Regulated Exocytosis (regulated + exocytosi)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid mobilizes ,-PKC after uptake in human HepG2 hepatoma cells

Helena Glasova
Abstract Background Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) may exert anticholestatic effects via Ca++ - and ,-protein kinase C (,-PKC)-dependent apical vesicular insertion of canalicular transporters in cholestatic hepatocytes (Hepatology 2001; 33: 1206,16). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid is mainly taken up into liver cells by Na+ -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid selectively translocates ,-PKC, a key mediator of regulated exocytosis, to hepatocellular membranes. It is unclear whether TUDCA exerts its effects on ,-PKC after carrier-mediated uptake into liver cells or by interaction with extracellular/membraneous structures. Materials and methods Human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells lacking Ntcp were stably transfected with pcDNA3·1/Ntcp or sham-transfected with pcDNA3·1 [+]. Distribution of ,-PKC was studied using a Western blotting technique. Uptake of [3H]taurocholic acid (TCA) was determined radiochemically. Results [3H]taurocholic acid uptake was approximately 180-fold higher in Ntcp-transfected than in sham-transfected cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (1 µmol L,1; positive control) increased membrane binding of ,-PKC by 34% in Ntcp-transfected and by 37% in sham-transfected cells. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (10 µmol L,1) increased membrane-associated ,-PKC by 19% in Ntcp-transfected, but not in sham-transfected cells (,13%). Taurocholic acid (10 µmol L,1) did not affect the distribution of ,-PKC. Conclusion Carrier-mediated uptake is a prerequisite for TUDCA-induced translocation of ,-PKC to hepatocellular membranes. [source]

Synaptotagmin regulates mast cell functions

Dana Baram
Summary: Synaptotagmin(s) (Syts), are products of a gene family implicated in the control of Ca2+ -dependent exocytosis. Mast cells, specialized secretory cells that release mediators of inflammatory and allergic reactions in a process of regulated exocytosis, express Syt homologues and SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment proteins Receptors), which together with Syt constitute the core complex which mediates exocytotic vesicle docking and fusion. Rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3), a tumor analogue of mucosal mast cells, express the Syt homologues Syt II, Syt III and Syt V. Expression of Syt I, the neuronal Ca2+ sensor, in the RBL cells, resulted in its targeting to secretory granules and in prominent potentiation and acceleration of Ca2+ -dependent exocytosis. Syt II is localized to an amine-free lysosomal compartment, which is also subjected to regulated exocytosis. Lysosomal exocytosis is negatively regulated by Syt II: overexpression of Syt II inhibited Ca2+ -triggered exocytosis of lysosomes, while suppression of Syt II expression markedly potentiated this release. These findings implicate Syt homologues as key regulators of mast cell function. We thank Drs. T.C. Sudhof, R.H. Scheller and M. Takahashi for their generous gifts of antibodies and cDNAs. [source]

Expression of the neurosecretory process in pc12 cells is governed by rest

Rosalba D'Alessandro
Abstract The neurosecretory process is acquired during differentiation and can be lost en block by differentiated cells. To investigate the role of REST/NRSF, a transcription repressor, in the maintenance of the process we studied two PC12 clones, one wt and one defective, expressing low and high levels of endogenous RE-1 silencing transcription (factor) (REST), respectively. Stable transfection of constructs demonstrated that REST represses 10 genes coding for proteins of neurosecretory vesicles and their exocytosis, eight including and two lacking the REST-binding sequence, RE-1. Of these genes, those of chromogranins were strongly repressed by fewfold increases of REST, those of VAMP2 and syntaxin1a required much higher levels. Moreover, in wt cells transfected with an active construct the dense-core vesicles, still competent for regulated exocytosis, were much smaller, with lighter cores; in defective cells, the dominant-negative construct induced the rescue of many vesicle/exocytosis genes but not of those of chromogranins. Small dense-core vesicles, exocytized upon stimulation, were rescued when the construct-transfected defective cells were transfected also with chromograninA or treated with trichostatinA, a blocker of histone deacetylases. Our results identify REST, working by direct and indirect mechanisms, as the factor governing the maintenance of the neurosecretory process and the properties of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells. [source]

Identification of a novel SNAP25 interacting protein (SIP30)

Ho-Ki Lee
Abstract Soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), including synaptosome-associated proteins of 25 kDa (SNAP25), syntaxins, and vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMP), are essential for regulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in neurotransmission. We identified a cDNA coding for a novel protein of 266 amino acids that we have named SIP30 (SNAP25 interacting protein of 30 kDa). SIP30 is expressed abundantly in brain and slightly in testis and kidney. In brain, SIP30 is highly expressed in the inferior and superior colliculi, which contain important relay nuclei of the auditory and visual systems. GST,pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays showed direct binding of SIP30 to SNAP25. Although SIP30 does not directly interact with syntaxin based on pull-down assays, syntaxin does co-immunoprecipitate with SIP30 suggesting that syntaxin is indirectly associated with SIP30, perhaps through SNAP25. [source]