Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Readers

  • adult readers
  • independent readers
  • poor readers
  • young readers

  • Selected Abstracts

    Confidence Interval Calculation Methods Are Infrequently Reported in Emergency-medicine Literature

    Amy Marr MD
    Abstract Background There are many different confidence interval calculation methods, each providing different as well as in some cases inadequate interval estimates. Readers who know which method is used are better able to understand potentially significant limitations in study reports. Objectives To quantify how often confidence interval calculation methods are disclosed by authors in four peer-reviewed North American emergency-medicine journals. Methods The authors independently performed searches of four journals for all studies in which comparisons were made between means, medians, proportions, odds ratios, or relative risks. Case reports, editorials, subject reviews, and letters were excluded. Using a standardized abstraction form developed on a spreadsheet, the authors evaluated each article for the reporting of confidence intervals and evaluated the description of methodology used to calculate the confidence intervals. Results A total of 212 articles met the inclusion criteria. Confidence intervals were reported in 123 articles (58%; 95% CI = 51% to 64%); of these, a description of methodology was reported in 12 (9.8%; 95% CI = 5.7% to 16%). Conclusions Confidence interval methods of calculation are disclosed infrequently in emergency medicine literature. [source]

    Reconciling Financial Information at Varied Levels of Aggregation,

    Abstract Financial statements summarize a firm's fiscal position using only a limited number of accounts. Readers often interpret financial statements in conjunction with other information, some of which may be aggregated in a different way (or not at all). This paper exploits properties of the double-entry accounting system to provide a systematic approach to reconciling diverse financial data. The key is the ability to represent the double-entry system by network flows and, thereby, access well-recognized network optimization techniques. Two specific uses are investigated: the reconciliation of audit evidence with management-prepared financial statements, and the creation of transaction-level financial ratios. [source]

    Using Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) in Language Teaching

    Senta Goertler
    This article discusses how new and familiar computer technology tools can be used in a communicative language classroom. It begins by outlining the benefits and challenges of using such technology for language teaching in general, and it describes some sample activities that the author has used. Readers are shown how to implement various computer tools in their own classrooms in order to create a Computer-Mediated Communication environment in a communicative language classroom. [source]

    Comparison of the Electrochemical Reactivity of Carbon Nanotubes Paste Electrodes with Different Types of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 17 2008
    Xueling Li
    Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in electrochemical studies. It is reported that CNTs with different source and dispersed in different agents [1] yield significant difference of electrochemical reactivity. Here we report on the electrochemical performance of CNTs paste electrodes (CNTPEs) prepared by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with different diameters, lengths and functional groups. The resulting electrodes exhibit remarkable different electrochemical reactivity towards redox molecules such as NADH and K3[Fe(CN)6]. It is found that CNTPEs prepared by MWNTs with 20,30,nm diameter show highest catalysis to NADH oxidation, while CNTPEs prepared by MWNTs with carboxylate groups have best electron-transfer rate (The peak-peak separation (,Ep) is +0.108,V for MWNTs with carboxylate groups, +0.155,V for normal MWNTs, and +0.174,V for short MWNTs) but weak catalysis towards oxidation of NADH owing to the hydrophilicity of carboxylate groups. The electrochemical reactivity depends on the lengths of CNTs to some extent. The ,long' CNTs perform better in our study (The oxidation signals of NADH appear below +0.39,V for ,long' CNTs and above +0.46,V for the ,short' one totally). Readers may get some directions from this article while choose CNTs for electrochemical study. [source]

    Advanced Phonics: Teaching Strategies for Poor Readers at Key Stage 2

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 3 2000
    Susan Jennings
    Abstract Poor readers at Key Stage 2 need ongoing support for their reading development. They are frequently weak in the metacognitive skills that enable good readers to make their own progress and they require a repetition of much phonics material from Key Stage 1. Beyond that, they have a need for the further complexities of English to be taught to them as phonics, not as spelling strategies/investigations. Additionally, they have difficulty in tackling polysyllabic words and must be taught appropriate decoding strategies. There is a dearth of teaching materials in this area and little research evidence as to how such material might best be taught. This paper charts the development of a phonics booster programme for poor readers in Year 5. [source]

    SOFA database temporarily out of order

    Kurt Aitzetmüller
    Readers are informed about temporary problems with the database "Seed Oil Fatty Acids" (SOFA). Because industrial oil crops with unusual fatty acids are currently a hot research field, many requests for information reached the author, particularly often from ICON-Partners worldwide ( icon.htm). SOFA should be online again later in 2010. The nature of SOFA and some potential applications of SOFA are briefly discussed. [source]

    To Ett Readers and Subscribers

    You have free access to this content
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Annual Report to Our Readers and the Field: September 1, 2000,August 31, 2001

    Article first published online: 9 OCT 200

    Can resveratrol extend your life?

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 10 2009
    Angelo Azzi
    Is There An Answer? is intended to serve as a forum in which readers to IUBMB Life may pose questions of the type that intrigue biochemists but for which there may be no obvious answer or one may be available but not widely known or easily accessible. Readers are invited to e-mail if they have questions to contribute or if they can provide answers to questions that are provided here from time to time. In the latter case, instructions will be sent to interested readers. Answers should be, whenever possible, evidence-based and provide relevant references. Paolo Ascenzi [source]

    Caring for patients of Islamic denomination: critical care nurses' experiences in Saudi Arabia

    ITU cert., Phil Halligan MSc
    Aim., To describe the critical care nurses' experiences in caring for patients of Muslim denomination in Saudi Arabia. Background., Caring is known to be the essence of nursing but many health-care settings have become more culturally diverse. Caring has been examined mainly in the context of Western cultures. Muslims form one of the largest ethnic minority communities in Britain but to date, empirical studies relating to caring from an Islamic perspective is not well documented. Research conducted within the home of Islam would provide essential truths about the reality of caring for Muslim patients. Design., Phenomenological descriptive. Methods., Six critical care nurses were interviewed from a hospital in Saudi Arabia. The narratives were analysed using Colaizzi's framework. Results., The meaning of the nurses' experiences emerged as three themes: family and kinship ties, cultural and religious influences and nurse,patient relationship. The results indicated the importance of the role of the family and religion in providing care. In the process of caring, the participants felt stressed and frustrated and they all experienced emotional labour. Communicating with the patients and the families was a constant battle and this acted as a further stressor in meeting the needs of their patients. Conclusions., The concept of the family and the importance and meaning of religion and culture were central in the provision of caring. The beliefs and practices of patients who follow Islam, as perceived by expatriate nurses, may have an effect on the patient's health care in ways that are not apparent to many health-care professionals and policy makers internationally. Relevance to clinical practice., Readers should be prompted to reflect on their clinical practice and to understand the impact of religious and cultural differences in their encounters with patients of Islam denomination. Policy and all actions, decisions and judgments should be culturally derived. [source]


    ABSTRACT Food bars, which include meal replacement, protein, granola and cereal bars, have rapidly increased in sales with current estimation of above $3.2 billion. Despite such rapid growth in the market, research on consumer expectations for these products is still lacking. Conjoint analysis was used to probe the effect of different elements of food bar products on purchase intent, including types of bar, ingredients, macro-nutrients, health claims, calories and sensory characteristics. Overall, consumers wanted a food bar to be less than 150 kcal, made with whole grains and higher in protein. Consumers divided into four mind-set segments were characterized as "Label Readers" (n = 213), "Calorie Health Nuts" (n = 90), "Flavor Energy Seekers" (n = 79) and "Chocolate Lovers" (n = 44). Sensory characteristics and types of bar categories were not important to consumers, although calorie elements played the largest role in motivating purchase intent for food bars. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The results found from this research help to guide new product development in the food bar market by identifying the desires of specific consumer segments. Consumers were interested in food bar products with lower calorie content, which supports the idea that food bars are more typically consumed as a snack than a meal replacement. Half of the sample consumers tested belonged to the "Label Readers" segment. These consumers are interested in a healthful food bar product high in fiber. Development of a bar that is considered healthful would appeal not only to the "Label Readers" segment, but also to the "Calorie Health Nuts" segment. When developing a food bar product, the labeled bar type or sensory claims are not important to consumers. Consumers are more interested in the ingredients and caloric content of the food bar. [source]

    An empirical study of rules for well-formed identifiers

    Dawn Lawrie
    Abstract Readers of programs have two main sources of domain information: identifier names and comments. In order to efficiently maintain source code, it is important that the identifier names (as well as comments) communicate clearly the concepts they represent. Deißenböck and Pizka recently introduced two rules for creating well-formed identifiers: one considers the consistency of identifiers and the other their conciseness. These rules require a mapping from identifiers to the concepts they represent, which may be costly to develop after the initial release of a system. An approach for verifying whether identifiers are well formed without any additional information (e.g., a concept mapping) is developed. Using a pool of 48 million lines of code, experiments with the resulting syntactic rules for well-formed identifiers illustrate that violations of the syntactic pattern exist. Two case studies show that three-quarters of these violations are ,real'. That is, they could be identified using a concept mapping. Three related studies show that programmers tend to use a rather limited vocabulary, that, contrary to many other aspects of system evolution, maintenance does not introduce additional rule violations, and that open and proprietary sources differ in their percentage of violations. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Screening, Diagnosis, and Clinical Care for Depression

    ANP-C, Mary Jo Goolsby EdD
    Depression is an extremely common condition, which usually responds well to prescribed treatment. Many patients have undiagnosed depression or related illnesses. There are a variety of screening tools that can be applied in practice settings. It is recommended that adult patients be screened for depression in practice sites able to coordinate the actual diagnosis and treatment of depression. This column reviews two sets of recommendations specific to the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of depression. Readers are invited to submit suggestions for future CPG columns and manuscripts reviewing CPGs. NPs interested in contributing to the column are invited to contact the column editor, Dr. Goolsby, to discuss their ideas. JAANP's readership is broad, covering all NP specialties. CPGs applicable to any areas of care can be submitted (from acute care to long term care, from neonatal care to geriatric care). [source]

    Management of Chronic Hepatitis C

    APRN-C, Mary Jo Goolsby EdD
    One purpose of the Clinical Practice Guideline column is to increase the awareness of the broad availability of existing guidelines and recommendations on various health topics. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently accounts for 20% to 40% of acute viral hepatitis, 60% to 80% of chronic hepatitis, and 20% to 30% of cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer. Nearly four million Americans are currently infected with hepatitis C. Nurse practitioners should be aware of the recommendations regarding the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of the dis ease. This column summarizes the content of two NIH documents regarding the care of patients with hepatitis C: Management of Hepatitis C: NIH Consensus Statement (NIH, 1997) and Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management (NIDDK, 2000). Readers are encouraged to suggest specific CPGs for future columns or to request that the editor search for and summarize a CPG addressing a common health problem. Readers are also invited to submit a manuscript reviewing CPGs that they find helpful in their area of practice. [source]

    Evidence-Based Strategies for Reading Instruction of Older Students with Learning Disabilities

    Greg Roberts
    Over a quarter of 8th-grade students and more than one-third of 4th graders do not read well enough to understand important concepts and acquire new knowledge from grade-level text. For students with learning disabilities, the numbers are more troubling. This article describes features of evidence-based instruction for students who continue to struggle with reading in late elementary, middle, and high school. Recommendations are organized into 5 areas that are critical to the reading improvement of older struggling readers: (1) word study, (2) fluency, (3) vocabulary, (4) comprehension, and (5) motivation. Much of the content in this article reflects our efforts with the Special Education and Reading Strands at the National Center on Instruction, funded by the Office of Special Education Programs and the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. Two reports, both available at, have particular relevance,Interventions for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Meta-Analysis with Implications for Practice and Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents: A Guidance Document from the Center on Instruction. [source]

    Prior academic background and student performance in assessment in a graduate entry programme

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 11 2004
    P L Craig
    Objectives, This study aims to identify whether non-science graduates perform as well as science graduates in Basic and Clinical Sciences (B & CS) assessments during Years 1,3 of a four-year graduate-entry programme at the University of Sydney (the ,USydMP'). Methods, Students were grouped into five categories: Health Professions (HP), Biomedical Sciences (BMS), Other Biology (BIOL), Physical Sciences (PHYS) or Non-Science (NONS). We examined the performance rank of students in each of the five groups for single best answer (SBA) and modified essay (MEQ) assessments separately, and also calculated the relative risk of failure in the summative assessments in Years 2 and 3. Results, Students with science-based prior degrees performed better in the SBA assessments. The same occurred initially in the MEQs, but the effect diminished with time. The HP students performed consistently better but converged with other groups over time, particularly in the MEQs. Relative performance by the NONS students improved with time in both assessment formats. Overall, differences between the highest and lowest groups were small and very few students failed to meet the overall standard for the summative assessments. HP and BMS students had the lowest failure rate. NONS students were more likely to fail the assessments in Year 2 and 3, but their pass rates were still high. Female students performed significantly better overall at the end of Year 2 and in Year 3. There were only minor differences between Australian resident and International students. Conclusion, While there are small differences in performance in B & CS early in the programme, these lessen with time. The study results will inform decisions regarding timing of summative assessments, selection policy and for providing additional support to students who need it to minimize their risk of failure. Readers should note that this paper refers to student performance in only one of the four curriculum themes, where health professional and science graduates would be expected to have a significant advantage. [source]

    Differing Perceptions of EFL Writing among Readers in Japan

    Carol Rinnert
    This quantitative and qualitative study investigated perceptions of English compositions among four groups of readers (N= 465) in Japan. Analyses of evaluative criteria and readers' comments yielded the following clear parallel results: Whereas inexperienced English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students attended predominantly to content in both judging and commenting on compositions, more experienced EFL students and nonnative English teachers showed greater concern than the inexperienced students did for clarity, logical connections, and organization. The experienced groups' perceptions tended to be more similar to the perceptions of native English-speaking teachers than those of the inexperienced EFL students. This tendency suggests that there is a gradual change in Japanese readers' perceptions of English composition from preferring the writing features of their first language (L1) to preferring many of the writing features of the second language (L2). The results imply that the particular kind of evaluation and feedback students are asked to provide on their peers' writing should vary according to the amount of L2 writing awareness and experience they have acquired. [source]

    Beyond artificial integration: Reimagining cross-racial interactions among undergraduates

    Mitchell J. ChangArticle first published online: 4 DEC 200
    In this chapter, the challenges associated with engaging race and encouraging cross-racial interactions among students are examined. Readers are invited to reimagine the role that higher education and student affairs could play in improving racial dynamics and relations among students. [source]

    Financial control in religious organizations: A status report

    Thomas C. Wooten
    Several recent high profile cases of financial mismanagement in religious organizations have highlighted the need for all religious nonprofit organizations (NPOs) to have strong internal accounting controls. These organizations are often small, rely on a great deal of volunteer support, and as a result may not have the professional oversight to adequately monitor the resources of the organization or the behavior of its leaders. The purpose of this article is to assess the current state of financial control for one segment of religious NPOs, churches, and give some suggestions for improvement. In this study over 530 churches of widely varying sizes responded to an extensive survey about specific internal controls they may or may not have in place. The results are assessed in light of preferred practices. Readers can use this information to strengthen current practices and provide a greater level of assurance that an organization is directing its resources toward its mission. [source]

    Using Cochrane reviews for oral diseases

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 7 2010
    HV Worthington
    Oral Diseases (2010) 16, 592,596 Objectives:, To provide readers with information about the Cochrane Oral Health Group and how the reviews on oral diseases have contributed to guideline developments and the commissioning of trials. Materials and methods:, Examples have been selected from the reviews published on The Cochrane Library. Descriptions are given of how these reviews have been used in guideline development and commissioning of trials. Readers are updated on reviews focused on the management of oral cancer and the new venture of diagnostic test reviews. Results:, Reviews on the management of oral diseases due to cancer treatments have been included in guidelines and changed practice in the UK. Cochrane reviews on Bell's Palsy have led to a randomised controlled trial which has changed the evidence base. The Cochrane review on recall intervals between routine appointments has input into the NICE guideline and resulted in a randomised controlled trial to look at different intervals including a risk-based interval. Conclusion:, We hope this article will give readers information on the work of the Cochrane Oral Health Group and insight into the diversity of reviews in oral diseases. The reviews are successfully being used to change practice and as background for the funding of large-scale clinical trials. [source]

    A Note to our Readers and Authors

    Hank C. Jenkins-Smith Editor
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Elementary, My Dear Readers

    Judith C. Hays
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Z-Score for Benchmarking Reader Competence in a Central ECG Laboratory

    Gopi Krishna Panicker B.H.M.S., P.G.D.C.R.
    Background: ECGs from thorough QT studies must be read in a central laboratory by trained experts. Standards of expertise are not presently defined. We, therefore, studied the use of Z-scores to define reader competence. Methods: Two hundred ECGs were read by 24 experts and the mean and standard deviation (SD) of QT measurements calculated for each ECG. Z-scores ([QTreader, mean QTexperts]/ SDexperts) for each ECG and mean of absolute Z-scores of all ECGs read by a reader were calculated. The highest mean absolute Z-score of experts was considered the cutoff to define competence. Hundred of these standardized ECGs were used to assess performance of readers from the central laboratory. Results: All experts had mean absolute Z-scores , 1.5. Using this cutoff, one of 28 experienced readers and 7 of 15 trainees had unacceptable Z-scores. After re-training, all achieved Z-scores <1.5. Comparing histograms of actual Z-scores of the 100 ECGs of readers with unacceptable scores with that of the reader with the best Z-score showed two patterns. Readers with histograms having a peak and tails similar to that of the best reader, but with leftward or rightward shift, consistently made shorter or longer QT measurements, respectively. A histogram with a flatter peak and wider tails, suggested that measurements were long in some ECGs and short in others. Conclusion: Mean absolute Z-score is useful to assess competence for measuring the QT interval on ECGs. Analysis of histograms can pinpoint problems in QT measurements. [source]

    How Changes in Medical Publishing Are Benefiting Artificial Organs Authors and Readers

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 4 2009
    Alicia Fontaine Editorial Coordinator
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Employee Stock Option Fair-Value Estimates: Do Managerial Discretion and Incentives Explain Accuracy?,

    Leslie Hodder
    Abstract We examine the determinants of managers' use of discretion over employee stock option (ESO) valuation-model inputs that determine ESO fair values. We also explore the consequences of such discretion. Firms exercise considerable discretion over all model inputs, and this discretion results in material differences in ESO fair-value estimates. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that a large proportion of firms exercise value-increasing discretion. Importantly, we find that using discretion improves predictive accuracy for about half of our sample firms. Moreover, we find that both opportunistic and informational managerial incentives together explain the accuracy of firms' ESO fair-value estimates. Partitioning on the direction of discretion improves our understanding of managerial incentives. Our analysis confirms that financial statement readers can use mandated contextual disclosures to construct powerful ex ante predictions of ex post accuracy. [source]

    How Do We Know?: Students Examine Issues of Credibility With a Complicated Multimodal Web-Based Text

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 2 2009
    Mark Baildon
    ABSTRACT As reading continues to become governed by a spatial "logic of the image" rather than strictly a temporal or linear logic of written language (Kress, 2003), and readers increasingly engage with a range of Internet-based texts, a host of challenges ensue for educators and students alike. One of the most vexing of these challenges deals with discernments of credibility. Determining the credibility of multimodal texts, especially on/within the Internet with its "vast network of relations of credibility" (Burbules & Callister, 2000), is particularly challenging because these texts mix images, music, graphic arts, video, and print to make sophisticated claims supported by various forms or types of evidence. This article examines how a group of ninth-grade students grappled with issues of credibility after viewing the controversial Internet video, Loose Change, a well-documented and comprehensive multimedia account that argues the "real story" of September 11 was covered up by the U.S. government. Findings from the study highlight the range of knowledge and literacy practices students mobilized to "read" the video and the challenges they experienced reading and evaluating the video as a multimodal text. Implications of this work point to the need to consider epistemological issues and further develop tools that can support teachers and students in critically assessing multimodal texts. [source]

    The art and science of oral examination

    Rania Agha
    ABSTRACT Performing an accurate oral examination is an integral part of a complete dermatological evaluation. As dermatologists, we are frequently asked to assess and treat numerous oral pathologies, which include, but are not limited to, normal variants, infections, ulcers, granulomas, lymphomas, as well as primary and metastatic tumors of the mouth and lips. The oral mucosa can be the window through which one can see and make numerous systemic diagnoses. Some clinicians are apprehensive about performing this evaluation, or feel that this examination is outside of their realm of expertise. These concerns may reflect limited exposure and education during training. Therefore, this article aimed to educate the readers on how to complete an oral examination, demonstrate normal variants, and highlight potential pitfalls and limitations of performing oral biopsies. [source]

    Cervical cytology reading times: A comparison between thinprep imager and conventional methods

    Elizabeth Davey MBBS
    Abstract We aimed to compare the times cytologists spend reviewing cervical cytology slides processed by the ThinPrep Imager® (TPI) with times they spend examining conventional cytology (CC) slides. We also aimed to examine the effect of cytologists' experience on reading times. Using a cross-sectional analytical design, we analyzed routine laboratory data, collected retrospectively over 7 months, for 41 cytologists, including paired data for 20 who read both TPI and CC slides. For the 20 cytologists who read both types of cytology, the mean reading rate was 13.3 slides per hour for TPI slides and 6.1 slides per hour for CC slides. The mean within-reader difference between TPI and CC rates was 7.2 slides per hour (P < 0.001). For CC reading, mean times did not differ between those who were additionally trained to read TPI slides and those who only read CC. Slower readers had greater increases in speed when using the TPI compared with CC reading than did faster readers (P < 0.001). More experienced cytologists tended to read CC slides more quickly than did those less experienced, but experience did not affect TPI reading times or within-reader differences in reading times between cytology types. The TPI significantly reduced reading times compared with CC. This reduction was greater amongst slower readers, and was unrelated to experience. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2007;35:550,554. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Newspaper coverage of drug policy: an analysis of pre-election reporting of the Greens' drug policy in Australia

    Abstract Introduction and Aims. With the headline ,Ecstasy Over The Counter' in a popular daily newspaper, the debate on drug policy officially entered the arena of the 2003 New South Wales (Australia) State Election. The debate resurfaced in the lead-up to the 2004 Australian Federal Election. This paper analyses the pre-election coverage of drug policy issues in four Australian newspapers. Design and Methods. Four high-circulation daily newspapers were monitored for a one-month period prior to both elections and analysed for their coverage of drug policy, particularly with respect to the policy of the Greens. Results. The newspapers took different perspectives on drug policy issues, with two framing it in emotive terms as a moral debate and two framing it as political manoeuvring. Discussion and Conclusion. The newspapers focused upon emotive and sensationalist factors. They did not provide their readers with information or a rationale for the formulation of drug policy, be this from a harm minimisation or zero tolerance perspective. [source]

    Developmental dyslexia and explicit long-term memory

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 3 2010
    Deny Menghini
    Abstract The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved visual-object and visual-spatial domain. A further goal of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of non-verbal long-term memory abilities with respect to word and non-word reading in dyslexic children. In accordance with these aims, performances of 60 dyslexic children were compared with that of 65 age-matched normal readers on verbal, visual-spatial and visual-object task. Results documented a generalized impairment of episodic long-term memory capacities in dyslexic children and the results did not vary as a function of children's age. Furthermore, in addition to verbal measures, also individual differences in non-verbal long-term memory tasks turn out to be good predictors of reading difficulties in dyslexics. Our findings indicate that the long-term memory deficit in dyslexia is not limited to the dysfunction of phonological components but also involves visual-object and visual-spatial aspect, thus suggesting that dyslexia is associated to multiple cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]