Recent Fieldwork (recent + fieldwork)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


THE HIGH-WATER MARK: THE SITING OF MEGALITHIC TOMBS ON THE SWEDISH ISLAND OF TJÖRN

OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
RICHARD BRADLEY
Summary. In 1977 Grahame Clark suggested that the siting of megalithic tombs along the west coast of Scandinavia reflected the distribution of productive fishing grounds. Unlike the situation in other parts of Europe, these monuments were not associated with agriculture. Opinions have varied over the last quarter century, but enough is now known about changes of sea-level for his interpretation to be investigated on the ground. There seems to have been considerable diversity. On the large island of Örust some of the tombs located near to the sea appear to be associated with small natural enclosures defined by rock outcrops and may have been associated with grazing land. On the neighbouring island of Tjörn, however, the tombs were associated with small islands and important sea channels. During the Bronze Age the same areas included carvings of ships. Recent fieldwork in western Norway suggests that such locations were especially important in a maritime economy. [source]


,New spaces' for change?: Diamond governance reforms and the micro-politics of participation in post-war Sierra Leone

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2010
Roy Maconachie
Abstract While the majority of research carried out on diamonds and development in Sierra Leone has focused on debates concerning the role that diamonds played in the country's civil war of the 1990s, little attention has been directed towards understanding how the emergence and consequences of ,new spaces' for citizen engagement in diamond governance are shaping relationships between mining and political economic change in the post-war period. Recent fieldwork carried out in two communities in Kono District illustrates how the emergence of such spaces,although much celebrated by government, donors and development practitioners,may not necessarily be creating the ,room for manoeuvre' necessary to open up meaningful public engagement in resource governance. The analysis focuses on one recent governance initiative in the diamond sector,the Diamond Area Community Development Fund (DACDF),which aims to strengthen citizen participation in decision-making within the industry, but has frequently been at the centre of controversy. In framing and articulating socio-environmental struggles over resource access and control in Sierra Leone's post-war period of transition, the article highlights how the emerging geographies of participation continue to be shaped by unequal power relationships, in turn having an impact on livelihood options, decision-making abilities and development outcomes in the country's diamondiferous communities. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Child Labour in African Artisanal Mining Communities: Experiences from Northern Ghana

DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 3 2010
Gavin Hilson
ABSTRACT The issue of child labour in the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) economy is attracting significant attention worldwide. This article critically examines this ,problem' in the context of sub-Saharan Africa, where a lack of formal sector employment opportunities and/or the need to provide financial support to their impoverished families has led tens of thousands of children to take up work in this industry. The article begins by engaging with the main debates on child labour in an attempt to explain why young boys and girls elect to pursue arduous work in ASM camps across the region. The remainder of the article uses the Ghana experience to further articulate the challenges associated with eradicating child labour at ASM camps, drawing upon recent fieldwork undertaken in Talensi-Nabdam District, Upper East Region. Overall, the issue of child labour in African ASM communities has been diagnosed far too superficially, and until donor agencies and host governments fully come to grips with the underlying causes of the poverty responsible for its existence, it will continue to burgeon. [source]


Lystrosaurus species composition across the Permo,Triassic boundary in the Karoo Basin of South Africa

LETHAIA, Issue 2 2007
JENNIFER BOTHA
Lystrosaurus is one of the few therapsid genera that survived the end-Permian mass extinction, and the only genus to have done so in abundance. This study identifies which species of Lystrosaurus have been recovered from Permian and Triassic strata to determine changes in the species composition across the Permo,Triassic (P,T) boundary in the Karoo Basin of South Africa. Data generated from museum collections and recent fieldwork were used to stratigraphically arrange a total of 189 Lystrosaurus specimens to determine which species survived the extinction event. Results reveal that L. curvatus and L. maccaigi lived together on the Karoo floodplains immediately before the extinction event. L. maccaigi did not survive into the Triassic in South Africa. L. curvatus survived, but did not flourish and soon became extinct. Two new species of Lystrosaurus, L. murrayi and L. declivis, appeared in the Early Triassic. It is possible that L. murrayi and L. declivis occupied different niches to L. maccaigi and L. curvatus, and had special adaptations that were advantageous in an Early Triassic environment. We suggest that L. maccaigi may be used as a biostratigraphic marker to indicate latest Permian strata in South Africa and that, in support of previous proposals, the genus Lystrosaurus should not be used as a sole indicator of Triassic-aged strata. Our field data also show that L. curvatus may be regarded as a biostratigraphic indicator of the P,T boundary interval. [source]


WEALTH AND POWER IN THE BRONZE AGE OF THE SOUTH-EAST OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA: THE FUNERARY RECORD OF CERRO DE LA ENCINA

OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
GONZALO ARANDA
Summary. As a result of recent fieldwork undertaken at the archaeological site of Cerro de la Encina, our knowledge of the funerary ritual has increased considerably. The funerary record shows a significant concentration of wealth in burials corresponding to the family groups of the highest social status. Dramatic social differences can also be found in the internal organization of the settlement. The locations of burials within the settlement area, under the floors of dwellings, allow us to establish that the settlement space was closely related to the social identity of the families. The high number of burials with double and triple inhumations, in contrast to other Argaric necropolis, also stands out as an important feature of Cerro de la Encina, suggesting that familial relationships seem to be more marked here than at other Argaric sites. All these data are discussed in relation to the funerary ritual of the Argaric Culture. [source]


Access, Style and Imagery: The Audience for Prehistoric Rock Art in Atlantic Spain and Portugal, 4000,2000 BC

OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
Richard Bradley
The prehistoric rock art of western Iberia is normally divided into several styles with different associations, distributions and chronologies. Some are associated with monuments and others are found in the open air. A more basic division may help to account for the degree of overlap between these separate groups. This paper suggests that it may be possible to learn something of the significance of the painted and carved designs by considering their accessibility and the audiences to whom they could have been addressed. The argument is illustrated by recent fieldwork at Monte Penide and El Pedroso. [source]


The fractal yam: botanical imagery and human agency in the Trobriands

THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, Issue 4 2009
Mark S. Mosko
Anthropologists have long appreciated that animals are ,good to think'. In this essay I ponder whether plants might be good to think too, and particularly whether there is any sense in asking if plants (along with animals) might also be ,good to act'. The botanical metaphor of ,base', ,body', and ,tip' animates the origin structures of many if not most societies of the Austronesian world. Less attention has been directed at indigenous elaborations in other socio-cultural domains of the region. Based on recent fieldwork, I outline such ramifications in Trobriand culture, drawing upon the notions of fractal recursion and self-similarity from chaos theory wherein emergent ,tips' yield ,fruit' which become the condition or ,base' for further production and transformation. Accordingly, the base-body-tip-fruit metaphor serves as a cultural template or scenario for social action, shedding new interpretative light on many topics of long-standing anthropological interest (e.g. yam propagation, display, and exchange, kula, mortuary celebration, age categories, fame) as well as more recent theoretical interests. Résumé Les anthropologues ont compris il y a longtemps déjà que les animaux sont « bons à penser ». Dans cet essai, l'auteur se demande si les plantes sont elles aussi bonnes à penser, et en particulier s'il vaut la peine de se demander si les plantes (comme les animaux) pourraient être « bonnes à agir ». La métaphore botanique de « base », « corps » et « tête » anime les structures originelles de beaucoup de sociétés du monde austronésien, sinon toutes. On s'est moins intéressé aux élaborations indigènes de la région dans d'autres domaines socioculturels. Sur la base d'un récent travail de terrain, l'auteur retrace ces ramifications dans la culture trobriandaise, utilisant les notions de récursivité fractale et d'autosimilitude de la théorie du chaos, selon lesquelles les « têtes » donnent des « fruits » qui deviennent la condition ou « base » d'une nouvelle production et transformation. En conséquence, la métaphore base-corps-tête-fruit sert de modèle culturel ou de scénario d'action sociale, jetant un nouvel éclairage interprétatif sur de nombreux sujets qui intéressent depuis longtemps les anthropologues (tels que la propagation, la présentation et l'échange des ignames, la kula, les célébrations mortuaires, les classes d'âge, la renommée), mais aussi sur de nouvelles questions théoriques plus récentes. [source]


Fieldwork among the Dong national minority in Guizhou, China: Practicalities, obstacles and challenges

ASIA PACIFIC VIEWPOINT, Issue 2 2010
Candice CornetArticle first published online: 28 JUL 2010
Abstract The People's Republic of China (PRC) is increasingly open to foreigners undertaking social science fieldwork; yet obstacles remain. Working with ethnic minorities adds further complexities because of the sensitive topics such research may raise. Based on recent fieldwork among the Dong in southeast Guizhou, as the first foreign researcher to ask for and gain official permission to work in the region, this article exposes some of the challenges, both practical and methodological, of conducting research in the PRC. Gaining access to my field site was a long trek through the hierarchic maze of Chinese administration. While reflecting upon this process, I detail my negotiations with local authorities. I then examine how I found reliable statistical data, was able to access the voices of peasants, acted to protect the anonymity of dissident informants, and negotiated working with local research assistants once in the field. These aspects, in turn, highlighted the importance of considering positionality in the field. Although each person's experiences and routes to fieldwork are unique, there are recurrent issues that shape the research process in the PRC. I reflect upon a number of these here, in the hope that this can smooth the way for future researchers. [source]