Ratings

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Ratings

  • acceptability rating
  • activity rating
  • appetite rating
  • approval rating
  • assessment center rating
  • assessment rating
  • average rating
  • bond rating
  • center rating
  • child rating
  • clinical dementia rating
  • clinical rating
  • clinician rating
  • credit rating
  • dementia rating
  • depression rating
  • disability rating
  • expert rating
  • feedback rating
  • global rating
  • good rating
  • guilt rating
  • health rating
  • hedonic rating
  • high rating
  • highest rating
  • hunger rating
  • importance rating
  • intensity rating
  • interview rating
  • liking rating
  • lower rating
  • maternal rating
  • mean rating
  • mood rating
  • mother rating
  • numerical rating
  • nurse rating
  • observer rating
  • other rating
  • pain rating
  • parent rating
  • parental rating
  • participant rating
  • patient rating
  • peer rating
  • performance rating
  • physician rating
  • quality rating
  • risk rating
  • s&p rating
  • same rating
  • satisfaction rating
  • self-report rating
  • sensory rating
  • severity rating
  • similar rating
  • staff rating
  • student rating
  • subjective rating
  • supervisor rating
  • symptom rating
  • teacher rating
  • therapist rating
  • trait rating
  • v-0 rating
  • visual rating

  • Terms modified by Ratings

  • rating agencies
  • rating agency
  • rating behavior
  • rating category
  • rating change
  • rating depression scale
  • rating index
  • rating instrument
  • rating scale
  • rating scale motor score
  • rating scale score
  • rating score
  • rating source
  • rating system
  • rating task

  • Selected Abstracts


    A THURSTONE-COOMBS MODEL OF CONCURRENT RATINGS WITH SENSORY AND LIKING DIMENSIONS

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 1 2002
    F. GREGORY ASHBY
    ABSTRACT A popular product testing procedure is to obtain sensory intensity and liking ratings from the same consumers. Consumers are instructed to attend to the sensory attribute, such as sweetness, when generating their liking response. We propose a new model of this concurrent ratings task that conjoins a unidimensional Thurstonian model of the ratings on the sensory dimension with a probabilistic version of Coombs' (1964) unfolding model for the liking dimension. The model assumes that the sensory characteristic of the product has a normal distribution over consumers. An individual consumer selects a sensory rating by comparing the perceived value on the sensory dimension to a set of criteria that partitions the axis into intervals. Each value on the rating scale is associated with a unique interval. To rate liking, the consumer imagines an ideal product, then computes the discrepancy or distance between the product as perceived by the consumer and this imagined ideal. A set of criteria are constructed on this discrepancy dimension that partition the axis into intervals. Each interval is associated with a unique liking rating. The ideal product is assumed to have a univariate normal distribution over consumers on the sensory attribute evaluated. The model is shown to account for 94.2% of the variance in a set of sample data and to fit this data significantly better than a bivariate normal model of the data (concurrent ratings, Thurstonian scaling, Coombs' unfolding model, sensory and liking ratings). [source]


    CAN WORKING WITH AN EXECUTIVE COACH IMPROVE MULTISOURCE FEEDBACK RATINGS OVER TIME?

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    A QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL FIELD STUDY
    This study examined the effects of executive coaching on multisource feedback over time. Participants were 1,361 senior managers who received multisource feedback; 404 of these senior managers worked with an executive coach (EC) to review their feedback and set goals. One year later, 1,202 senior managers (88% of the original sample) received multisource feedback from another survey. Managers who worked with an EC were more likely than other managers to set specific (rather than vague) goals (d= .16) and to solicit ideas for improvement from their supervisors (d= .36). Managers who worked with an EC improved more than other managers in terms of direct report and supervisor ratings, however, the effect size (d= .17) was small. [source]


    SELF- VERSUS OTHERS' RATINGS AS PREDICTORS OF ASSESSMENT CENTER RATINGS: VALIDATION EVIDENCE FOR 360-DEGREE FEEDBACK PROGRAMS

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    Paul W. B. Atkins
    Although 360-degree feedback programs are rapidly increasing in popularity, few studies have examined how well ratings from these programs predict an independent criterion. This study had 2 main aims: First, to examine the validity of ratings from a 360-degree feedback program using assessment center ratings as an independent criterion and to determine which source (i.e., self, supervisor, peers, or subordinates) provided the most valid predictor of the criterion measure of competency. Second, to better understand the relationship between self-observer discrepancies and an independent criterion. The average of supervisor, peer, and subordinate ratings predicted performance on the assessment center, as did the supervisor ratings alone. The self-ratings were negatively and nonlinearly related to performance with some of those who gave themselves the highest ratings having the lowest performance on the assessment center. Supervisor ratings successfully discriminated between overestimators but were not as successful at discriminating underestimators, suggesting that more modest feedback recipients might be underrated by their supervisors. Peers overestimated performance for poor performers. Explanations of the results and the implications for the use of self-ratings in evaluations, the design of feedback reports, and the use of 360-degree feedback programs for involving and empowering staff are discussed. [source]


    IMPLICATIONS OF TRAIT-ACTIVATION THEORY FOR EVALUATING THE CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF ASSESSMENT CENTER RATINGS

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    STEPHANIE HAALAND
    Assessment centers have often been criticized for lacking evidence supporting the construct validity of dimension ratings. This study examines whether the poor convergence of assessment center ratings is a result of correlating ratings from exercises that differ in the extent that behavior relevant to personality traits can be observed. Using data from a promotional assessment center for law enforcement officers (n= 79), the convergence of assessment center ratings was evaluated within the context of the five factor model by comparing the average within-dimension correlation of ratings from exercises that allowed for more opportunity to observe trait-relevant behavior to the average of those involving exercises where there was less opportunity. For each personality trait, ratings from exercises judged by experts to be high in trait-activation potential displayed stronger convergence (mean r= .30) than did ratings from exercises that were low in activation potential for that trait (mean r= .15). Implications for evaluating the construct validity of assessment centers are discussed along with future directions for classifying exercises based on situational similarity. [source]


    EXPLORING RELATIONS BETWEEN TYPICAL AND MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE RATINGS AND THE FIVE FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    ROBERT E. PLOYHART
    The study tests the distinction between typical and maximum criteria with ratings of transformational leadership performance, and examines whether the criterion-related validities of the five factor model differ for the two types of criteria. Using an East Asian military sample (n= 1,259) where multiple ratings of typical and maximum performance were obtained from different sources, we used structural equation modeling to test the typical/maximum performance distinction. Results found that typical and maximum performance are different latent constructs and that this distinction is present even after considering rating method factors (i.e., rater source, time). The importance of this distinction is shown by the fact that validities for the personality constructs were not equally predictive of both criteria: Openness was most predictive of maximum performance, Neuroticism was most predictive of typical performance, and Extroversion was predictive of both. By distinguishing typical from maximum performance constructs, relationships between personality and transformational leadership were found to be stronger than previous research suggested. [source]


    ASSESSING THE INCREMENTAL VALIDITY OF TEAM CONSENSUS RATINGS OVER AGGREGATION OF INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL DATA IN PREDICTING TEAM EFFECTIVENESS

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    BRADLEY L. KIRKMAN
    Using data collected from 98 work teams, empowerment levels were assessed based on the aggregation of individual team member ratings as well as on a team consensus approach utilized after aggregation. These 2 methods of measuring team empowerment were then compared on their ability to predict manager ratings of team effectiveness on 4 dimensions. Findings demonstrated that the consensus method of measuring team empowerment explained significantly greater variance in team effectiveness than did the aggregation method alone. We discuss implications for team research and practice based on these findings and include a discussion on when using consensus after aggregation may be most appropriate. [source]


    THE EFFECTS OF PERSONALITY SIMILARITY ON PEER RATINGS OF CONTEXTUAL WORK BEHAVIORS

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    DAVID ANTONIONI
    The present field study investigates whether rater-ratee similarity in the Big Five personality factors influences peer ratings of contextual work behaviors. It overcomes problems that previous studies have had by using a polynomial regression analysis and by correcting the potential biases from nonindependence. Using more than 500 peer dyads, we found that rater-ratee similarity in Conscientiousness, but not in other dimensions, was positively associated with peer ratings even after controlling for interpersonal affect. These results suggest that the observed effect of personality similarity may reflect actual behavioral differences rather than biases due to interpersonal affect. Implications of the findings are discussed along with recommendations for future research. [source]


    INTERRATER CORRELATIONS DO NOT ESTIMATE THE RELIABILITY OF JOB PERFORMANCE RATINGS

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    KEVIN R. MURPHY
    Interrater correlations are widely interpreted as estimates of the reliability of supervisory performance ratings, and are frequently used to correct the correlations between ratings and other measures (e.g., test scores) for attenuation. These interrater correlations do provide some useful information, but they are not reliability coefficients. There is clear evidence of systematic rater effects in performance appraisal, and variance associated with raters is not a source of random measurement error. We use generalizability theory to show why rater variance is not properly interpreted as measurement error, and show how such systematic rater effects can influence both reliability estimates and validity coefficients. We show conditions under which interrater correlations can either overestimate or underestimate reliability coefficients, and discuss reasons other than random measurement error for low interrater correlations. [source]


    THE INFORMATIONAL ROLE OF BANK LOAN RATINGS

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCIAL RESEARCH, Issue 4 2006
    Ha-Chin Yi
    Abstract We analyze the relatively new phenomenon of credit ratings on syndicated loans, asking first whether they convey information to the capital markets. Our event studies show that initial loan ratings and upgrades are not informative, but downgrades are. The market anticipates downgrades to some extent, however. We also examine whether public information reflecting borrower default characteristics explains cross-sectional variation in loan ratings and find that ratings are only partially predictable. Our evidence suggests that loan and bond ratings are not determined by the same model. Finally, we estimate a credit spread model incorporating bank loan ratings and other factors reflecting default risk, information asymmetry, and agency problems. We find that ratings are related to loan rates, given the effect of other influences on yields, suggesting that ratings provide information not reflected in financial information. Ratings may capture idiosyncratic information about recovery rates, as each of the agencies claims, or information about default prospects not available to the market. [source]


    Cerebral oxygenation decreases but does not impair performance during self-paced, strenuous exercise

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
    F. Billaut
    Abstract Aim:, The reduction in cerebral oxygenation (Cox) is associated with the cessation of exercise during constant work rate and incremental tests to exhaustion. Yet in exercises of this nature, ecological validity is limited due to work rate being either fully or partly dictated by the protocol, and it is unknown whether cerebral deoxygenation also occurs during self-paced exercise. Here, we investigated the cerebral haemodynamics during a 5-km running time trial in trained runners. Methods:, Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and surface electromyogram (EMG) of lower limb muscles were recorded every 0.5 km. Changes in Cox (prefrontal lobe) were monitored via near-infrared spectroscopy through concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin (,[O2Hb], ,[HHb]). Changes in total Hb were calculated (,[THb] = ,[O2Hb] + ,[HHb]) and used as an index of change in regional blood volume. Results:, During the trial, RPE increased from 6.6 0.6 to 19.1 0.7 indicating maximal exertion. Cox rose from baseline to 2.5 km (,,[O2Hb], ,,[HHb], ,,[THb]), remained constant between 2.5 and 4.5 km, and fell from 4.5 to 5 km (,,[O2Hb], ,,[HHb], ,,[THb]). Interestingly, the drop in Cox at the end of the trial coincided with a final end spurt in treadmill speed and concomitant increase in skeletal muscle recruitment (as revealed by higher lower limb EMG). Conclusion:, Results confirm the large tolerance for change in Cox during exercise at sea level, yet further indicate that, in conditions of self-selected work rate, cerebral deoxygenation remains within a range that does not hinder strenuous exercise performance. [source]


    Risk factors for relapse after remission with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 7 2009
    Roni B. Cohen M.D.
    Abstract Background: Several studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment is associated with a significant antidepressant effect that can last for several months. Methods: To investigate the mean remission time and the predictors associated with its duration; we performed a large retrospective, naturalistic study with 204 patients who underwent treatment with rTMS. During the periods from 2000 to 2006, we identified and collected the data on 204 patients who underwent rTMS treatment for major depression and who remitted their depression (defined as Hamilton Depression Rating Scores less or equal to 7). Patients were followed up to 6 months after this therapy. Results: Event-free remission with the end point defined as relapse (Hamilton Depression Rating Scores higher than 8) was 75.3% (73.7) at 2 months, 60.0% (74.5) at 3 months, 42.7% (74.8) at 4 months, and 22.6% (74.5) at 6 months. According to a multivariate analysis, only the age and number of sessions were independent predictors of outcome. Although depression severity and use of tricyclics also showed a significant relationship with remission duration, the model including these variables was not adequate to explain our data. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that young age and additional rTMS sessions are associated with a ong duration of rTMS effects and therefore future trials investigating the effects of maintenance rTMS treatment need to explore further the implication of these factors for depression remission. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Venlafaxine monotherapy in bipolar type II depressed patients unresponsive to prior lithium monotherapy

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 3 2010
    J. D. Amsterdam
    Amsterdam JD, Wang G, Shults J. Venlafaxine monotherapy in bipolar type II depressed patients unresponsive to prior lithium monotherapy. Objective:, We examine the safety and efficacy of venlafaxine monotherapy in bipolar type II (BP II) patients with major depressive episode (MDE) who were unresponsive to prior lithium monotherapy. We hypothesized that venlafaxine would be superior to lithium with a low hypomanic conversion rate. Method:, Seventeen patients who were unresponsive to prior lithium monotherapy were crossed to venlafaxine monotherapy for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was within-subject change in total Hamilton Depression Rating (HAM-D) score over time. Secondary outcomes included the change in Young Mania Rating (YMRS) and clinical global impressions severity (CGI/S) and change (CGI/C) scores. Results:, Venlafaxine produced significantly greater reductions in HAM-D (P < 0.0005), CGI/S (P < 0.0005), and CGI/C (P < 0.0005) scores vs. prior lithium. There was no difference in mean YMRS scores between treatment conditions (P = 0.179). Conclusion:, Venlafaxine monotherapy may be a safe and effective monotherapy of BP II MDE with a low hypomanic conversion rate in lithium non-responders. [source]


    Rating and quantification of manic syndromes

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2001
    Livianos-Aldana
    First page of article [source]


    Validation of the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): report of results from the Australian site

    DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW, Issue 3 2005
    DAVID A. L. NEWCOMBE
    Abstract The concurrent, construct, discriminative and predictive validity of the World Health Organization's Alcohol Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) were examined in an Australian sample. One hundred and fifty participants, recruited from drug treatment (n = 50) and primary health care (PHC) settings (n = 100), were administered a battery of instruments at baseline and a modified battery at 3 months. Measures included the ASSIST; the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite); the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS); the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus); the Rating of Injection Site Condition (RISC); the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST); the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); the Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (RTQ); and the Maudsely Addiction Profile (MAP). Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and scores from the ASI-lite, SDS, AUDIT and DAST; and significantly greater ASSIST scores for those with diagnoses of abuse or dependence. Construct validity was established by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and measures of risk factors for the development of drug and alcohol problems. Participants diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or antisocial personality disorder had significantly higher ASSIST scores than those not diagnosed as such. Discriminative validity was established by the capacity of the ASSIST to discriminate between substance use, abuse and dependence. ROC analysis was able to establish cut-off scores for an Australian sample, with suitable specificities and sensitivities for most substances. Predictive validity was demonstrated by similarity in ASSIST scores obtained at baseline and at follow-up. The findings demonstrated that the ASSIST is a valid screening test for psychoactive substance use in individuals who use a number of substances and have varying degrees of substance use. [source]


    Validation of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST)

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2008
    Rachel Humeniuk
    ABSTRACT Aim The concurrent, construct and discriminative validity of the World Health Organization's Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) were examined in a multi-site international study. Participants One thousand and 47 participants, recruited from drug treatment (n = 350) and primary health care (PHC) settings (n = 697), were administered a battery of instruments. Measurements Measures included the ASSIST; the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite); the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS); the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus); the Rating of Injection Site Condition (RISC); the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST); the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); the Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (RTQ); and the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP). Findings Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and scores from the ASI-Lite (r = 0.76,0.88), SDS (r = 0.59), AUDIT (r = 0.82) and RTQ (r = 0.78); and significantly greater ASSIST scores for those with MINI-Plus diagnoses of abuse or dependence (P < 0.001). Construct validity was established by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and measures of risk factors for the development of drug and alcohol problems (r = 0.48,0.76). Discriminative validity was established by the capacity of the ASSIST to discriminate between substance use, abuse and dependence. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to establish cut-off scores with suitable specificities (50,96%) and sensitivities (54,97%) for most substances. Conclusions The findings demonstrated that the ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying psychoactive substance use in individuals who use a number of substances and have varying degrees of substance use. [source]


    An investigation of the relationship between race performance and superficial digital flexor tendonitis in the Thoroughbred racehorse

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 4 2010
    B. O'MEARA
    Summary Reasons for performing study: There is limited information regarding the number of races and the period for evaluation of outcome which is critical for assessment of SDF tendonitis treatments. Objective: To evaluate the re-injury rate and racing performance of Thoroughbred racehorses that sustain SDF tendonitis in relation to matched controls in terms of number of races post treatment and maximum racing performance ratings before and after injury. Study design: Clinical records and racing histories of 401 racehorses with a first occurrence of SDF tendonitis diagnosed by ultrasonography. Controls were of the same age, sex and were horses training in the same establishment at the time of injury as the case horses and where the trainer reported that the horse had not had a previous SDF tendon injury or treatment. Results: Eighty percent of both case and control horses returned to racing after the date of injury, and the re-injury proportion within 3 years of treatment was 53%. The difference in Racing Post Rating(max) (RPR(max)) and the Racing Post Rating in the race immediately before the treatment date was significantly smaller in case horses (mean = 9.6 lbs; range = 0,75) compared to control horses (mean = 17.0 lbs; range = 0,79). No significant decrease in RPR(max) was noted post injury. No difference between case and control horses was found for return to racing and racing 3 times, but control horses were significantly more likely to compete 5 races post treatment date than case horses. Conclusion and clinical relevance: Injury was associated with an individual's pre-injury maximum performance level and return to racing and completion of 3 races are not useful indicator of the outcome of horses with SDF tendonitis. The assessment of the outcome of horses with an SDF injury in a population of racehorses using the number of races post injury requires a minimum of 5 races post injury to be a useful indicator. Further, a re-injury proportion in a population of horses in training for 3 years post treatment. [source]


    An open-label trial of Korean red ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 8 2008
    J.-H. Heo
    Background and purpose:, Ginseng is one of the most popular herbs worldwide. Ginseng has various medical applications, and it seems to have significant effects as a cognition-enhancing drug. In this study, we examined the efficacy of Korean red ginseng (KRG) as an adjuvant therapy to conventional anti-dementia medications in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Methods:, The trial was designed as a 12-week randomized study. Sixty-one patients (24 males and 37 females) with Alzheimer's disease were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: low-dose KRG (4.5 g/day, n = 15), high-dose KRG (9 g/day, n = 15) or control (n = 31). The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS), Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale were used to assess the change in cognitive and functional performance at the end of the 12-week study period. Results:, The patients in the high-dose KRG group showed significant improvement on the ADAS and CDR after 12 weeks of KRG therapy when compared with those in the control group (P = 0.032 and 0.006 respectively). The KRG treatment groups showed improvement from baseline MMSE when compared with the control group (1.42 vs. ,0.48), but this improvement was not statistically significant. Conclusions:, KRG showed good efficacy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease; however, further studies with larger samples of patients and a longer efficacy trial should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of KRG. [source]


    The Notching Rule for Subordinated Debt and the Information Content of Debt Rating

    FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2010
    Kose John
    This paper provides new evidence regarding the information content of debt ratings. We show that noninvestment grade subordinated issues are consistently priced too high (the yield is too low), and the reverse is true for some investment grade bonds. We relate this empirical bias to a notching rule of thumb that is used in order to rate subordinated debt without expending additional resources for information production. We propose an explanation for these findings based upon a balance between an attempt to please the companies that pay the raters versus a concern for lawsuits and regulatory investigations should ratings be too optimistic. [source]


    The Original Maturity of Corporate Bonds: The Influence of Credit Rating, Asset Maturity, Security, and Macroeconomic Conditions

    FINANCIAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2006
    Geetanjali Bali
    G24 Abstract We examine the determinants of the new issue maturity of corporate bonds. As credit rating decreases, new bond issues have longer maturities, but substantial variation in maturity within each rating class remains. We seek to explain the variation of new issue maturity within credit classes. We find that asset maturity, security covenants, and macroeconomic conditions influence the new issue maturity of bonds within rating categories. [source]


    Brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment in older Japanese: Validation of the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment

    GERIATRICS & GERONTOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2010
    Yoshinori Fujiwara
    Aim: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), developed by Dr Nasreddine (Nasreddine et al. 2005), is a brief cognitive screening tool for detecting older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We examined the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the MoCA (MoCA-J) in older Japanese subjects. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the outpatient memory clinic of Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital or community-based medical health check-ups in 2008. The MoCA-J, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the revised version of Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, and routine neuropsychological batteries were conducted on 96 older subjects. Mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) was found in 30 subjects and MCI in 30, with 36 normal controls. Results: The Cronbach's alpha of MoCA-J as an index of internal consistency was 0.74. The test,retest reliability of MoCA, using intraclass correlation coefficient between the scores at baseline survey and follow-up survey 8 weeks later was 0.88 (P < 0.001). MoCA-J score was highly correlated with MMSE (r = 0.83, P < 0.001), HDS-R (r = 0.79, P < 0.001) and CDR (r = ,0.79, P < 0.001) scores. The areas under receiver,operator curves (AUC) for predicting MCI and AD groups by the MoCA-J were 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90,1.00) and 0.99 (95% CI = 0.00,1.00), respectively. The corresponding values for MMSE and HDS-R were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.75,0.95) and 0.97 (95% CI = 0.00,1.00), and 0.86 (95% CI = 0.76,0.95) and 0.97 (95% CI = 0.00,1.00), respectively. Using a cut-off point of 25/26, the MoCA-J demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 87.0% in screening MCI. Conclusion: The MoCA-J could be a useful cognitive test for screening MCI, and could be recommended in a primary clinical setting and for geriatric health screening in the community. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2010; 10: 225,232. [source]


    Effects of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment on driving ability: a controlled clinical study by simulated driving test

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 3 2009
    Cristina Frittelli
    Abstract Objective To assess the effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) on simulated car driving ability. Methods Twenty patients with a probable AD of mild severity (Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR,=,1) were compared with 20 subjects with MCI (CD,=,0.5), and a group of age-matched neurologically normal controls on a driving simulation task. Measures of driving competence included the length of run, the number of infractions (omission of stop at pedestrian crossings, speed limits violation), the number of stops at traffic lights, the mean time to collision, and the number of off-road events. Results in the driving competence measures were correlated with scores obtained from simple visual reaction times and mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Results The patients with mild AD performed significantly worse than MCI subjects and controls on three simulated driving measures, length of run and mean time to collision (p,<,0.001), and number of off-road events (p,<,0.01). MCI subjects had only a significantly shorter time-to-collision than healthy controls (p,<,0.001). Simple visual reaction times were significantly longer (p,<,0.001) in patients with AD, compared to MCI and healthy controls, and showed a borderline significant relation (p,=,0.05) with simulated driving scores. Driving performance in the three groups did not significantly correlate with MMSE score as measure of overall cognitive function. Conclusions Mild AD significantly impaired simulated driving fitness, while MCI limitedly affected driving performance. Unsafe driving behaviour in AD patients was not predicted by MMSE scores. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Frontotemporal dementia: patient characteristics, cognition, and behaviour

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 10 2002
    J. Diehl
    Abstract Objectives To describe sociodemographic data of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), to compare the cognitive profile of patients with FTD with that of severity-matched patients with Alzheimer's disease using the CERAD neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NP), to investigate the frequency of behavioural disturbances, and to examine the relation between FTD-specific non-cognitive behavioural symptoms of patients with FTD with age and sex. Methods Fifty outpatients were diagnosed with FTD according to the Lund-Manchester consensus criteria. Cognitive impairment was assessed in 30 patients using the CERAD-NP. Severity of dementia was rated on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Eleven non-cognitive symptoms were rated by severity. To compare CERAD-NP results between patients with FTD and AD, 30 patients with AD were matched for age, sex, and global severity of cognitive performance. Results The average age at onset of first symptoms was 57.8 years. Eighteen patients (36%) had a positive family history of dementia. On the CERAD-NP patients with FTD performed significantly better than patients with AD on word list learning, delayed verbal recall and visuoconstruction (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between FTD and AD on naming and verbal fluency tasks. The most frequent non-cognitive behavioural symptoms in FTD were loss of insight, speech abnormality, and apathy. Non-cognitive behavioural symptoms were more frequent in younger and in male than in older patients and in female patients. Conclusions The CERAD-NP is a valuable clinical instrument for the cognitive evaluation of patients with suspected FTD. Complementary short tests of attention and executive function may be recommended. To enhance diagnostic sensitivity informant interviews should focus on non-cognitive behavioural changes, taking advantage of standardised questionnaires. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Measuring the Accuracy of Facial Approximations: A Comparative Study of Resemblance Rating and Face Array Methods

    JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 1 2008
    Carl N. Stephan Ph.D.
    Abstract:, The success of facial approximation is thought to depend, at least in part, upon the "accuracy" of the constructed face. However, methods of accuracy assessment are varied and this range in methods may be responsible for the disparate results reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine if the accuracy results of one facial approximation were comparable across two different assessment methods (resemblance ratings and simultaneous face array tests using unfamiliar assessors) and if resemblance ratings co-varied with recognition responses. True-positive recognition performance from the facial approximation was poor (21%) while resemblance scores using the same facial approximation were moderately high (3 out of 5 on a five-point scale). These results are not, therefore, consistent and indicate that either different variables are being evaluated by the methods, or the same variable is being examined but with different weight/calibration. Further resemblance ratings tests of the facial approximation to three foil faces from the face array revealed that resemblance scores were similar irrespective of which face was compared, and did not closely correspond with the degree of recognition performance. This was especially the case for isolated comparisons of single faces to the facial approximation. Collectively, these results indicate that resemblance ratings are: (i) insensitive measures of a facial approximation's accuracy; and (ii) inconsistent with results of unfamiliar simultaneous face-array recognition results. These data suggest that familiar and unfamiliar recognition tests should be given increased weight in contrast to current resemblance rating tests. [source]


    Rating of CCl4 -induced rat liver fibrosis by blood serum glycomics

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 7 2007
    Liesbeth Desmyter
    Abstract Background:, Non-invasive staging of human liver fibrosis is a desirable objective that remains under extensive evaluation. Animal model systems are often used for studying human liver disease and screening antifibrotic compounds. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of serum N-glycan profiles to evaluate liver fibrosis in a rat model. Methods:, Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were induced in rats by oral administration of CCl4. Liver injury was assessed biochemically (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] activity, aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activity and total bilirubin) and histologically. The N-glycan profile (GlycoTest) was performed using DNA sequencer-assisted,fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis technology. In parallel, the effect of cotreatment with antifibrotic interferon-, (IFN-,) was studied. Results:, The biopsy scoring system showed that CCl4 induced early fibrosis (F < 1,2) in rats after 3 weeks of treatment, and cirrhosis (F4) after 12 weeks. Significant increases in ALT activity, AST activity and total bilirubin levels were detected only after 12 weeks of CCl4 treatment. GlycoTest showed three glycans were significantly altered in the CCl4 -goup. Peak 3 started at week 6, at an early stage in fibrosis development (F < 1,2), whereas peaks 4 and 5 occurred at week 9, at which time mild liver fibrosis (F = 1,2) had developed. The changes in the CCl4 -IFN-, group were intermediate between the CCl4 - and the control groups. Conclusion:, The GlycoTest is much more sensitive than biochemical tests for evaluating liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in the rat model. The test can also be used as a non-invasive marker for screening and monitoring the antifibrotic activity of potential therapeutic compounds. [source]


    Do radiologists agree on the quality of computed tomography enterography?

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING AND RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Kari Ersland
    Summary This study aimed to assess variation between radiologists evaluating the quality of multi-detector computed tomography enterography. For 40 consecutive examinations, three experienced radiologists independently rated the following quality variables: % length of adequately filled bowel, bowel lumen diameters, bowel wall delineation, superior mesenteric vein, and bowel wall enhancement, artefacts, and total quality. We calculated the mean difference between observers with standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables and % total agreement, exact Fleiss kappa, and P -values (McNemar's test) for categorical variables. Depending on bowel segment (duodenum distal to bulb, jejunum, ileum, terminal ileum), mean difference between observers ranged from two to 33 (SD from 11 to 32) for % length of adequately filled bowel judged subjectively, 0,2 (SD 0,3) mm for smallest bowel lumen diameter and 0,4 (SD 3,7) mm for largest bowel lumen diameter. Agreement on bowel wall delineation was 80%/kappa 0.50 in duodenum, 90%/kappa 0.57 in jejunum, 75%/kappa 0.14 in ileum and 88%/kappa 0.17 in terminal ileum, where ratings differed between observers (P < 0.04). Agreement was 65%/kappa 0.18 for bowel wall enhancement judged subjectively. For contrast enhancement measured in Hounsfield Units, mean difference between observers ranged from two to 11 (SD 12,15) in normal jejunum wall and zero to one (SD 4,5) in the superior mesenteric vein depending on observer pair. Agreement was 78%/kappa 0.12 for image artefacts. Rating of total examination quality (good/optimal versus poor/very poor) differed between observers (P < 0.01); agreement was 60%/kappa 0.41. Many subjective evaluations varied between observers. We believe that measurements of bowel lumen diameters and contrast enhancement may be preferable. [source]


    Is the Child Oral Health Quality of Life Questionnaire Sensitive to Change in the Context of Orthodontic Treatment?

    JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY, Issue 4 2008
    A Brief Communication
    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to assess the ability of the Child Oral Health Quality of Life Questionnaire (COHQoL) to detect change following provision of orthodontic treatment. Methods: Children were recruited from an orthodontic clinic just prior to starting orthodontic treatment. They completed a copy of the Child Perception Questionnaire, while their parents completed a copy of the Parents Perception Questionnaire and the Family Impact Scale. Normative outcomes were assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index. Change scores and effect sizes were calculated for all scales. Results: Complete data were collected for 45 children and 26 parents. The mean age was 12.6 years (standard deviation = 1.4). There were significant pre-/posttreatment changes in DAI and PAR scores and significant changes in scores on all three questionnaires (P < 0.05). Effect sizes for the latter were moderate. Global transition judgments also confirmed pre-/posttreatment improvements in oral health and well-being. Conclusion: The results provide preliminary evidence of the sensitivity to change of the COHQoL questionnaires when used with children receiving orthodontic treatment. However, the study needs to be repeated in different treatment settings and with a larger sample size in order to confirm the utility of the measure. [source]


    Comparison of Treatment Result and Compliance between Private Practice Medicaid and Non-Medicaid Orthodontic Patients , A Brief Communication

    JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY, Issue 3 2008
    Steven Dickens
    Abstract Treatment result and compliance for orthodontic Medicaid patients were assessed and compared to non-Medicaid patients of similar initial severity. All 55 North Carolina practices providing orthodontic treatment covered by Medicaid were asked to submit their last five Medicaid cases and five non-Medicaid cases of similar initial treatment complexity. Nine practices agreed to participate. Initial models, final models, and progress notes were obtained for all subjects. Casts were scored using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index to assess initial and posttreatment orthodontic status, and progress notes were reviewed for compliance data. No clinically important differences were seen between the Medicaid and non-Medicaid groups with respect to initial PAR, final PAR, percent PAR reduction, broken appointments, broken appliances, or poor oral hygiene. In this study, Medicaid and non-Medicaid patients did not differ substantially with respect to effectiveness of treatment received or their compliance with treatment. [source]


    SENSORY DIRECTIONALS FOR PIZZA: A DEEPER ANALYSIS

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 6 2001
    HOWARD R. MOSKOWITZ
    ABSTRACT This paper presents a set of analyses on sensory directional attributes used to rate experimentally designed pizza products. Consumers may or may not know the ,optimal' sensory level of attributes for pizza, so that the usefulness of the sensory directional varies by attribute. Furthermore, the sensory magnitude of each sensory directional attribute varies, as shown by the slope (B) relating the two attributes (Sensory Magnitude = A + B (Directional Rating)). The study incorporated sensory directionals into evaluation of products varied according to an experimental design. The optimal product emerging from the design does not necessarily exhibit a sensory directional profile where all attributes are ,on target', nor does a product whose sensory attributes are all on ,target' exhibit the highest level of liking. [source]


    A Multi-Criteria Group Decisionmaking Model for Supplier Rating

    JOURNAL OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2002
    C. Muralidharan
    SUMMARY An important problem in decision analysis is the evaluation of the difference between two or more different rankings for a set of alternatives. A novel model based on the aggregation technique for combining group member's preferences into one consensus ranking is suggested in this article. The model developed may be used to develop consensus and evolve ranking of alternatives. The application of the model is demonstrated through a case for supplier rating. The advantages of the proposed approach are also highlighted. [source]


    Factors influencing long-term changes in mental health after interferon-alpha treatment of chronic hepatitis C

    ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 10 2009
    F. SCHMIDT
    Summary Background, Antiviral treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-,) is associated with several acute psychiatric side effects. Little is known about long-term effects on mental health after treatment independent from viral response and the influence of pre-existing psychiatric risk-factors. Aim, To evaluate long-term effects of antiviral treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-,) on mental health in patients with psychiatric risk factors. Method, We prospectively investigated long-term mental health changes in 81 hepatitis C virus-infected patients. Psychiatric outcome was measured with the Montgomery,Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Global Social Functioning Scale and the Global Clinical Impression Scale 6 months after the end of antiviral treatment with IFN-, and ribavirin. Results, Six months after antiviral therapy, 49% of the patients showed a worsening and 27.2% an improvement of depression scores. The most important predictor for a long-term improvement of depression scores was a pre-treatment MADRS score ,5 (OR 14.21, 95% CI: 2.51,81.30). Patients with pre-existing psychiatric disorders (OR = 0.117, 95% CI: 0.024,0.558), methadone substitution (OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.045,0.887) or genotype 2/3 (OR = 0.341, 95% CI: 0.138,0.845) were significantly less likely to show a long-term worsening of depressive symptoms. Conclusions, Pre-existing psychiatric risk factors increase the chance for a long-term improvement and reduce the risk for a long-term worsening of mental health after antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis C with IFN-,. [source]