Recommended Guidelines (recommended + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Use of Clinical Guidelines for Treatment of Anemia Among Hemodialysis Patients

Mae Thamer
Abstract: Changing financial incentives have strongly influenced dosing patterns of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) since its introduction in 1989. Although guidelines for prescribing rHuEPO exist, the extent to which they are adhered to is unknown. Using a retrospective cohort observational study design, the factors influencing the initial dosing of rHuEPO prescribed to 413 hemodialysis patients in 1994 were examined. Patient weight, the only recommended guideline, was not found to be a significant predictor of dosing of rHuEPO after controlling for selected patient demographic and clinical characteristics. The strongest predictor for initial rHuEPO dosing was hematocrit followed by White race (p < 0.05). Finally, each subsequent month was associated with a significantly larger initial rHuEPO dose, reflecting the general trend in increasing dose since 1991 (p < 0.001). In conclusion, despite the recent DOQI guidelines for treatment of anemia among persons with chronic renal failure, providers are not using patient weight as an independent criterion for determining dosing of rHuEPO. [source]

Genotypic antiretroviral drug resistance testing at low viral loads in the UK

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 8 2008
PA Cane
Background Antiretroviral drug resistance testing is recommended in HIV-1 infected patients failing therapy in order to inform treatment selection. Although guidelines and test manufacturers recommend a viral load of at least 500,1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL for genotypic resistance testing to be performed, prompt management of virological failure could benefit from testing at lower viral load levels. Methods Laboratories undertaking genotypic resistance testing were asked to provide figures for the number of resistance tests undertaken at viral loads <2000 copies/mL, the success rates of such tests and the extent of resistance detected, all stratified for viral load levels. Results Of the replies received, most laboratories were attempting resistance testing at viral loads below the recommended guidelines, with variable success and outcomes. Conclusions This audit of current practice in the UK for undertaking genotypic resistance tests at viral loads <1000 copies/mL highlights the widespread use of such testing outside the British HIV Association guidelines. [source]

Serum microminerals and the indices of lipid metabolism in an apparently healthy population

Clifford Abiaka
Abstract Serum copper and zinc concentrations were measured in 560 apparently healthy Kuwaitis (238 males and 322 females) aged 15,80 years to assess micromineral effect on the indices of lipid metabolism. Following the recommended guidelines of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) and the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (NCEPEP), the incidence of dyslipidemia was assessed from enzymatic assay data of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. Males had significantly lower TC (P=0.029) and HDL-C (P<0.0001) levels than females, while TG were significantly (P=0.023) lower in females. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated LDL-C, and low HDL-C levels were 35, 30, 22, and 13%, respectively. Copper did not correlate with zinc (r = ,0.067, P = 0.135) but was positively associated with TC (r=0.196, P<0.0001), LDL-C (r=0.134, P = 0.003), TG (r = 0.092, P=0.039), and age (r=0.281, P<0.0001). It is concluded that unlike in animal studies, copper excess in humans is associated with hyperlipidemia and therefore will predispose to atherosclerosis. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 17:61,65, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Current Update on Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa and Direct Thrombin Inhibition in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: Balancing Bleeding Risk and Antiplatelet Efficacy

Appropriate pharmacologic treatment for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remains a matter of controversy. Additionally, a substantial gap exists between recommended guidelines and current clinical practice. Questions remain regarding which antiplatelet/antithrombotic treatment strategies are appropriate for individual patients, based on their risk. We explore the role of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors and the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin in ACS patients, and consider the difficulties involved in reducing ischemic events while limiting bleeding risks. In patients with ACS who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, high levels of microembolization and myocardial necrosis are potential risk factors for adverse long-term outcomes. Intensive antiplatelet/antithrombotic regimens may substantially affect these factors. Determination of risk levels, with the goal of targeting aggressive antithrombotic and interventional therapies to patients at higher risk, will help physicians choose appropriate pharmacologic therapy for patients with ACS. [source]


DipNS, Margaret Higgins RN
SUMMARY Vascular access hygiene is an integral component of haemodialysis care. Ensuring nurses possess sufficient knowledge and utilise recommended guidelines on infection control is essential for safe practice and patient safety. The study aimed to investigate nurses' knowledge and practice of vascular access infection control among adult haemodialysis patients in the Republic of Ireland. A confidential self-completion questionnaire was sent to all 190 qualified nurses employed in nine haemodialysis units in the Republic of Ireland, which assessed knowledge and behaviour in infection control. Although 92% of respondents reported that policies had been developed by their units and 47% had received infection control education in the previous year, knowledge and adherence to best practice demonstrated significant scope for improvement. The study recommended the development of standard guidelines and regular reviews and updates of policies. Systems should also be developed to ensure a high level of compliance. [source]

Retrospective evaluation of pain assessment and treatment for acute vasoocclusive episodes in children with sickle cell disease

William T. Zempsky MD
Abstract Background This study was conducted to assess the care of pediatric patients hospitalized for sickle cell disease-related vasoocclusive episodes (VOE). The aim of this research was to illustrate the course of pain scores and methods of therapeutic intervention during hospitalization. Procedure Retrospective medical chart reviews were conducted to collect pain assessment and management data about children hospitalized during a 2-year period at an urban children's hospital. T tests and Chi-square analyses were used to identify differences in demographic variables, pain scores and opiate utilization. Results There were 59 children with 134 hospitalizations for VOE in a 2-year period. 50.8% of the patients were male; the mean age was 11.5,,4.9 years. The average length of hospitalization was 4.6,,2.7 days (range 1,19 days). Older patients stayed in the hospital significantly longer than younger patients (P,=,0.002). Pain scores remained in the moderate to severe range (,5 out of 10) for many days in the majority of patients. Results failed to reveal significant differences in pain scores and opiate utilization between patients who had short versus extended hospitalizations, and for those patients with frequent versus infrequent hospitalizations for pain. Conclusions Despite opiate dosing within recommended guidelines, mean pain scores remain in the moderate to severe range for several days following hospitalization for VOE. Future research should explore the factors which influence pain scores, as well as improved pain assessment and management techniques. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:265,268. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Neil S. Sharma
Background: To compare temporal artery biopsy specimen lengths from a tertiary care and a community hospital in New South Wales to recommended clinical guidelines in suspected giant cell arteritis. Design: A retrospective observational study of all patients who underwent temporal artery biopsy at Bathurst Base Hospital (BBH) and Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH) over a 5-year period. Methods: Patients who underwent temporal artery biopsy during the 5-year period were identified using computerized hospital databases. A retrospective chart review was carried out on all cases. Data were collected regarding patient age, patient sex, length of biopsy specimen, histopathological results and surgical team carrying out the biopsy. Results: During the 5-year period, 157 temporal artery biopsies were carried out at both hospitals, with 38/157(24%) at BBH and 119/157 (76%) at RPAH. There was no significant difference in biopsy length at the two hospitals. The mean specimen length at BBH was 12.1 mm compared with 11.7 mm at RPAH (t = 0.35; P = 0.73). At RPAH, there was no significant difference in specimen length between the surgical specialties carrying out the biopsy (anovaF = 1.37; P = 0.26). Specimens of length 20 mm or greater were 2.8 times more likely to show features of giant cell arteritis than those less than 20 mm. Conclusion: The mean length of temporal artery biopsy specimens at both hospitals was substantially shorter than recommended guidelines of a minimum 20 mm. We recommend all surgeons carrying out temporal artery biopsies ensure a specimen of sufficient length is obtained. [source]