Autism

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Autism

  • infantile autism

  • Terms modified by Autism

  • autism diagnostic interview
  • autism diagnostic observation schedule
  • autism family
  • autism research
  • autism spectrum
  • autism spectrum disorder
  • autism spectrum disorders

  • Selected Abstracts


    Review of animal models for autism: implication of thyroid hormone

    CONGENITAL ANOMALIES, Issue 1 2006
    Miyuki Sadamatsu
    ABSTRACT,, Autism is a behaviorally defined disorder associated with characteristic impairments in social interactions and communication, as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors and interest. Its prevalence was once thought to be 2/10 000, but recently several large autism prevalence reviews revealed that the rate of occurrence was roughly 30/10 000. While it has been considered a developmental disorder, little is certain about its etiology. Neuroanatomical studies at the histological level in the brains of autistic patients provide many arguments in the etiology of autism. Results from postmortem and imaging studies have implicated many major structures of the brain including the limbic system, cerebellum, corpus callosum, basal ganglia and brainstem. There is no single biological or clinical marker for autism. While several promising candidate genes have been presented, the critical loci are yet unknown. Environmental influences such as rubella virus, valproic acid, and thalidomide exposure during pregnancy are also considered important, as concordance in monozygotic twins is less than 100% and the phenotypic expression of the disorder varies widely. It is thus hypothesized that non-genetic mechanisms contribute to the onset of autistic syndrome. In light of these ambiguities, hope is held that an animal model of autism may help elucidate matters. In this article, we overview most of the currently available animal models for autism, and propose the rat with mild and transient neonatal hypothyroidism as a novel model for autism. [source]


    The search for autism disease genes

    DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEW, Issue 4 2004
    Thomas H Wassink
    Abstract Autism is a heritable disorder characterized by phenotypic and genetic complexity. This review begins by surveying current linkage, gene association, and cytogenetic studies performed with the goal of identifying autism disease susceptibility variants. Though numerous linkages and associations have been identified, they tend to diminish upon closer examination or attempted replication. The review therefore explores challenges to current methodologies presented by the complexities of autism that might underlie some of the current difficulties, and finishes by describing emerging phenotypic, statistical, and molecular investigational approaches that offer hope of overcoming those challenges. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2004;10:272,283. [source]


    Motor stereotypies in children with autism and other developmental disorders

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    SYLVIE GOLDMAN PHD
    The purpose of the study was to count and characterize the range of stereotypies , repetitive rhythmical, apparently purposeless movements , in developmentally impaired children with and without autism, and to determine whether some types are more prevalent and diagnostically useful in children with autism. We described each motor stereotypy recorded during 15 minutes of archived videos of standardized play sessions in 277 children (209 males, 68 females; mean age 4y 6mo [SD 1y 5mo], range 2y 11mo,8y 1mo), 129 with autistic disorder (DSM-III-R), and 148 cognitively-matched non-autistic developmentally disordered (NADD) comparison children divided into developmental language disorder and non-autism, low IQ (NALIQ) sub-groups. The parts of the body involved and characteristics of all stereotypies were scored blind to diagnosis. More children with autism had stereotypies than the NADD comparison children. Autism and, to a lesser degree, nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) <80, especially in females contributed independently to the occurrence, number, and variety of stereotypies, with non-autistic children without cognitive impairment having the least number of stereotypies and children with autism and low NVIQ the most. Autism contributed independently to gait and hand/finger stereotypies and NVIQ <80 to head/trunk stereotypies. Atypical gazing at fingers and objects was rare but virtually limited to autism. Stereotypies are environmentally modulated movement disorders, some highly suggestive, but not pathognomonic, of autism. Their underlying brain basis and genetic correlates need investigation. [source]


    Fetal valproate syndrome and autism: additional evidence of an association

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Gail Williams MD
    Autism has been described in association with a variety of medical and genetic conditions. We previously reported on a patient whose clinical phenotype was compatible with both fetal valproate syndrome (FVS) and autism. Here we present five additional patients with FVS and autism. In all five of our patients, there was evidence of cognitive deficits, manifestations of autism, and typical phenotypic characteristics of FVS. The association between this known teratogen and autism has both clinical and research implications. [source]


    Autism and Asperger syndrome: coexistence with other clinical disorders

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2000
    C. Gillberg and
    Objective: To provide a clinically useful analysis of the extent to which autism and Asperger syndrome coexist with other disorders. Method: Selective review of the literature detailing data pertaining to symptoms and disorders sometimes encountered in connection with autism or Asperger syndrome. Results: A large number of medical conditions, psychiatric disorders and behavioural and motor dyscontrol symptoms are associated with autism and Asperger syndrome. Conclusion: Comorbidity is to be expected in autism spectrum disorders , directly or indirectly. Comorbid conditions may be markers for underlying pathophysiology and suggest a more varied treatment approach. There is a great need for in-depth research into this area, meaning that the exclusion criteria of current diagnostic manuals, i.e. those that rule out a diagnosis of autism in some disorders, and a diagnosis of certain other disorders in autism may have to be revised. [source]


    What a Dog Can Do: Children with Autism and Therapy Dogs in Social Interaction

    ETHOS, Issue 1 2010
    Olga Solomon
    Yet little theoretical grounding and empirical study of this socioclinical phenomenon has been offered by social science. This article draws on interdisciplinary scholarship to situate the study of the therapeutic use of dogs for children and teens with autism. Two case studies of service and therapy dogs' mediating social engagement of children with autism in relationships, interactions, and activities illustrate how dogs support children's communication, their experience of emotional connection with others, and their participation in everyday life. Theorizing this process enriches approaches to sociality in psychological anthropology. [animal-assisted therapy, autism, engagement, sociality, intersubjectivity] [source]


    Commentary: Autism and Anthropology?

    ETHOS, Issue 1 2010
    Mary C. Lawlor
    Comments explore the ways in which authors attend to demarcation of the social world, establishment and negotiation of expertise, juxtaposition of autism as a phenomenon of interest and as an exemplar of sociality, and management of structured and improvisational approaches to the study of engagements in real life. The dilemmas and tensions that are briefly described here are only a partial list of still uncultivated spaces where autism and anthropology can,should,do meet. [sociality, autism, engagement, expertise, ethnography] [source]


    The Neurology of Autism

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 10 2006
    K. A. Jellinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Examination of tetrahydrobiopterin pathway genes in autism

    GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 8 2009
    N. C. Schnetz-Boutaud
    Autism is a complex disorder with a high degree of heritability and significant phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. Although candidate gene studies and genome-wide screens have failed to identify major causal loci associated with autism, numerous studies have proposed association with several variations in genes in the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. Because tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is the essential cofactor in the synthesis of these two neurotransmitters, we genotyped 25 SNPs in nine genes of the BH4 pathway in a total of 403 families. Significant nominal association was detected in the gene for 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase, PTS (chromosome 11), with P = 0.009; this result was not restricted to an affected male-only subset. Multilocus interaction was detected in the BH4 pathway alone, but not across the serotonin, dopamine and BH4 pathways. [source]


    Autism-like behavioral phenotypes in BTBR T+tf/J mice

    GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 2 2008
    H. G. McFarlane
    Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology. Mouse models with face validity to the core symptoms offer an experimental approach to test hypotheses about the causes of autism and translational tools to evaluate potential treatments. We discovered that the inbred mouse strain BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) incorporates multiple behavioral phenotypes relevant to all three diagnostic symptoms of autism. BTBR displayed selectively reduced social approach, low reciprocal social interactions and impaired juvenile play, as compared with C57BL/6J (B6) controls. Impaired social transmission of food preference in BTBR suggests communication deficits. Repetitive behaviors appeared as high levels of self-grooming by juvenile and adult BTBR mice. Comprehensive analyses of procedural abilities confirmed that social recognition and olfactory abilities were normal in BTBR, with no evidence for high anxiety-like traits or motor impairments, supporting an interpretation of highly specific social deficits. Database comparisons between BTBR and B6 on 124 putative autism candidate genes showed several interesting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BTBR genetic background, including a nonsynonymous coding region polymorphism in Kmo. The Kmo gene encodes kynurenine 3-hydroxylase, an enzyme-regulating metabolism of kynurenic acid, a glutamate antagonist with neuroprotective actions. Sequencing confirmed this coding SNP in Kmo, supporting further investigation into the contribution of this polymorphism to autism-like behavioral phenotypes. Robust and selective social deficits, repetitive self-grooming, genetic stability and commercial availability of the BTBR inbred strain encourage its use as a research tool to search for background genes relevant to the etiology of autism, and to explore therapeutics to treat the core symptoms. [source]


    Autism and Vaccination,The Current Evidence

    JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN PEDIATRIC NURSING, Issue 3 2009
    Lisa Miller MD
    PURPOSE., The purpose of this article is to review relevant background literature regarding the evidence linking thimerosal-containing vaccine and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine to autism. CONCLUSIONS., Rigorous scientific studies have not identified links between autism and either thimerosal-containing vaccine or the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS., Nurses are often in the position of providing advice regarding vaccines in their formal practice areas as well as in their daily lives. Families need current and credible evidence to make decisions for their children. Excellent vaccine information resources are available online. [source]


    The Changing Epidemiology of Autism

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 4 2005
    Eric Fombonne
    This article reviews epidemiological studies of autism and related disorders. Study designs and sample characteristics are summarized. Currently, conservative prevalence estimates are: 13/10000 for autistic disorder, 21/10000 for pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified, 2.6/10000 for Asperger disorder, and 2/100000 for childhood disintegrative disorder. Newer surveys suggest that the best estimate for the prevalence of all autistic spectrum disorders is close to 0.6%. A detailed analysis of time trends in rates of pervasive developmental disorders in then provided. It is concluded that most of the increase is accounted for by changes in diagnostic concepts and criteria, and by improved identification. Whether or not there is, in addition to these factors, a true increase in the incidence of the disorder cannot be examined from available data. [source]


    The Rise in Autism and the Mercury Myth

    JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC NURSING, Issue 1 2009
    Lawrence Scahill MSN
    [source]


    Autism in the criminal justice detention system: A review of the literature

    JOURNAL OF FORENSIC NURSING, Issue 2 2009
    Andrew Cashin RN, Cert PTT, Dip App Sci, FACMHN
    Abstract Little is known about the experience of people with autism in custody. A review of the literature that explored the relationship between autism and criminality and the criminal justice detention system was conducted. Literature suggests that people with autism are potentially overrepresented within the criminal justice system. There is little research that has examined the experiences of people with autism spectrum disorders in custody. There is very little to guide service design to develop autism support services for people in prison. [source]


    Autism: tactile perception and emotion

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 8 2007
    E. Pernon
    Abstract Background For many years, and especially since Waynbaum and Wallon, psychology and psychopathology have dealt with cognitive perception, but have had little to do with the affective qualities of perception. Our aim was to study the influence of the sensory environment on people with autism. Method Several experiments were carried out using different forms of tactile stimulation (passive and active subjects). Results Our data showed specific responses in children with autism and intellectual disability. These children displayed a strong (positive) valence to the stimulation provided. Conclusion They were very attracted to the stimulation and were excited by it. [source]


    A preliminary study of screening for risk of autism in children with fragile X syndrome: testing two risk cut-offs for the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 4 2007
    D. J. Scambler
    Abstract Objective Risk criteria for the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) and modified risk criteria (i.e. the Denver Criteria) were compared in a group of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism. Method Participants were 17 children aged 2,4 years with DNA confirmation of FXS. Four children had autism and 13 children did not. Results Preliminary findings regarding the sensitivity and specificity of the CHAT for detecting risk for autism in children with FXS are as follows: using the original CHAT risk criteria, sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 100%, respectively; and using the Denver Criteria, sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 92%, respectively. Conclusions The CHAT and the Denver Criteria resulted in preliminary findings suggesting high levels of sensitivity to autism in children with FXS. [source]


    Syndrome specificity and behavioural disorders in young adults with intellectual disability: cultural differences in family impact

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 3 2006
    J. Blacher
    Background This study examined whether behaviour problems and adaptive behaviour of low functioning young adults, and well-being of their families, varied by diagnostic syndrome [intellectual disability (ID) only, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism], as well as by cultural group. Methods Behaviour disorders in young adults with moderate to severe ID were assessed from information provided by 282 caregivers during in-home interviews. The sample consisted of 150 Anglo participants, and 132 Latino, primarily Spanish-speaking, participants drawn from Southern California. Results Behaviour disorders and maternal well-being showed the same pattern across disability syndromes. Autism was associated with the highest scores in multiple behaviour problem areas as well as maternal reports of lower well-being. Down syndrome was associated with the lowest behaviour problem scores and the highest maternal well-being. When behaviour problems were controlled for, diagnostic groups accounted for no additional variance in maternal stress or depression. The pattern of behaviour problems and well-being did not differ by sample (Anglo vs. Latino), although level on well-being measures did. Latina mothers reported significantly higher depression symptoms and lower morale, but also higher positive impact from their child than did Anglo mothers. Conclusions Caregivers of young adults with autism report more maladaptive behaviour problems and lower personal well-being, or stress, relative to other diagnostic groups, regardless of cultural group. However, cultural differences exist in caregiver reports of depression, morale, and positive perceptions. Implications for service provision aimed at families of children with challenging behaviour problems are discussed in the context of culture. [source]


    The Hidden Face of Autism

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 11 2006
    Catherine Skellern Dr
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Book Review: Sensory Perceptual Issues in Autism and Asperger's Syndrome.

    JOURNAL OF POLICY AND PRACTICE IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 2 2008
    Different Perceptual Worlds, Different Sensory Experiences
    [source]


    Clinical Practice Guideline: Screening and Diagnosing Autism

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF NURSE PRACTITIONERS, Issue 12 2001
    APRN-C, Mary Jo Goolsby EdD
    The clinical practice guideline (CPG) reviewed in this month's column concerns the screening and diagnosis of autism. Autism is the third most common developmental disability and affects more than 1 in 500 children, or nearly 400,000 people in the United States, in some form. Primary care providers of children, including pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) and family nurse practitioners (FNPs), should reasonably expect to care for at least one child with autism (CWA). The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has therefore developed guidelines to help healthcare providers facilitate the early identification of children with autism. [source]


    Autism, Metaphor and Relevance Theory

    MIND & LANGUAGE, Issue 2 2010
    CATHERINE WEARING
    The pattern of impairments exhibited by some individuals on the autism spectrum appears to challenge the relevance-theoretic account of metaphor (Carston, 1996, 2002; Sperber and Wilson, 2002; Sperber and Wilson, 2008). A subset of people on the autism spectrum have near-normal syntactic, phonological, and semantic abilities while having severe difficulties with the interpretation of metaphor, irony, conversational implicature, and other pragmatic phenomena. However, Relevance Theory treats metaphor as importantly unlike phenomena such as conversational implicature or irony and like instances of ordinary literal speech. In this paper, I show how Relevance Theory can account for the prima facie incongruity between its treatment of metaphor and the case of individuals with autism. [source]


    Coherence as an Explanation for Theory of Mind Task Failure in Autism

    MIND & LANGUAGE, Issue 3 2002
    Deepthi Kamawar
    O'Loughlin and Thagard (2000) present a specific computational implementation of the idea that the problems encountered by a child with autism in classic False Belief tasks derive from a failure to maintain coherence among multiple propositions. They argue that this failure can be explained as a structural feature of a connectionist network attempting to maintain coherence. The current paper criticizes this implementation because it falsely predicts that the same children will have a parallel problem with the False Photographs task. The fact that the content of representations makes a difference while the structure remains constant casts doubt upon their claim. [source]


    Unstrange Minds: Remapping the World of Autism,A Father, a Daughter, and a Search for New Answers

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 1 2009
    HAROLD L. ODDEN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    A public health collaboration for the surveillance of autism spectrum disorders

    PAEDIATRIC & PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Catherine E. Rice
    Summary Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a range of behavioural phenotypes defined by impaired development in social interaction, communication, imagination, and range of interests or behaviours. The aetiology and epidemiology of these serious developmental disabilities (DDs) are poorly understood. Estimates of the population prevalence of ASDs have varied widely within the US and abroad, with increasing estimates in most of the recent studies. In an effort to improve our understanding of the prevalence, population characteristics and public health impact of these conditions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has funded a multi-site surveillance network for ASDs and other DDs that consists of programmes known as the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) network which conducts surveillance activities and the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) which also conducts surveillance in addition to special research studies related to the ASDs. This collaboration will be referred to hereafter as the ADDM Network. The ADDM Network is implementing a multiple-source surveillance programme to determine population prevalence and characteristics of ASDs and other DDs. This paper describes the collaborative efforts and explains the methods in developing this coordinated public health surveillance network to provide an ongoing source of high-quality data on ASDs. [source]


    St John's Wort treating patients with autistic disorder

    PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 11 2009
    Helmut Niederhofer
    Abstract Problems of eye contact and expressive language limit the effectiveness of educational and behavioral interventions in patients suffering from pervasive developmental disorders. For that reason, additive psychopharmacological interventions are sometimes needed to improve symptomatology. In our preliminary open trial, three male patients with autistic disorder, diagnosed by ICD-10 criteria, completed an open trial of St John's Wort. Subjects were included in the study if their eye contact and expressive language was inadaequate for their developmental level and if they had not tolerated or responded to other psychopharmacologic treatments (methylphenidate, clonidine or desipramine). Parent and mentor ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, irritability, stereotypy, and inappropriate speech factors improved slightly during treatment with St John's Wort. Clinician ratings (Psychiatric Rating Scale Autism, Anger and Speech Deviance factors; Global Assessment Scale; Clinical Global Impressions efficacy) did not improve significantly. St John's Wort was only modestly effective in the short-term treatment of irritability in some patients with autistic disorder. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Neurobiological Correlates of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue S1 2003
    Article first published online: 14 AUG 200
    Chair: Steven K. Sutton Participants: Richard J. Davidson, Robert T. Schultz, Louis A. Schmidt, Steven K. Sutton [source]


    Extraction and Refinement Strategy for detection of autism in 18-month-olds: a guarantee of higher sensitivity and specificity in the process of mass screening

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 8 2009
    Hideo Honda
    Background:, For early detection of autism, it is difficult to maintain an efficient level of sensitivity and specificity based on observational data from a single screening. The Extraction and Refinement (E&R) Strategy utilizes a public children's health surveillance program to produce maximum efficacy in early detection of autism. In the extraction stage, all cases at risk of childhood problems, including developmental abnormality, are identified; in the refinement stage, cases without problems are excluded, leaving only cases with conclusive diagnoses. Methods:, The city of Yokohama, Japan, conducts a routine child health surveillance program for children at 18 months in which specialized public health nurses administer YACHT-18 (Young Autism and other developmental disorders CHeckup Tool), a screening instrument to identify children at risk for developmental disorders. Children who screen positive undergo further observation, and those without disorders are subsequently excluded. To study the efficacy of early detection procedures for developmental disorders, including autism, 2,814 children born in 1988, examined at 18 months of age, and not already receiving treatment for diseases or disorders were selected. Results:, In the extraction stage, 402 (14.3%) children were identified for follow-up. In the refinement stage, 19 (.7%) of these were referred to the Yokohama Rehabilitation Center and diagnosed with developmental disorders. The extraction stage produced four false negatives, bringing total diagnoses of developmental disorders to 23 (.8%) , including 5 with autistic disorder and 9 with pervasive developmental disorder , not otherwise specified (PDDNOS). Sensitivity was 60% for autistic disorder and 82.6% for developmental disorders. Specificity for developmental disorders rose to 100% with the E&R Strategy. Picture cards used in YACHT-18 provided a finer screen that excluded some false positive cases. Conclusions:, An extraction and refinement methodology utilizing child health surveillance programs achieve high efficacy for early detection of autism. [source]


    Research Review: What is the association between the social-communication element of autism and repetitive interests, behaviours and activities?

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 8 2008
    William P.L. Mandy
    Autism is currently conceptualised as a unitary disorder, in which social-communication impairments are found alongside repetitive interests, behaviours and activities (RIBAs). This relies upon the validity of the assumption that social-communication impairments and RIBAs co-occur at an above chance level as a result of sharing underlying causes. In the current review it is argued that the evidence for this assumption is scarce: the very great majority of RIBA research has not been intended for or suited to its examination. In fact only three studies are fit to address directly the question of the relationship between social-communication impairment and RIBAs, and these contradict each other. In consequence, further relevant evidence was sought in the behavioural and genetic literature. This approach suggested that the correlation between social-communication impairments and RIBAs has been exaggerated in the current consensus about the autism syndrome, and that these aspects of autism may well share largely independent underlying causes. Some clinical and research implications are discussed. [source]


    Development in infants with autism spectrum disorders: a prospective study

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 6 2006
    Rebecca Landa
    Background:, Autism is rarely diagnosed before three years of age despite evidence suggesting prenatal abnormalities in neurobiological processes. Little is known about when or how development becomes disrupted in the first two years of life in autism. Such information is needed to facilitate early detection and early intervention. Methods:, This prospective study of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) examined development using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) in 87 infants tested at target ages 6, 14, and 24 months. Participants came from infants at high risk (siblings of children with autism) and low risk (no family history of autism) groups. Based on language test scores, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and clinical judgment at 24 months of age, participants were categorized as: unaffected, ASD, or language delayed (LD). Longitudinal linear regression and ANOVA models were applied to MSEL raw scores, and estimates were compared between the three diagnostic groups. Results:, No statistically significant group differences were detected at 6 months. By 14 months of age, the ASD group performed significantly worse than the unaffected group on all scales except Visual Reception. By 24 months of age, the ASD group performed significantly worse than the unaffected group in all domains, and worse than the language delayed group in Gross Motor, Fine Motor, and Receptive Language. The developmental trajectory of the ASD group was slower than the other groups', and showed a significant decrease in development between the first and second birthdays. Conclusions:, Variations from typical and language delayed development are detectable in many children with ASD using a measure of general development by 24 months of age. Unusual slowing in performance occurred between 14 and 24 months of age in ASD. [source]


    Autism: Mind and brain.

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 1 2004
    Patricia Howlin
    First page of article [source]