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Heart rate and QT variability in children with anxiety disorders: A preliminary reportDEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 2 2001
Vikram K. Yeragani M.B.B.S.
Abstract This study compared beat-to-beat heart rate and QT variability in children with anxiety disorders (n=7) and normal controls (n=15) by using an automated algorithm to compute QT intervals. An increase in QT variability appears to be associated with a higher risk for sudden cardiac death. A decrease in heart rate variability is also linked to significant cardiovascular events. Supine detrended QT variability, QT variability corrected for mean QT interval, and QTvi (a log ratio of QT variance normalized for mean QT over heart rate variability normalized for mean heart rate) were significantly higher in children with anxiety compared to controls (P<0.05). The largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) of heart rate time series was significantly lower (P<0.05) in children with anxiety compared to controls. These findings suggest a relative increase in sympathetic activity and a relative decrease in cardiac vagal activity in children with anxiety disorders, and are discussed in the context of the effects of tricyclics on cardiac autonomic function in children, and the rare occurrence of sudden death during tricyclic antidepressant treatment. Depression and Anxiety 13:72,77, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Can cointegration-based forecasting outperform univariate models?JOURNAL OF FORECASTING, Issue 5 2002
An application to Asian exchange rates
Abstract Conventional wisdom holds that restrictions on low-frequency dynamics among cointegrated variables should provide more accurate short- to medium-term forecasts than univariate techniques that contain no such information; even though, on standard accuracy measures, the information may not improve long-term forecasting. But inconclusive empirical evidence is complicated by confusion about an appropriate accuracy criterion and the role of integration and cointegration in forecasting accuracy. We evaluate the short- and medium-term forecasting accuracy of univariate Box,Jenkins type ARIMA techniques that imply only integration against multivariate cointegration models that contain both integration and cointegration for a system of five cointegrated Asian exchange rate time series. We use a rolling-window technique to make multiple out of sample forecasts from one to forty steps ahead. Relative forecasting accuracy for individual exchange rates appears to be sensitive to the behaviour of the exchange rate series and the forecast horizon length. Over short horizons, ARIMA model forecasts are more accurate for series with moving-average terms of order >1. ECMs perform better over medium-term time horizons for series with no moving average terms. The results suggest a need to distinguish between ,sequential' and ,synchronous' forecasting ability in such comparisons. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]
Influence of Age on Linear and Nonlinear Measures of Autonomic Cardiovascular ModulationANNALS OF NONINVASIVE ELECTROCARDIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Michael K. Boettger M.D.
Background: Age has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In addition, autonomic imbalance toward sympathetic preponderance has been shown to facilitate the occurrence of heart disease. Here, we aimed to assess autonomic modulation of cardiovascular parameters during normal ageing applying well-established linear and novel nonlinear parameters. Methods: Linear and nonlinear measures of heart rate variability and complexity as well as measures of QT interval variability and baroreflex sensitivity were obtained from a total of 131 healthy, medication-free participants from a continuous age range between 20 and 90 years, who were allocated to three different age groups. Results: Heart rate variability and complexity significantly decreased with age, while regularity of heart rate time series increased. In addition, QT interval variability linearly increased with age, while baroreflex sensitivity showed a pronounced decrease. Overall, concerning effects of ageing, linear and nonlinear parameters showed equal differentiation between groups. Conclusion: These data indicate a shift of autonomic balance toward sympathetic predominance in higher age groups, limiting the reactiveness of the cardiovascular system to adjust to different demands and increasing the risk for developing tachyarrhythmias. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2010;15(2):165,174 [source]
Spinal tumor necrosis factor , neutralization reduces peripheral inflammation and hyperalgesia and suppresses autonomic responses in experimental arthritis: A role for spinal tumor necrosis factor , during induction and maintenance of peripheral inflammationARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 5 2010
Michael Karl Boettger
Objective In addition to the sensitization of pain fibers in inflamed tissues, the increased excitability of the spinal cord is an important mechanism of inflammatory pain. Furthermore, spinal neuronal excitability has been suggested to play a role in modulating peripheral inflammation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that spinal actions of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,) add significantly to both hyperalgesia and maintenance of peripheral inflammation. Methods Rats with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) were treated intrathecally with the TNF,-neutralizing compound etanercept continuously during the complete time course of AIA, which was 3 days for the acute phase and 21 days for the chronic phase. During this time, inflammation and pain-related behavior were monitored. Since a role for autonomic control of inflammation was proposed, measures from heart rate time series were obtained in the acute phase. Findings were compared with those in vehicle-treated animals and in animals receiving etanercept intraperitoneally. Results Spinally administered etanercept acutely reduced pain-related behavior, attenuated both the development and the maintenance of inflammation, and was superior to systemic administration. Parameters indicating autonomic modulation showed a shift toward a sympathetically dominated state in vehicle-treated animals, which was prevented by intrathecal etanercept. Conclusion Our findings indicate that spinal TNF, plays an important role in both pain signaling and modulation of peripheral inflammation. Thus, neutralizing this cytokine at the spinal site not only represents a putative therapeutic option for different pain syndromes, but may be directly used to attenuate peripheral inflammation. [source]