Rating Scale (rating + scale)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Rating Scale

  • Matti dementia rating scale
  • als functional rating scale
  • anxiety rating scale
  • asberg depression rating scale
  • ataxia rating scale
  • behavior rating scale
  • brief psychiatric rating scale
  • clinical dementia rating scale
  • clinical rating scale
  • dementia rating scale
  • depression rating scale
  • disease rating scale
  • effect rating scale
  • functional rating scale
  • global rating scale
  • hamilton anxiety rating scale
  • hamilton depression rating scale
  • hamilton rating scale
  • item hamilton depression rating scale
  • item hamilton rating scale
  • mania rating scale
  • montgomery asberg depression rating scale
  • numeric rating scale
  • numerical rating scale
  • pain rating scale
  • parkinson's disease rating scale
  • psychiatric rating scale
  • side effect rating scale
  • symptom rating scale
  • unified parkinson's disease rating scale
  • verbal rating scale
  • young mania rating scale

  • Terms modified by Rating Scale

  • rating scale motor score
  • rating scale score

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT This study evaluated sensory texture profile analysis (STPA) as an objective method for characterizing the texture attributes of "pounded yam," a popular dish in West Africa made by peeling yam, boiling, pounding and kneading it into a glutinous dough. Panelists were carefully selected and trained to assess the texture attributes of pounded yam. Standard rating scales were developed from local foods that are common in Nigeria, and the foods were used as descriptors to exemplify the texture attributes being assessed. Reproducible and consistent results were obtained. It is thus concluded that STPA can be used as an objective method for evaluating the texture attributes of pounded yam. [source]

    Diagnostic utility of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C16 and QIDS-SR16) in the elderly

    P. M. Doraiswamy
    Doraiswamy PM, Bernstein IH, Rush AJ, Kyutoku Y, Carmody TJ, Macleod L, Venkatraman S, Burks M, Stegman D, Witte B, Trivedi MH. Diagnostic utility of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C16 and QIDS-SR16) in the elderly. Objective:, To evaluate psychometric properties and comparability ability of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) vs. the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology,Clinician-rated (QIDS-C16) and Self-report (QIDS-SR16) scales to detect a current major depressive episode in the elderly. Method:, Community and clinic subjects (age ,60 years) were administered the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for DSM-IV and three depression scales randomly. Statistics included classical test and Samejima item response theories, factor analyzes, and receiver operating characteristic methods. Results:, In 229 elderly patients (mean age = 73 years, 39% male, 54% current depression), all three scales were unidimensional and with nearly equal Cronbach , reliability (0.85,0.89). Each scale discriminated persons with major depression from the non-depressed, but the QIDS-C16 was slightly more accurate. Conclusion:, All three tests are valid for detecting geriatric major depression with the QIDS-C16 being slightly better. Self-rated QIDS-SR16 is recommended as a screening tool as it is least expensive and least time consuming. [source]

    Effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as an adjuvant to pharmacotherapy in patients with panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder

    Yong Woo Kim M.D.
    Abstract Background: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been widely used to treat patients with depressive disorder to prevent relapse. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of newly developed MBCT program as an adjuvant to pharmacotherapy in the treatment of patients with panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder. Methods: Forty-six patients with panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder were assigned to either MBCT or an anxiety disorder education (ADE) program for a period of 8 weeks. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were used to assess the patients at 0 week and after the two programs had been running for 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Results: The MBCT group demonstrated significantly more improvement than the ADE group according to all anxiety (HAM-A, p<0.01; BAI, p<0.01; anxiety subscale of SCL-90-R, p=0.01) and depression (HAM-D, p<0.01; BDI, p<0.01; depression subscale of SCL-90-R, p<0.01) scale scores. The obsessive-compulsive and phobic subscales of the SCL-90-R also showed significantly more improvement in the MBCT group. However, no significant improvement was observed in the MBCT group versus the ADE group in terms of the somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation, or psychoticism subscale scores of the SCL-90-R. Conclusions: MBCT may be effective at relieving anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder. However, well-designed, randomized controlled trials are needed. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Validation of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale by comparison with the Short Form 36 scale among psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder

    Ching-I Hung M.D.
    Abstract Background: The Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS) is a self-administered scale developed for monitoring both depression and somatic symptoms. The aims of this study were to establish the criterion-related validity of the DSSS by testing the correlation between the DSSS and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale and to compare the ability of the DSSS and two other scales in predicting the outcome of the SF-36. Methods: The study enrolled 135 outpatients with a major depressive episode, 95 of whom received treatment for 1 month. Four scales were administered and evaluated: the DSSS, the SF-36, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Pearson correlation was used to test correlations among scales. Multiple linear regressions were used to find the scales most effective in predicting the SF-36. Results: The three scales were significantly correlated with most of the SF-36 subscales. The depression and somatic subscales of the DSSS significantly correlated with the mental and physical subscales of the SF-36, respectively. The DSSS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were better able to predict physical and mental subscales of the SF-36, respectively. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale had a good ability to predict functional impairment. Conclusions: Psychometric scales with appropriate somatic symptoms might be more compatible with both physical and mental dimensions of the SF-36. DSSS proved to be a valid scale for monitoring both depression and somatic symptoms in patients with depression. Future studies should test whether the DSSS is better at predicting the treatment and prognosis of depression than conventional scales for depression. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Atomoxetine treatment in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid social anxiety disorder

    Lenard A. Adler M.D.
    Abstract Background: To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine (ATX) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid social anxiety disorder in adults. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, conducted in adults with ADHD and social anxiety disorder. Patients received 40,100,mg ATX (n=224) or placebo (n=218) for 14 weeks following a 2-week placebo lead-in period. Efficacy measures included the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale: Investigator-Rated: Screening Version (CAARS:Inv:SV), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Clinical Global Impression-Overall-Severity (CGI-O-S), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report (SAS), and Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale-29 (AAQoL). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results: ATX mean change (,8.7±10.0) from baseline (29.6±10.4) on CAARS:Inv:SV Total ADHD Symptoms score was significantly greater than placebo mean change (,5.6±10.2) from baseline (31.2±9.4; P<.001). ATX mean change (,22.9±25.3) from baseline (85.3±23.6) on LSAS Total score was significant compared to placebo mean change (,14.4±20.3) from baseline (82.1±21.3; P<.001). The visit-wise analysis revealed greater improvement on the CAARS:Inv:SV Total ADHD Symptoms score and LSAS Total score for ATX at every time point throughout the study (P values ,.012). Mean changes in CGI-O-S, STAI-Trait Anxiety scores, and AAQoL Total score were significantly greater for ATX compared to placebo. Mean change for both groups on STAI-State Anxiety scores was comparable. Improvement on SAS for ATX compared to placebo was not significant. Rates of insomnia, nausea, dry mouth, and dizziness were higher with ATX than with placebo. Discontinuation rates due to treatment-emergent adverse events were similar between groups. Conclusions: ATX monotherapy effectively improved symptoms of ADHD and comorbid social anxiety disorder in adults and was well tolerated. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Non-remission of depression in the general population as assessed by the HAMD-7 scale

    Andrew G. Bulloch Ph.D.
    Abstract Remission from the symptoms of depression is the optimal outcome for depression treatment. Many studies have assessed the frequency of treatment, but there are none that have estimated the frequency of treated remission in the general population. We addressed this issue in the population of Alberta using a brief Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)-7 scale (recently validated against the HAMD-17 scale in a clinical setting) that has been proposed as a suitable indicator for remission in primary care. We used data from a survey conducted within the Alberta Depression Initiative in 2005 (n=3,345 adults), to produce a population-based estimate of the number of respondents taking antidepressant medication for depression. From this group we selected a subpopulation that did not screen positive when the MINI module for major depression was administered (i.e., who did not have an active episode). Non-remission in this subpopulation was assessed with a version of the HAMD-7 scale adapted for telephone administration by a nonclinician. Of the survey respondents, 189 reported taking antidepressant medication for depression. Of these, 115 were found not to have an active episode. However, 49.0% of this subpopulation was not in remission as evaluated by the HAMD-7. We estimate that 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.9,2.0%) of the population is in treated non-remission for depression. Our study indicates a substantial degree of non-remission from depression in individuals taking antidepressants in the general population. This suggests that, in addition to increasing the frequency of treatment, increasing the effectiveness of treatment can have an impact on population health. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,5, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The effect of depression on quality of life of patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    brahim Eren M.D.
    Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a frequently encountered metabolic disease with chronic features and involves numerous complications throughout its course, which causes severe restriction and disability in an individual's life. It has been reported that the incidence of depression is higher in diabetic patients and that diabetes is one of the risk factors in the development of depression. It has also been reported that co-morbid psychiatric disorders cause further deterioration in the quality of life in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of depression on the quality of life in type II DM patients. Sixty patients (30 females and 30 males) with current major depressive episode diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, and 48 type II DM patients (30 females and 18 males) without a major depressive episode (non-depressed group) were included in the study. All patients were evaluated with a semi-structured interview form to assess the clinical features of DM, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), and the Turkish version of The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF). The HRSD and HRSA scores in the depressed group were 24.87±4.83 and 21.07±5.44, respectively, whereas those in the non-depressed group were 7.83±3.92 and 6.88±3.43, respectively. The physical health, psychological health, social relationship, environmental and social pressure domain, general health-related quality of life, overall quality of life, and WHOQOL-BREF total scores were found significantly lower in the depressed group than the non-depressed group. There were significant negative correlations between HRSD and HRSA scores and physical health, psychological health, social relationship, environmental and social pressure domain, general health-related quality of life, overall quality of life, and WHOQOL-BREF total scores. Furthermore, there were significant negative correlations between the HbA1c level and physical health, social relationship, environmental domain, social pressure domain, general health-related quality of life, overall quality of life, and WHOQOL-BREF total scores. However, there was a significant positive correlation between the level of education and physical health, psychological health, social relationship, environmental social pressure domain, overall quality of life, and WHOQOL-BREF total scores. There were significant negative correlations between social relationship domain score, and age and duration of illness. Our study demonstrates that the presence of depression in type II DM further deteriorates the quality of life of the patients. Since treating depression would have a beneficial effect on the quality of life, clinicians should carefully assess for depression associated with type II DM. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,9, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Patients with a major depressive episode responding to treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are resistant to the effects of rapid tryptophan depletion

    John P. O'Reardon M.D.
    Abstract Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be efficacious in the treatment of major depression based on the results of controlled studies, but little is known about its antidepressant mechanism of action. Mood sensitivity following rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) has been demonstrated in depressed patients responding to SSRI antidepressants and phototherapy, but not in responders to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We sought to study the effects of RTD in patients with major depression responding to a course of treatment with rTMS. Twelve subjects treated successfully with rTMS monotherapy underwent both RTD and sham depletion in a double-blind crossover design. Depressive symptoms were assessed using both a modified Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The differential change in depression scores across the procedures was compared. No significant difference in mood symptoms was noted between RTD and the sham-depletion procedure on either continuous measures of depression, or in the proportions of subjects that met predefined criteria for a significant degree of mood worsening. Responders to rTMS are resistant to the mood perturbing effects of RTD. This suggests that rTMS does not depend on the central availability of serotonin to exert antidepressant effects in major depression. Depression Anxiety 24:537,544, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Demographic and clinical characteristics of motor vehicle accident victims in the community general health outpatient clinic: a comparison of PTSD and non-PTSD subjects

    Marina Kupchik M.D.
    Abstract Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are the leading cause of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the general population, often with enduring symptomatology. This study details epidemiological and clinical features that characterize PTSD among MVA victims living in a nonhospitalized community setting long after the MVA event, and includes exploration of premorbid and peritraumatic factors. MVA victims (n=60; 23 males, 37 females) identified from the registry of a community general health outpatient clinic during a 7-year period were administered an extensive structured battery of epidemiological, diagnostic and clinical ratings. Results indicated that 30 subjects (50%; 12 males, 18 females) had MVA-related PTSD (MVAR-PTSD). Among those with PTSD, 16 individuals exhibited PTSD in partial remission, and six, in full remission. There were no significant demographic or occupational function differences between PTSD and non-PTSD groups. The most common comorbid conditions with MVAR-PTSD were social phobia (20%), generalized anxiety disorder (7.8%) and obsessive,compulsive disorder (0.5%). Previous MVA's were not predictive of PTSD. Subjects with MVAR-PTSD scored worse on the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale, Part 2 (CAPS-2), Impact of Event Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Impulsivity Scale, and Toronto Alexithymia Rating Scale. Study observations indicate a relatively high rate of PTSD following an MVA in a community-based sample. The relatively high rate of partially remitted MVAR-PTSD (N=16) underscores the importance of subsyndromal forms of illness. Alexithymia may be an adaptive method of coping with event stress. The development of PTSD appears not to be associated with the severity of MVA-related physical injury. Depression and Anxiety 24:244,250, 2007. © 2006 Wiley,Liss, Inc. [source]

    An open-label trial of enhanced brief interpersonal psychotherapy in depressed mothers whose children are receiving psychiatric treatment,,

    Holly A. Swartz M.D.
    Abstract Major depression affects one out of five women during her lifetime. Depressed mothers with psychiatrically ill children represent an especially vulnerable population. Challenged by the demands of caring for ill children, these mothers often put their own needs last; consequently, their depressions remain untreated. This population is especially difficult to engage in treatment. We have developed a nine-session intervention, an engagement session followed by eight sessions of brief interpersonal psychotherapy designed to increase maternal participation in their own psychotherapy, resolve symptoms of maternal depression, and enhance relationships (IPT-MOMS). This open-label trial assesses the feasibility and acceptability of providing this treatment to depressed mothers. Thirteen mothers meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from a pediatric mental health clinic where their school-age children were receiving psychiatric treatment. Subjects (mothers) were treated openly with IPT-MOMS. Eighty-five percent (11/13) completed the study. Subjects were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and completed self-report measures of quality of life and functioning at three time points: baseline, after treatment completion, and 6-months posttreatment. A signed rank test was used to compare measurement changes between assessment time points. Subjects showed significant improvement from baseline to posttreatment on measures of maternal symptoms and functioning. These gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Therapy was well tolerated and accepted by depressed mothers, who are typically difficult to engage in treatment. A high proportion of subjects completed treatment and experienced improvements in functioning. Future randomized clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this approach. Depression and Anxiety 23:398,404, 2006. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Does elimination of placebo responders in a placebo run-in increase the treatment effect in randomized clinical trials?

    A meta-analytic evaluation
    Abstract The use of a placebo run-in phase, in which placebo responders are withdrawn from a study before random assignment to treatment condition, has been criticized as favoring the active treatment in clinical trials. We compared the effect size of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (in the treatment of depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]) that include a placebo run-in phase with those that do not, using a meta-analytic approach. This study differed from earlier meta-analytic studies in that it considered only SSRIs and included only studies using continuous measures of depression, allowing for a more refined assessment of effect size. An extensive literature search identified 43 datasets published between 1980 and 2000 comparing placebo with SSRI and using a continuous measure of depression (usually the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). We included only studies of at least 6 weeks' duration focusing on treatment for primary acute major depression in adults 18,65 years of age. Studies focusing on depression in specific medical illnesses were not included. Analysis of efficacy was based on 3,047 subjects treated with an SSRI antidepressant and 3,740 subjects treated with a placebo. There was no statistically significant difference in effect size between the clinical trials that had a placebo run-in phase followed by withdrawal of placebo responders and those trials that did not. Despite the lack of a statistically significant difference between studies of withdrawing early placebo responders and those not using this procedure, this approach is likely to continue to be used widely because it produces large absolute effect sizes. It is recommended that future studies clearly describe these procedures and report the number of subjects dropped from the study for early placebo response and other reasons. Depression and Anxiety 19:10,19, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine in nursing home residents with non-major depression

    Adam B. Burrows M.D.
    Abstract Depression is common across a broad spectrum of severity among nursing home residents. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of antidepressants in nursing home residents with major depression, but it is not known whether antidepressants are helpful in residents with less severe forms of depression. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 8-week trial comparing paroxetine and placebo in very old nursing home residents with non-major depression. The main outcome measure was the primary nurse's Clinical Impression of Change (CGI-C). Additional outcome measures were improvement on the interview-derived Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Cornell Scale for Depression (CS) scores. Twenty-four subjects with a mean age of 87.9 were enrolled and twenty subjects completed the trial. Placebo response was high, and when all subjects were considered, there were no differences in improvement between the paroxetine and placebo groups. Two subjects that received paroxetine developed delirium, and subjects that received paroxetine were more likely to experience a decrease in Mini Mental State Exam scores (P = .03). There were no differences in serum anticholinergic activity between groups. In a subgroup analysis of 15 subjects with higher baseline HDRS and CS scores, there was a trend toward greater improvement in the paroxetine group in an outcome measure that combined the CGI-C and interview-based measures (P = .06). Paroxetine is not clearly superior to placebo in this small study of very old nursing home residents with non-major depression, and there is a risk of adverse cognitive effects. Because of the high placebo response and the trend towards improvement in the more severely ill patients, it is possible that a larger study would have demonstrated a significant therapeutic effect for paroxetine as compared with placebo. The study also illustrates the discordance between patient and caregiver ratings, and the difficulties in studying very elderly patients with mood disorders. Depression and Anxiety 15:102,110, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The prognosis and incidence of social phobia in an elderly population.

    A 5-year follow-up
    Karlsson B, Sigström R, Waern M, Östling S, Gustafson D, Skoog I. The prognosis and incidence of social phobia in an elderly population. A 5-year follow-up. Objective:, To examine the prognosis and incidence of social fears and phobia in an elderly population sample followed for 5 years. Method:, A general population sample (N = 612) of non-demented men (baseline age 70) and women (baseline age 70 and 78,86) was investigated in 2000,2001 and in 2005,2006 with semi-structured psychiatric examinations including the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Social phobia was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results:, Among nine individuals with DSM-IV social phobia in 2000, 5 (55.6%) had no social fears in 2005, and 1 (11.1%) still met the criteria for DSM-IV social phobia. Among individuals without DSM-IV social phobia in 2000 (N = 603), 12 (2.0%) had DSM-IV social phobia in 2005. Conclusion:, These findings challenge the notion that social phobia is a chronic disorder with rare occurrence in old age. [source]

    Reliability and validity of a structured interview guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (SIGH-A)

    M. Katherine Shear M.D.
    Abstract The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, a widely used clinical interview assessment tool, lacks instructions for administration and clear anchor points for the assignment of severity ratings. We developed a Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (SIGH-A) and report on a study comparing this version to the traditional form of this scale. Experienced interviewers from three Anxiety Disorders research sites conducted videotaped interviews using both traditional and structured instruments in 89 participants. A subset of the tapes was co-rated by all raters. Participants completed self-report symptom questionnaires. We observed high inter-rater and test-retest reliability using both formats. The structured format produced similar but consistently higher (+ 4.2) scores. Correlation with a self-report measure of overall anxiety was also high and virtually identical for the two versions. We conclude that in settings where extensive training is not practical, the structured scale is an acceptable alternative to the traditional Hamilton Anxiety instrument. Depression and Anxiety 13:166,178, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Outcome of suicidal patients with schizophrenia: results from a naturalistic study

    R. Schennach-Wolff
    Schennach-Wolff R, Jäger M, Seemüller F, Obermeier M, Schmauss M, Laux G, Pfeiffer H, Naber D, Schmidt LG, Gaebel W, Klosterkötter J, Heuser I, Maier W, Lemke MR, Rüther E, Klingberg S, Gastpar M, Möller H-J, Riedel M. Outcome of suicidal patients with schizophrenia: results from a naturalistic study. Objective:, Purpose was to assess suicidality before and at the time of admission in patients with schizophrenia and compare outcome differences. Method:, Biweekly PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), HAMD (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and UKU (Udvalg for Klinske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale) ratings were evaluated in 339 in-patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders. Response was defined as an initial 20% PANSS total score reduction at discharge, remission was defined according to the proposed consensus criteria by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group. Results:, Suicidal patients (22%) scored significantly higher on the PANSS negative subscore, PANSS insight item and HAMD total score at admission and at discharge. They developed significantly more side effects. No differences were found concerning response and remission between the two patient subgroups. Conclusion:, Despite receiving significantly more antidepressants the suicidal patients suffered from significantly more depressive symptoms up to discharge, yet without differing regarding response and remission. [source]

    Serum adiponectin and resistin levels in major depressive disorder

    S. M. Lehto
    Lehto SM, Huotari A, Niskanen L, Tolmunen T, Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Honkalampi K, Ruotsalainen H, Herzig K-H, Viinamäki H, Hintikka J. Serum adiponectin and resistin levels in major depressive disorder. Objective:, To examine the role of the adipose-tissue-derived low-grade inflammation markers adiponectin and resistin in major depressive disorder (MDD) in a population-based sample. Method:, Serum levels of adiponectin and resistin were measured from 70 DSM-IV MDD subjects and 70 healthy controls. Depression severity was assessed with the 29-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results:, The MDD group had lowered serum adiponectin levels. Regression modelling with adjustments for age, gender, overweight, several socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome showed that each 5.0 ,g/ml decrease in serum adiponectin increased the likelihood of MDD by approximately 20% (P = 0.01). The resistin levels correlated with atypical (P = 0.02), but not with typical depressive symptoms (P = 0.12). Conclusion:, Our findings suggest that the lowered adiponectin levels in MDD are depression-specific and not explained by conventional low adiponectin-related factors such as such as coronary heart disease and metabolic disorders. [source]

    Folic acid efficacy as an alternative drug added to sodium valproate in the treatment of acute phase of mania in bipolar disorder: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    A. H. Behzadi
    Objective:, The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding folic acid to sodium valproate in the acute phase of mania. Method:, Following a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 88 clinically manic patients with diagnosis of type I bipolar disorder (BID) were divided randomly into two groups (case and control). The case group was treated with folic acid and sodium valproate and the control group with sodium valproate and placebo. The severity of mania was assessed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at the beginning and end of the first, second and third weeks of the study. Results:, The case group's mean manic YMRS measurements (SD) before the initiation of therapy and in the first, second and third weeks of treatment were 34.0 ± 7.7, 26.7 ± 2.1, 18.1 ± 2.1 and 7.1 ± 0.9 respectively. The control group's measurements were 34.7 ± 3.8, 27.3 ± 2.3, 20.7 ± 2.5 and 10.1 ± 1.1. There was a statistically significant difference in YMRS scaling results between the case and control groups after 3 weeks of treatment (7.1 ± 0.9 vs. 10.1 ± 1.1, P = 0.005). Conclusion:, Based on our findings, folic acid seems to be an effective adjuvant to sodium valproate in the treatment of the acute phase of mania in patients with bipolar disorder. [source]

    Subjective quality of life aspects predict depressive symptoms over time: results from a three-wave longitudinal study

    C. Kuehner
    Objective:, Little is known about predictive effects of quality of life aspects on the course of depressive symptoms in clinical and non-clinical settings. This study examines longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and subjective quality of life (QOL) dimensions using a parallel sample of depressed patients and community controls. Method:, Eighty-two depressed patients were investigated 1, 6, and 42 months after hospital discharge together with 76 community controls regarding depressive symptoms measured by Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and QOL (WHOQOL-BREF). Data analysis included time-lagged linear models. Results:, Physical, psychological, environmental and overall QOL, controlled for depressive symptoms, predicted future depression levels. Group status did not moderate these associations. Depressive symptoms predicted future QOL levels only regarding social relations. Conclusion:, Our study suggests that subjective QOL domains have prognostic value for the course of depressive symptoms over time, both in patient and community samples. Respective self-perceptions should therefore be directly addressed by therapeutic and preventive interventions. [source]

    Severity of personality disorders and suicide attempt

    H. Blasco-Fontecilla
    Objective:, Severity of personality disorders (PDs) may be more useful in estimating suicide risk than the diagnosis of specific PDs. We hypothesized that suicide attempters with severe PD would present more attempts and attempts of greater severity/lethality. Method:, Four hundred and forty-six suicide attempters were assessed. PD diagnosis was made using the International Personality Disorder Questionnaire , Screening Questionnaire. PDs were classified using Tyrer and Johnson's classification of severity (no PD, simple PD, diffuse PD). Severity/lethality of attempts was measured with the Suicide Intent Scale, Risk-Rescue Rating Scale and Lethality Rating Scale. Results:, Attempters with severe (diffuse) PD had more attempts than the other groups. After controlling for age and gender, this difference remained significant only for the younger age group and women. There was no relationship between severity of PDs and severity/lethality of attempts. Conclusion:, Younger female attempters with severe PD are prone to repeated attempts. However, the severity of PD was not related to the severity/lethality of suicide attempts. [source]

    Definitions of response and remission in schizophrenia: recommendations for their use and their presentation

    S. Leucht
    Objective:, To review and make recommendations for the definition and presentation of the terms ,response' and ,remission' in schizophrenia. Method:, Selective review of publications on definitions of response and remission in schizophrenia. Results:, When the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) are used for definitions of response, a cut-off of at least 50% reduction of the baseline score should be used for acutely ill, non-refractory patients and a cut-off of at least 25% reduction for refractory patients. When percentage BPRS/PANSS reduction is calculated, the 18/30 points minimum scores meaning ,no symptoms' on the should be subtracted. In addition, responder rates from 0,100% could be presented in a table in steps of 25%. For large and simple practical trials, the Clinical Global Impression scale with suggested improvements could be used 1-7 scale. Conclusion:, To show how many patients are still symptomatic at the end of study and to show the overall amount of change in both remission and responder criteria should be presented. [source]

    Pervasive developmental disorders in individuals with cerebral palsy

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), including autistic disorder and PDD not otherwise specified (NOS), in a clinical sample of 126 children and adolescents (75 males, 51 females; age range 4,18y, mean 8y 8mo, SD 3y 8mo) with tetraplegic, hemiplegic, diplegic, dyskinetic, or mixed types of cerebral palsy (CP); 28% could not crawl or walk even with support, 29% could move with support, and 43% walked independently. Participants were examined for PDD in two stages. In the first stage, probable participants were determined by direct observation, Autism Behavior Checklist score, and medical reports. In the second stage, those with ,probable' symptoms underwent psychiatric examination and their autistic symptoms were scored on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. The final diagnosis of autistic disorder or PDD-NOS was given according to DSM-IV criteria. Fourteen (11%) and five (4%) of the participants met the criteria for autistic disorder and PDD-NOS respectively. Children with CP and PDD differed from those without PDD in terms of type of CP (p=0.02), presence of epilepsy (p<0.001), intellectual level (p<0.001), and level of speech (p<0.001). PDD was more common in children with tetraplegic, mixed, and hemiplegic CP, and in children with epilepsy, learning disability,, and low level of speech. The findings corroborate the notion that CP is a complex disorder, often associated with additional impairments. PDD is not rare in CP and should be considered in patients with comorbid conditions such as epilepsy, learning disability, and language delay and in the presence of tetraplegic, mixed, and hemiplegic CP types. [source]

    Quantification of upper extremity function and range of motion in children with cerebral palsy

    L Andrew Koman MD
    This study evaluated the hypothesis that upper extremity function and range of motion can be quantified reliably in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in a busy clinical setting. The specific aim was to determine the inter- and intrarater reliability of a modified House Functional Classification (MHC) system to evaluate upper extremity function and a standardized instrument to document upper extremity range of motion (Upper Extremity Rating Scale [UERS]). Sixty-five children with CP (43 males, 22 females, mean age 9y 2mo, SD 4y 1mo) with spasticity involving the upper extremity (quadriplegia n=22; hemiplegia n=36; diplegia n=7; Gross Motor Functional Classification System Levels I n=41, II n=6, III n=3, IV n=5, V n=10) were evaluated independently by occupational therapists and orthopedic surgeons using both instruments at several visits. Inter- and intrarater reliability were determined for both instruments by calculating measures of agreement (weighted kappa values and intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs]). Interrater agreement (ICC=0.94) and intrarater agreement (ICC=0.96) on the MHC were good to excellent. Similarly, inter-rater agreement (kappa 0.66,0.81) and intrarater agreement (kappa 0.64,0.88) on the UERS was either good or excellent. The MHC and the UERS provide standardized, reliable, reproducible, and efficient instruments that can be used by occupational therapists and orthopedic surgeons to evaluate the upper extremities of children with CP. [source]

    Reliability and validity of the Observational Gait Scale in children with spastic diplegia

    Anna H Mackey MS PT
    The aim of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of visual gait assessment in children with spastic diplegia, who were community or household ambulators, using a modified version of the Physicians Rating Scale, known as the Observational Gait Scale (OGS). Two clinicians viewed edited split-screen video recordings of 20 children/adolescents (11 males, 9 females; mean age 12 years, range 6 to 21 years) made at the time of three-dimensional gait analysis (3-DGA). Walking ability in each child was scored at initial assessment and reassessed from the same videos three months later using the first seven sections of the OGS. Validity of the OGS score was determined by comparison with 3-DGA. The OGS was found to have acceptable interrater and intrarater reliability for knee and foot position in mid-stance, initial foot contact, and heel rise with weighted kappas (wk) ranging from 0.53 to 0.91 (intrarater) and 0.43 to 0.86 (interrater). Comparison with 3-DGA suggests that these sections might also have high validity(wk range 0.38,0.94). Base of support and hind foot position had lower interrater and intrarater reliabilities (wk 0.29 to 0.71 and wk 0.30 to 0.78 respectively) and were not easily validated by 3-DGA. [source]

    Neuropsychological effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in cerebral palsy

    Paule Hardy
    We conducted a double-blind placebo study to investigate the claim that hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO2) improves the cognitive status of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Of 111 children diagnosed with CP (aged 4 to 12 years), only 75 were suitable for neuropsychological testing, assessing attention, working memory, processing speed, and psychosocial functioning. The children received 40 sessions of HBO2 or sham treatment over a 2-month period. Children in the active treatment group were exposed for 1 hour to 100% oxygen at 1.75 atmospheres absolute (ATA), whereas those in the sham group received only air at 1.3 ATA. Children in both groups showed better self-control and significant improvements in auditory attention and visual working memory compared with the baseline. However, no statistical difference was found between the two treatments. Furthermore, the sham group improved significantly on eight dimensions of the Conners'Parent Rating Scale, whereas the active treatment group improved only on one dimension. Most of these positive changes persisted for 3 months. No improvements were observed in either group for verbal span, visual attention, or processing speed. [source]

    Effectiveness and tolerability of risperidone in Asian patients with first-episode psychosis

    S. Verma
    Objectives, To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of risperidone in Asian patients with first-episode psychosis and to examine correlates of response in a naturalistic study. Method, Patients with first-episode psychosis were evaluated at baseline and weekly for 6 weeks with the Positive and Negative Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS), Simpson,Angus Rating Scale (SARS), Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS), Rating Scale for Side-effects (RSSE), and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Results, 42 patients with a mean age of 24.85 ± 9.68 years and mean duration of untreated illness of 11.91 ± 22.04 months were recruited. The mean dose of risperidone was 1.82 ± 0.77 mg. The mean reduction in PANSS score was from 67.97 ± 20.02 at baseline to 42.53 ± 14.08 at week 6 (P < 0.005). The incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms was 9.5% and akathisia was 7.1%. 45.2% of patients showed more than or equal 40% reduction in the PANSS score (responders). When responders were compared to nonresponders, the responders had a significantly higher total and positive PANSS score at baseline. Conclusion, Risperidone is an effective and safe antipsychotic in first-episode psychosis. [source]

    Psychopathology in treated Wilson's disease determined by means of CPRS expert and self-ratings

    K. Portala
    Objective: To examine the occurrence and severity of psychopathological symptoms in patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and to evaluate the clinical utility of a self-assessment. Method: Twenty-six consecutive patients with confirmed WD were investigated using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) and the CPRS Self-rating Scale. Results: The total CPRS scores ranged from 2.5 to 59.0 (mean 29.4±15.5). Most common symptoms were: autonomic disturbances, observed muscular tension, fatiguability, reduced sexual interest, lack of appropriate emotion, concentration difficulties, reduced sleep, aches and pains, hostile feelings, apparent sadness and failing memory. Agreement between interview-based ratings and self-ratings was low. Conclusion: The patients with treated WD have prominent psychopathology in the same range as in patients with moderate to severe depressive disorders. A specific symptom profile has been identified. If confirmed, the identification of the typical symptom profile might be of great importance. The patients with WD tend to underestimate the presence of psychopathological symptoms. [source]

    Association between oestradiol and puerperal psychosis

    A. Riecher-Rössler
    Objective: Postpartum psychiatric disorders with long-lasting adverse sequelae are common during the childbearing years. These disorders can be severe and resistant to conventional psychiatric treatment methods. We present two consecutive cases with puerperal psychosis who were refractory to conventional treatment methods but responded successfully to oestrogen therapy. Method: Serum oestradiol concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay and the documented oestradiol deficiency replaced with physiological oestradiol sublingually. The treatment effect was evaluated by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Results: In both cases the baseline oestradiol concentration was low (28 and 69 pmol/L). During the treatment with oestradiol, there was a concomitant elevation of the concentration of serum oestradiol, which coincided with the decline in psychotic symptoms. Conclusion: The observation of low serum oestradiol together with psychotic symptoms and successful treatment with oestradiol suggests that oestradiol may have a causal relevance to puerperal psychosis and significance in the treatment of this condition. [source]

    Amisulpride: a review of its efficacyin schizophrenia

    H. J. Möller
    Objective: To assess the efficacy of the new atypical antipsychotic drug, amisulpride. Method: Studies comparing the efficacy of amisulpride with that of haloperidol and risperidone, respectively, are reviewed. Outcome measures were Clinical Global Impression, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and Positive And Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores. Results: Amisulpride was at least as effective as haloperidol and risperidone in the improvement of positive symptoms, and significantly more efficacious than haloperidol in reducing PANSS negative subscores (P=0.038) in patients with acute exacerbations. Amisulpride demonstrated a greater improvement in BPRS total scores (P<0.05) and PANSS negative subscores (P=0.0001) than haloperidol after 12 months of treatment in chronic schizophrenic patients with acute exacerbations. Conclusion: Amisulpride can thus be considered for use as first-line treatment of acute and chronic schizophrenia. [source]

    Early intervention with second-generation antipsychotics in first-episode psychosis: results of an 8-week naturalistic study

    Richard C. Josiassen
    Abstract Objective: The objective was to compare short-term effectiveness of aripiprazole with three other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the treatment of first-episode psychosis. Method: In a naturalistic, ,single-blind' design, 60 subjects experiencing their first psychotic episode were treated for 8 weeks with aripiprazole (n = 19), risperidone (n = 16), olanzapine (n = 14) or quetiapine (n = 11). Medication and dosing decisions were made by treating psychiatrists, constrained to once-a-day dosing, low initial doses and no clozapine. Weekly ratings were obtained using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Simpson-Angus Rating Scale and Barnes Akathasia Rating Scale. Weight and vital signs were also collected weekly. Results: The group presented with severe psychotic symptoms (mean baseline PANSS total score of 105.2), which were reduced rapidly (P < 0.0005). The between-group and group by time interaction terms were non-significant. Similar reductions were seen across all PANSS sub-scales. At Week 1 the mean PANSS Activation Scale score was reduced more with olanzapine than in the other groups (P < 0.002). Few instances of extrapyramidal symptoms occurred; all were sporadic and did not require treatment. Group body weight increased by 7.3% over the study. Vital signs remained unchanged. Conclusions: Early intervention with low doses of four SGAs led to rapid symptom reduction in first-episode psychotic patients with severe psychopathology. Although no clear medication advantages were observed in the short term, longer duration studies with larger samples will be required for determining efficacy, rates of compliance, relapse prevention and diminished incidence of extrapyramidal signs and symptoms. [source]

    Anxiety and depression among abstainers and low-level alcohol consumers.

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2009
    The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study
    ABSTRACT Aims The aim of this study was to examine the levels of anxiety and depression among individuals consuming low levels of alcohol. Design Prospective and cross-sectional population-based study. Setting and participants This study employed data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT-2, n = 38 930). Measurements Alcohol consumption was measured by self-report of usual alcohol consumption during a 2-week period. Low-level alcohol consumption was defined as self-reported abstainers and non-abstainers currently consuming no alcohol. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Rating Scale. Potential explanatory variables included somatic illness and symptoms, health-related behaviour, socio-economic status and social activity. In a subsample (n = 20 337), we also looked at the impact of previous heavy drinking among abstainers ('sick-quitting'). Findings A U-shaped association between alcohol consumption and the risk of anxiety and depression was found. Abstention was related to increased odds for both case-level anxiety [1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19,1.52] and depression (1.52, 95% CI 1.30,1.77). This association was accounted for partly by adjustments for socio-economic status, social network, somatic illness, age (depression only), gender (anxiety only) and ,sick-quitting'. We also identified significant differences between participants who label themselves as abstainers compared to those who report no usual alcohol consumption, but who do not label themselves as abstainers. Conclusions The risk of case-level anxiety and depression is elevated in individuals with low alcohol consumption compared to those with moderate consumption. Individuals who label themselves as abstainers are at particularly increased risk. This increased risk cannot fully be explained by somatic illness, social activity or ,sick-quitting'. [source]