Regulated Process (regulated + process)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Isotype class switching and the pathogenenesis of multiple myeloma

J. A. L. Fenton
Abstract Translocations at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (14q32) are now considered the commonest karyotypic change in multiple myeloma. These translocations are thought to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. The heavy chain locus is strongly transcriptionally active in B and plasma cells and transfer of a potential oncogene to 14q32 would result in its dysregulation. Molecular characterization suggests that the majority of these breakpoints cluster in switch regions within the heavy chain locus. Switch regions are normally involved in the regulated process of isotype switching so that in myeloma the rearrangements are believed to be a result of so-called illegitimate (aberrant) switch recombination and are likely to be an early event in myeloma development. A legitimate switch recombination event occurs between two switch regions producing a hybrid switch; this is necessary for class switching to proceed on a productive allele. In this review we describe the process of isotype switching and how illegitimate class switching may be related to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis: New levels of regulation

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 9 2008
Flavia Fontanesi
Abstract Eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the last enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is a multimeric enzyme of dual genetic origin, whose assembly is a complicated and highly regulated process. COX displays a concerted accumulation of its constitutive subunits. Data obtained from studies performed with yeast mutants indicate that most catalytic core unassembled subunits are posttranslationally degraded. Recent data obtained in the yeast Saccharomycescerevisiae have revealed another contribution to the stoichiometric accumulation of subunits during COX biogenesis targeting subunit 1 or Cox1p. Cox1p is a mitochondrially encoded catalytic subunit of COX which acts as a seed around which the full complex is assembled. A regulatory mechanism exists by which Cox1p synthesis is controlled by the availability of its assembly partners. The unique properties of this regulatory mechanism offer a means to catalyze multiple-subunit assembly. New levels of COX biogenesis regulation have been recently proposed. For example, COX assembly and stability of the fully assembled enzyme depend on the presence in the mitochondrial compartments of two partners of the oxidative phosphorylation system, the mobile electron carrier cytochrome c and the mitochondrial ATPase. The different mechanisms of regulation of COX assembly are reviewed and discussed. © 2008 IUBMB IUBMB Life, 60(9): 557,568, 2008 [source]

Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in human disease

Abstract. Apoptosis is a highly regulated process of cell deletion and plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis in the adult organism. Numerous studies in recent years have revealed that apoptosis is a constitutive suicide programme expressed in most, if not all cells, and can be triggered by a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic signals. Many human diseases can be attributed directly or indirectly to a derangement of apoptosis, resulting in either cell accumulation, in which cell eradication or cell turnover is impaired, or cell loss, in which the apoptotic programme is inadvertently triggered. In addition, defective macrophage engulfment and degradation of cell corpses may also contribute to a dysregulation of tissue homeostasis. An increased understanding of the signalling pathways that govern the execution of apoptosis and the subsequent clearance of dying cells may thus yield novel targets for therapeutic intervention in a wide range of human maladies. [source]

FUSCA3 from barley unveils a common transcriptional regulation of seed-specific genes between cereals and Arabidopsis

Miguel Ángel Moreno-Risueno
Summary Accumulation of storage compounds in the embryo and endosperm of developing seeds is a highly regulated process that allows seedling growth upon germination until photosynthetic capacity is acquired. A critical regulatory element in the promoters of seed storage protein (SSP) genes from dicotyledonous species is the RY box, a target of B3-type transcription factors. However, the functionality of this motif in the transcriptional regulation of SSP genes from cereals has not been fully established. We report here the identification and molecular characterization of barley FUSCA3, a B3-type transcription factor as yet uncharacterized in monocotyledonous plants. Our results show that both the barley and Arabidopsis FUS3 genes maintain a conserved functionality for the regulation of SSP genes and anthocyanin biosynthesis in these two distantly related phylogenetic groups. Complementation of the loss-of-function mutant fus3 in Arabidopsis by the barley HvFus3 gene resulted in restored transcription from the At2S3 gene promoter and normal accumulation of anthocyanins in the seed. In barley, HvFUS3 participates in transcriptional activation of the endosperm-specific genes Hor2 and Itr1. HvFUS3, which specifically binds to RY boxes in EMSA experiments, trans -activates Hor2 and Itr1 promoters containing intact RY boxes in transient expression assays in developing endosperms. Mutations in the RY boxes abolished the HvFUS3-mediated trans -activation. HvFus3 transcripts accumulate in the endosperm and in the embryo of developing seeds, peaking at mid maturation phase. Remarkably, HvFUS3 interacts with the Opaque2-like bZIP factor BLZ2 in yeast, and this interaction is essential for full trans -activation of the seed-specific genes in planta. [source]

Hepatic denervation impairs the assembly and secretion of VLDL-TAG

Fábio Luís Tavares
Abstract VLDL secretion is a regulated process that depends on the availability of lipids, apoB and MTP. Our aim was to investigate the effect of liver denervation upon the secretion of VLDL and the expression of proteins involved in this process. Denervation was achieved by applying a 85% phenol solution onto the portal tract, while control animals were treated with 9% NaCl. VLDL secretion was evaluated by the Tyloxapol method. The hepatic concentration of TAG and cholesterol, and the plasma concentration of TAG, cholesterol, VLDL-TAG, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were measured, as well as mRNA expression of proteins involved in the process of VLDL assembly. Hepatic acinar distribution of MTP and apoB was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Denervation increased plasma concentration of cholesterol (125.3,±,10.1 vs. 67.1,±,4.9,mg,dL,1) and VLDL-cholesterol (61.6,±,5.6 vs. 29.4,±,3.3,mg,dL,1), but HDL-cholesterol was unchanged (45.5,±,6.1 vs. 36.9,±,3.9,mg,dL,1). Secretion of VLDL-TAG (47.5,±,23.8 vs. 148.5,±,27.4,mg,dL,h,1) and mRNA expression of CPT I and apoB were reduced (p,<,0.01) in the denervated animals. MTP and apoB acinar distribution was not altered in the denervated animals, but the intensity of the reaction was reduced in relation to controls. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Nuclear localization signals and human disease

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 7 2009
Laura M. McLane
Abstract In eukaryotic cells, the physical separation of the genetic material in the nucleus from the translation and signaling machinery in the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope creates a requirement for a mechanism through which macromolecules can enter or exit the nucleus as necessary. Nucleocytoplasmic transport involves the specific recognition of cargo molecules by transport receptors in one compartment followed by the physical relocation of that cargo into the other compartment through regulated pores that perforate the nuclear envelope. The recognition of protein cargoes by their transport receptors occurs via amino acid sequences in cargo proteins called nuclear targeting signals. Both nuclear import and export of proteins are highly regulated processes that control, not only what cargo can enter and/or exit the nucleus, but also when in the cell cycle and in what cell type, the cargo can be transported. Deregulation of the nuclear transport of specific cargoes has been linked to numerous cancers and developmental disorders highlighting the importance of understanding the mechanisms underlying nucleocytoplasmic transport and particularly the modulation of the specific interactions between transporter receptors and nuclear targeting signals within target cargo proteins. © 2009 IUBMB IUBMB Life 61(7): 697,706, 2009 [source]

How to design an opioid drug that causes reduced tolerance and dependence

Amy Chang Berger BS
Mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists such as morphine are extremely effective treatments for acute pain. In the setting of chronic pain, however, their long-term utility is limited by the development of tolerance and physical dependence. Drug companies have tried to overcome these problems by simply "dialing up" signal transduction at the receptor, designing more potent and efficacious agonists and more long-lasting formulations. Neither of these strategies has proven to be successful, however, because the net amount of signal transduction, particularly over extended periods of drug use, is a product of much more than the pharmacokinetic properties of potency, efficacy, half-life, and bioavailability, the mainstays of traditional pharmaceutical screening. Both the quantity and quality of signal transduction are influenced by many regulated processes, including receptor desensitization, trafficking, and oligomerization. Importantly, the efficiency with which an agonist first stimulates signal transduction is not necessarily related to the efficiency with which it stimulates these other processes. Here we describe recent findings that suggest MOR agonists with diminished propensity to cause tolerance and dependence can be identified by screening drugs for the ability to induce MOR desensitization, endocytosis, and recycling. We also discuss preliminary evidence that heteromers of the delta opioid receptor and the MOR are pronociceptive, and that drugs that spare such heteromers may also induce reduced tolerance. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:559,569 [source]