 expanded. Transfer as well as depletion experiments indicated that regulatory CD4+ cells developed during the second week of FV infection and subsequently suppressed CD8+ T cell functions, which was associated with impaired virus clearance. [source]