Radiotherapy

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Radiotherapy

  • adjuvant radiotherapy
  • beam radiotherapy
  • brain radiotherapy
  • conformal radiotherapy
  • conventional external beam radiotherapy
  • conventional radiotherapy
  • definitive radiotherapy
  • external beam radiotherapy
  • external radiotherapy
  • field radiotherapy
  • high-dose radiotherapy
  • initial radiotherapy
  • local radiotherapy
  • modern radiotherapy
  • palliative radiotherapy
  • pelvic radiotherapy
  • plaque radiotherapy
  • postoperative radiotherapy
  • preoperative radiotherapy
  • primary radiotherapy
  • prior radiotherapy
  • proton beam radiotherapy
  • radical radiotherapy
  • stereotactic radiotherapy
  • whole brain radiotherapy
  • whole-brain radiotherapy

  • Terms modified by Radiotherapy

  • radiotherapy alone
  • radiotherapy dose
  • radiotherapy field
  • radiotherapy treatment

  • Selected Abstracts


    THE MYTHS ABOUT RADIOTHERAPY AND METASTATIC BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 12 2007
    David Christie MB ChB, FRANZCR
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Surgical Monotherapy Versus Surgery Plus Adjuvant Radiotherapy in High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review of Outcomes

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 4 2009
    ANOKHI Jambusaria-PAHLAJANI MD
    BACKGROUND Adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) has been recommended for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with a high risk of recurrence, particularly perineurally invasive disease. The utility of ART is unknown. This study compares reported outcomes of high-risk SCC treated with surgical monotherapy (SM) with those of surgery plus ART (S+ART). METHODS The Medline database was searched for reports of high-risk SCC treated with SM or S+ART that reported outcomes of interest: local recurrence, regional or distant metastasis, or disease-specific death. RESULTS There were no controlled trials. Of the 2,449 cases of high-risk SCC included, 91 were treated with S+ART. Tumor stage and surgical margin status before ART were generally unreported. In 74 cases of perineural invasion (PNI), outcomes were statistically similar between SM and S+ART. In 943 high-risk SCC cases in which clear surgical margins were explicitly documented, risks of local recurrence, regional metastasis, distant metastasis, and disease-specific death were 5%, 5%, 1%, and 1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS High cure rates are achieved in high-risk cutaneous SCC when clear surgical margins are obtained. Current data are insufficient to identify high-risk features in which ART may be beneficial. In cases of PNI, the extent of nerve involvement appears to affect outcomes, with involvement of larger nerves imparting a worse prognosis. [source]


    Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising 57 Years after Interstitial Radiotherapy of a Nasal Hemangioma

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 8 2008
    ELLIOT WEISS MD
    First page of article [source]


    Radiotherapy for Rodent Ulcer Type of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 4 2007
    JOSHUA M. BERLIN MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Selective dose escalation of chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer

    DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 7 2008
    S. K. Seung
    SUMMARY., This phase II study assessed the use of concurrent continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil and weekly carboplatin plus paclitaxel with selective radiation dose escalation for patients with localized esophageal cancer. Patients with esophageal carcinoma were staged by thoracic and abdominal computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound, and positron emission tomography scans. Patients received a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil 225 mg/m2 on days 1 to 38 and intravenous paclitaxel 45 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC 2 on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, and 36. Radiotherapy was delivered in 1.8-Gy fractions, 5 d/wk for 5.5 weeks. Six to 8 weeks after initial therapy, patients without metastatic progression but with a positive biopsy, or less than partial response received a 9-Gy boost with the same concurrent chemotherapy. Twenty-four patients were enrolled: 18 patients were enrolled initially; 6 additional patients were enrolled following a protocol amendment designed to reduce the esophagitis by adding the radioprotectant amifostine. Median follow-up was 30 months. Twenty (83%) patients had adenocarcinomas of the lower esophagus/gastroesophageal junction. Seventeen patients (81%) attained at least a partial response. Six patients received boost treatment. At 4 years, overall survival was 28%, cause-specific survival was 38%, locoregional control was 61%, and distant metastasis-free survival was 52%. Radiation delays ranged from 0 to 62 days (median, 8 d), primarily owing to esophagitis. In total, 28% of patients developed esophageal strictures requiring dilatations. There were no differences in esophageal strictures, local control, or survival with the addition of amifostine. [source]


    Identification of candidate genes involved in the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells by microarray analysis

    DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 4 2008
    R. Ogawa
    SUMMARY., Radiotherapy plays a key role in the control of tumor growth in esophageal cancer patients. To identify the patients who will benefit most from radiation therapy, it is important to know the genes that are involved in the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells. Hence, we examined the global gene expression in radiosensitive and radioresistant esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Radiosensitivities of 13 esophageal cancer cell lines were measured. RNA was extracted from each esophageal cancer cell line and a normal esophageal epithelial cell line, and the global gene expression profiles were analyzed using a 34 594-spot oligonucleotide microarray. In the clonogenic assay, one cell line (TE-11) was identified to be highly sensitive to radiation, while the other cell lines were found to be relatively radioresistant. We identified 71 candidate genes that were differentially expressed in TE-11 by microarray analysis. The up-regulated genes included CABPR, FABP5, DSC2, GPX2, NME, CBR3, DOCK8, and ABCC5, while the down-regulated genes included RPA1, LDOC1, NDN, and SKP1A. Our investigation provided comprehensive information on genes related to radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells; this information can serve as a basis for further functional studies. [source]


    Expression of p53, bcl-2, and bax as predictors of response to radiotherapy in esophageal cancer

    DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 3 2000
    H. Shimoji
    The sensitivity of cancers to radiotherapy or chemotherapy may be influenced by susceptibility to apoptosis. We evaluated whether expression of three proteins regulating apoptosis, p53, bcl-2, and bax, could predict the effect of radiotherapy in esophageal cancers. We used immunohistochemical staining for these protein regulators of apoptosis to study biopsy specimens obtained from 25 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma before they underwent preoperative radiotherapy. Effectiveness of radiotherapy was assessed by barium esophagography, esophagoscopy, and computed tomography. Radiotherapy was effective in 12 patients and ineffective in 13 patients. Biopsy specimens from the 25 patients showed expression of p53, bcl-2, and bax to be 48.0%, 32.0%, and 76.0% respectively. Effectiveness of radiotherapy was correlated with p53 expression (p = 0.047), but bcl-2 and bax expression showed no relationship to effectiveness of radiotherapy. Expression of p53 protein in biopsy specimens may predict effectiveness of preoperative radiotherapy in esophageal cancers. [source]


    Short-Range Structure of Yttrium Alumino-Silicate Glass for Cancer Radiotherapy: Car,Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulations,

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 7 2010
    Jamieson K. Christie
    We present Car,Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations of yttrium alumino-silicate (YAS) glass. Alumino-silicate glass microspheres are used as vectors of yttrium radioisotopes in cancer radiotherapy; understanding in detail how yttrium is bound within the glass network is important to control the unwanted release of radioactive yttrium in the bloodstream. Our simulations, focused on a specific composition relevant to practical applications, show that silicon and aluminum form a disordered glass network, where Si is mainly four-coordinated, whereas, Al is mainly four- and five-coordinated. Yttrium cations have a network-modifying role, disrupting the alumino-silicate network by breaking Si(Al)O bonds and coordinating the resulting non-bridging oxygens (NBO). The local environment of yttrium in the glass turns out to be rather flexible: between five and eight oxygen atoms, with a marked predominance of NBO, are found coordinated to a central Y cation, leading to a corresponding broad and multimodal distribution of OYO angles. [source]


    Primary cancer of the sphenoid sinus,A GETTEC study,

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 3 2009
    Pierre Olivier Vedrine MD
    Abstract Background. Primary involvement of the sphenoid sinus occurs in 2% of all paranasal sinus tumors and is associated with dismal prognosis. Optimal management remains debatable. Methods. A total of 23 patients were treated for a primary cancer of the sphenoid sinus from 1988 to 2004. Charts were reviewed for patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related parameters. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify prognostic factors for locoregional control and survival. Results. Cranial neuropathies were present in 12 patients. Pathologic findings included adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sarcoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, melanoma, and malignant hemangiopericytoma. All but 2 patients had stages III to IV cancer. Radiotherapy was performed in 18 patients and chemotherapy in 12. Of 10 patients undergoing surgery, total excision with grossly negative margins was achieved in 4 patients and subtotal resection in 6. Median locoregional control and overall survival were 12 and 41 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, cranial neuropathy was associated with worse locoregional control and survival. Surgery was rarely complete because of advanced stages at presentation, but it yielded better outcomes than other treatments without surgery in non lymphoma-cases. Conclusion. Early CT and MRI should be performed when facing aspecific, rhinological, or neuro-ophtalmological symptoms. Cranial neuropathies indicate a worse prognosis. Surgery, including debulking surgery, may be preferred to combined modality treatments without surgery. Its apparently favorable impact on prognosis would need to be tested in homogenous histological groups of patients, which is impossible because of the rarity of the disease. Highly conformal radiotherapy (adjuvant or definitive) should be encouraged and optimized with concurrent chemotherapy in advanced stages. Aggressive multidisciplinary management including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy should be encouraged and adapted on histology and tumor extensions. Progress is still warranted to improve outcomes. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009 [source]


    Pilot trial of concomitant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and split-course radiotherapy for very advanced squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck,

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 3 2002
    Olavo Feher MD
    Abstract Purpose The combination of chemotherapy and irradiation is considered the standard of care for the treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN). Paclitaxel has shown a single-agent activity in SCCHN. Besides, this drug is a promising radiosensitizer for some human solid tumors. This is a phase II trial to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and toxicity of paclitaxel administered concurrently with split-course radiotherapy in advanced unresectable SCCHN. Methods and Materials Thirty-one patients with advanced SCCHN were enrolled in this trial. Radiotherapy consisted of 66 to 70 Gy delivered over 8 to 10 weeks to the primary tumor and lymphatic drainage, with a fractionation scheme of 1.8 to 2 Gy/field/d. After the initial five patients were treated, a 1-week treatment break was introduced. Paclitaxel was administered weekly in a 1-hour intravenous infusion at a projected dosage of 45 mg/m2/wk. Results The complete and partial response rates, based on a 4-week postradiation evaluation were 43.3% and 40%, respectively, with an overall response rate of 83.3%. Median survival was 49.4 weeks, and 1-year survival was 48%. Freedom from local progression was 65.6% at 1 year. Thirty-six percent and 20% of the patients are alive and disease free at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Grade 3/4 of acute toxicity consisted mostly of mucositis, cutaneous reaction, and weight loss. Conclusions Paclitaxel concurrent with radiotherapy seems to be active in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In the regimen selected for this trial, toxicity was significant and led to a prolongation of treatment time. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 228,235, 2002; DOI 10.1002/hed.10049 [source]


    Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the neck from an unknown primary: Management options and patterns of relapse,

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 3 2002
    Shahrokh Iganej MD
    Abstract Purpose Management of squamous cell carcinoma of undetermined primary tumors in the head and neck region is controversial. Here we report the Southern California Kaiser Permanente experience with these patients. Methods and Materials From January 1969 through December 1994, 106 patients were eligible for this retrospective analysis. Distribution of nodal staging was as follows: 14 N1, 27 N2A, 39 N2B, 2 N2C, and 24 N3. Initial treatment included excisional biopsy alone in 12, radical neck dissection alone in 29, radiotherapy alone in 24, excisional biopsy followed by radiotherapy in 15, and radical neck dissection plus postoperative radiation in 26 patients. Results Except for two patients, all patients have had a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Overall, 57 patients (54%) have had recurrences. Only two patients (3%) who had received radiotherapy as part of their initial treatment had an appearance of a potential primary site inside the irradiated field vs 13 patients (32%) who had not received radiotherapy (p = .006). Combined modality therapy resulted in fewer neck relapses, particularly in patients with advanced neck disease. Including salvage, surgery alone as the initial treatment resulted in 81% ultimate tumor control above the clavicle for patients with N1 and N2a disease without extracapsular extension. The 5-year survival for the entire population was 53%. Radiotherapy alone resulted in poor survival in patients with advanced/unresectable neck disease. No significant difference in survival based on the initial treatment was found. The statistically significant adverse factors in determining survival included advanced nodal stage and the presence of extracapsular extension. Conclusions Radiotherapy is very effective in reducing the rate of appearance of a potential primary site. However, in the absence of advanced neck disease (N1 and N2A without extracapsular extension), radiotherapy can be reserved for salvage. Radiotherapy alone results in poor outcomes in patients with advanced/unresectable neck disease, and incorporation of concurrent chemotherapy and cytoprotective agents should be investigated. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 236,246, 2002; DOI 10.1002/hed.10017 [source]


    Increased risk of colon cancer after external radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 5 2008
    Elisabetta Rapiti
    Abstract Radiotherapy can induce second cancers. Controversies still exist regarding the risk of second malignancies after irradiation for prostate cancer. We evaluated the risk of developing colon and rectum cancers after prostate cancer in irradiated and nonirradiated patients. Using data from the population-based Geneva cancer registry, we included in the study all men with prostate cancer diagnosed between 1980 and 1998 who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. Of the 1,134 patients, 264 were treated with external radiotherapy. Patients were followed for occurrence of colorectal cancer up to 31 December, 2003. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates for the general population to obtain the expected cancer incidence. The cohort yielded to 3,798 person-years. At the end of follow-up 19 patients had developed a colorectal cancer. Among irradiated patients the SIR for colorectal cancer was 3.4 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.7,6.0). Compared to the general population, the risk was significantly higher for colon cancer (SIR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.8,7.6), but not for rectal cancer (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.2,7.2). The risk of colon cancer was increased in the period of 5,9 years after diagnosis (SIR = 4.7, 95% CI: 2.0,9.2). The overall SIR of secondary cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy was 1.35 (p = 0.056). Nonirradiated patients did not have any increased risk of rectal or colon cancer. This study shows a significant increase of colon but not rectum cancer after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The risk of second cancer after irradiation, although probably small, needs nevertheless to be carefully monitored. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Incidence of bone and soft tissue sarcoma after radiotherapy: A cohort study of 295,712 Finnish cancer patients

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 4 2006
    Anna Virtanen
    Abstract Radiotherapy is commonly used for treatment of malignant disease. As a consequence of radiotherapy, an increased risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm has been shown. However, little is known about the effects of radiation on developing sarcoma. The aim of this study was to examine the risk of developing a bone or soft tissue sarcoma after radiotherapy for a first primary cancer. The study population included all the patients with primary cancers of breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, lung, ovary, prostate, rectum and lymphoma diagnosed during 1953,2000 and identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Patients were followed up for subsequent sarcomas. The follow-up yielded 1.5 million person-years at risk and 147 sarcomas. Compared to the national incidence rates, after 10 years of follow-up sarcoma risk was increased among patients who had received neither radiotherapy nor chemotherapy (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 2.0, 95% CI 1.3,3.0), radiotherapy without chemotherapy (SIR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3,4.3), chemotherapy without radiotherapy (SIR 4.9, 95% CI 1.0,14.4), as well as combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (SIR 3.4, 95% CI 0.4,12.5). For radiotherapy in ages below 55 the SIR was 4.2 (95% CI 2.9,5.8). In the adjusted regression analysis the rate ratio was 1.5 (95% CI 0.9,2.6) for the radiotherapy group. In conclusion, radiotherapy appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing sarcoma especially among younger patients. Further investigation is needed to clarify the dose,response of the preceding ionizing radiation. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Radiotherapy for giant squamous cell carcinomas

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    Vincenzo De Giorgi MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: Systematic review of radiobiology and modeling projections indicate reconsideration of its use

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Alan J Wigg
    Abstract Background and Aims:, External beam radiotherapy currently has a limited role in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of this article was to review available radiobiological data on HCC and normal liver and incorporate these data into radiobiological models that may be used to explain and improve treatment. Methods:, Volume doubling times of HCC were described and used to demonstrate growth of HCC with time, assuming both exponential and logistic growth. Radiosensitivity of HCC was described and used to demonstrate the probability of uncomplicated tumor control as tumor size increases. The relationship between tolerance of liver to irradiation and volume irradiated was examined. Results:, The median volume doubling time for untreated HCC was 130 days. HCC have a long period of subclinical growth. Radiosensitivity of HCC lies within the range of other tumors commonly treated with radiotherapy. When treating small volumes of normal liver, relatively high doses may be used with low risk of late radiation damage. There is a high probability of sterilizing subclinical disease and small HCC with tolerable radiation doses. Conclusion:, New radiobiological data, modeling, emerging clinical data and the advantages offered by standard external beam radiotherapy techniques suggest the need for reconsidering the use of radiotherapy and for new trials. [source]


    Use of radiotherapy to treat life-threatening Kasabach,Merritt syndrome

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING AND RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    E Leong
    Summary Kasabach,Merritt syndrome involves thrombocytopenia, which is usually severe, in association with haemangiomata. We describe two newborn infants who developed life-threatening Kasabach,Merritt syndrome but who were successfully treated. Both had failed to respond adequately to corticosteroids and ,-interferon. They subsequently received emergency radiotherapy. Both patients had an improvement in their platelet counts. The first infant's haemangioma gradually faded during the first 3 years of life, whereas the second infant's haemangioma had resolved 2 months after radiotherapy. No significant late effects of the radiotherapy have been noted at the 8 and 5 years follow up respectively. Radiotherapy remains an important treatment method in Kasabach,Merritt syndrome when patients fail to respond to other treatments. [source]


    Treatment recommendations in patients diagnosed with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING AND RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    MJ Veness
    Summary Non-melanoma cutaneous cancers occur at an epidemic rate in Australia. With an ageing population, more Australians will develop these cancers and at an increasing rate. In the majority of cases local treatment is highly curative. However, a subset of the population will be diagnosed with a high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. These can be defined as patients at risk of having subclinical metastases to regional lymph nodes based on unfavourable primary lesion features (including inadequately excised and recurrent lesions), patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to regional lymph nodes, and squamous cell carcinoma in immunosuppressed patients. The mortality and morbidity associated with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is usually as a consequence of uncontrolled metastatic nodal disease and, to a lesser extent, distant metastases. Radiotherapy has an essential role in treating these patients and in many cases the addition of adjuvant radiotherapy may be life saving. It is therefore important that all clinicians treating skin cancers have an understanding and awareness of the optimal approach to these patients. The aim of this article is to present treatment recommendations based on an overview of the current published literature. [source]


    Are single fractions of radiotherapy suitable for plantar fasciitis?

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING AND RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Fabian Schwarz
    Summary The use of radiotherapy for plantar fasciitis has never been reported in Australasia and is scarcely found in the English language medical literature, but it is commonly used in Europe, especially in Germany. In Europe, treatment courses consisting of multiple small fractions have been associated with high levels of pain relief. In the present report, the use of single fractions or radiotherapy was evaluated by reviewing seven consecutive patients referred for treatment and by applying objective and subjective criteria for pain relief. One patient died of unrelated causes soon after treatment and one declined to receive radiotherapy. Four patients each received a single dose of 8 Gy resulting in complete pain relief. One patient was treated with 8 Gy and 12 weeks later was retreated achieving partial pain relief. A follow-up interview was conducted after a mean of 15.6 months, ranging from 1.5 to 30 months. No acute or late effects occurred; however, the possibility that delayed effects may yet occur, particularly carcinogenesis, cannot be excluded. Radiotherapy for this common condition should be investigated further as it might be safer and more effective than other methods currently in use. [source]


    Management of cancer gallbladder found as a surprise on a resected gallbladder specimen

    JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 8 2006
    FRCS (Glasg), Mahesh Chandra Misra MS
    Abstract Carcinoma gallbladder is associated with an overall 5-year survival rate reported less than 5% due to late diagnosis. Advent of ultrasound scanning may help in detecting gallbladder polyps and an early gallbladder cancer. Excellent 5-year survival (up to 100%) has been reported for Stage Ia disease and the survival has significantly improved for Stage Ib, II, and III if appropriate re-operation is carried out soon after the incidental detection of gallbladder cancer. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is contraindicated in the presence of gallbladder cancer. It is recommended to excise all laparoscopic port sites, at the time of re-operation. Re-operation for Stage II gallbladder cancer is associated with a 90,100% 3-year survival rate. Patients with Stage III and IV tumors also benefit from an extended cholecystectomy. Patients with bulky primary tumors without lymph node metastases (T4N0) seem to have a better prognosis than those with distant lymph node metastases, and should be treated aggressively. It is advantageous to perform the appropriate extent of surgery for gallbladder cancer at the initial operation. Heightened awareness of the presence of cancer and the knowledge of appropriate management are important. For patients whose cancer is an incidental finding on pathologic review, re-resection is indicated for all disease except Stage Ia. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy have not been found effective as an adjuvant or palliative therapy in gallbladder cancer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2006;93:690,698. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Current management of mucosal melanoma of the head and neck

    JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Jesus E. Medina MD
    Abstract While mucosal-based melanomas of the head and neck region are uncommon lesions, when they do arise they usually follow an inexorably aggressive course. Experience with these tumors is, necessarily, limited; as such, well-worked out treatment protocols for the treatment of such lesions are in short supply. It appears as though mucosal melanomas (MuMs) develop more frequently in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus region, and less often in the oral cavity. It seems that the incidence of nodal metastasis is significantly lower for sinonasal MuMs than it is for MuMs of the oral cavity; this observation may influence decisions about performing neck dissection as a function of location of the primary MuM. At present, surgical excision remains the mainstay of treatment; however, anatomical complexities within the region can hamper attempts at complete excision. Radiotherapy has not traditionally been relied on for routine treatment of MuM, although some recent reports have challenged this view. Chemotherapy is, at present, employed principally in the treatment of disseminated disease and for palliation. As a diagnostic matter, MuM belongs to the class of tumors that, on light microscopy, may with some regularity be confused with other malignancies (including sarcomas, plasmacytomas, and carcinomas); as a consequence, this is a diagnosis which is often best confirmed by way of ancillary testing via immunohistochemical studies. A better grasp of the best means of treating MuM will likely come only when large referral centers are able to pool their experiences with these uncommon yet virulent malignancies. J. Surg. Oncol. 2003;83:116,122. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Adjuvant Pamidronate with Palliative Radiotherapy and Intravenous Doxorubicin for Canine Appendicular Osteosarcoma Bone Pain

    JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, Issue 1 2009
    T.M. Fan
    Background: Canine osteosarcoma (OSA) causes focal malignant osteolysis leading to severe pain. Despite the documented efficacy of radiotherapy or IV aminobisphosphonates for managing cancer bone pain, their potential combined therapeutic value has not been reported in OSA-bearing dogs. Hypothesis: Pamidronate combined with standardized palliative therapy will improve pain control and bone biologic effects in OSA-bearing dogs. Animals: Fifty dogs with appendicular OSA treated with standardized palliative therapy and either pamidronate or sterile saline. Methods: Randomized, prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Treatment responses for dogs receiving standardized palliative therapy with (n = 26) or without (n = 24) adjuvant pamidronate were serially evaluated for changes in subjective pain scores, urine N-telopeptide (NTx) excretion, primary tumor relative bone mineral density (rBMD), and computerized pressure platform gait analysis. Results: Median duration of subjective pain relief for dogs treated with adjuvant pamidronate or placebo was 76 and 75 days, respectively (P= .39). Forty percent (20/50; pamidronate [11/26] and placebo [9/24]) of dogs experienced durable analgesia, defined by pain alleviation ,112 days. For patients achieving durable pain control, dogs treated with pamidronate achieved greater reductions in NTx excretion and larger increases in rBMD compared with placebo controls. Changes in peak vertical force assessed by computerized pressure platform gait analysis correlated with pain alleviation in OSA-bearing dogs. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Combining pamidronate with standardized palliative therapy is safe, but does not clearly improve pain alleviation. However, in dogs achieving durable pain control, adjuvant pamidronate appears to decrease focal bone resorption in the local tumor microenvironment. [source]


    Developing anticancer chemotherapy services in a developing country: Hodgkin lymphoma experience

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 4 2008
    Jagdish Chandra MD
    Abstract Background and Objective Reporting on how the cancer treatment facilities were developed at a medical college hospital in India and the profile and outcome of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) at this new center were the objectives of the study. Methods Patients under 18 years with a diagnosis of HL were evaluated using abdominal ultrasonography, CT scan examination of chest, abdomen and pelvis and bone marrow examination. Most patients were treated with combination chemotherapy. Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Pathology were involved for evaluation. Radiotherapy when required was made available at a nearby hospital. Results Thirty-five patients between 1.2 and 18 years (median age 7 years) were diagnosed as HL during the study period. Advanced disease (Stage IIb or more) was present in 83% cases. Mixed cellularity was the commonest histological subtype (50.5%). Primary therapy used was COPP in 29 (83%) cases. Of the 34 patients who received treatment 30 showed initial good response to therapy. One patient responded to ABVD after having progression on COPP. Of 31 responders, 4 relapsed. Twenty-seven patients (80%) are surviving free of disease for a median follow up of 4.5 years (range 1.5,18 years). Chemotherapy was well tolerated. Febrile neutropenia occurred in four cases. Conclusions Pediatric HL in India was characterized by advanced disease at presentation. Mixed-cellularity was the predominant histological subtype. An effective program was developed with initial attention to patients with HL. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:485,488. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Brain-sparing radiotherapy for neuroblastoma skull metastases

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 6 2008
    Suzanne L. Wolden MD
    Abstract Background Neuroblastoma (NB) frequently metastasizes to the skull, often diffusely involving the calvarium and skull base. Radiotherapy may enhance local control; however, irradiating the brain is undesirable in young patients. The purpose of this study was to describe the technique, outcome and toxicities in patients with high risk NB metastatic to the skull treated with brain-sparing skull radiotherapy (BSRT). Procedure Between 1999 and 2007, 31 patients with INSS stage four high risk NB, aged 2,32 years (median 6 years), underwent multimodality therapy, including radiotherapy to the whole skull using a brain-sparing technique never previously described in this population. Dosimetric analyses were performed to compare the BSRT technique to a whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) technique. Patients were either treated to consolidate upfront induction therapy (n,=,22) or to palliate relapsed disease (n,=,9). Results Thirty of 31 patients (97%) completed the full course of BSRT. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 1,83 months). Radiographic response to therapy was noted in 89% of patients. The actuarial rate of disease control in the skull was 89% and 60% 1 year after starting BSRT in patients treated in consolidation and for palliation, respectively. BSRT delivered half of the mean radiation dose to the brain when dosimetrically compared to whole brain radiotherapy. Few patients experienced significant toxicity. Conclusions BSRT in NB patients with diffuse skull metastases offers dosimetric advantages over WBRT and results in good local control when used in the consolidative setting. The technique is well tolerated and while toxicity appears acceptable, longer follow-up is necessary. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;50:1163,1168. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    In Vivo Radioprotective Effects of Nigella sativa L Oil and Reduced Glutathione Against Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Injury and Number of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in Rats

    PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Mustafa Cemek
    Radiotherapy is one of the most common therapies for treating human cancers. Several studies have indicated that irradiation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play an important role in radiation damage of the cell. It has been shown that Nigella saliva L. (NS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) have both an antiperoxidative effect on different tissues and a scavenger effect on ROS. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant and radio-protective roles of NS and GSH against irradiation-induced oxidative injury in an experimental model. The NS group was administrated NS (1 mL/kg body weight), the GSH group was injected GSH (150 mg/kg body weight) and the control group was given physiologic saline solution (1 mL/kg body weight) for 30 consecutive days before exposure to a single dose of 6 Gy of radiation. Animals were sacrificed after irradiation. Malondialdehyde, nitrate, nitrite (oxidative stress markers) and ascorbic acid, retinol, ,-carotene, GSH and ceruloplasmin (nonenzymatic antioxidant markers) levels and peripheral blood lymphocytes were measured in all groups. There were statistically significant differences between the groups for all parameters (P < 0.05). Whole-body irradiation caused a significant increase in blood malondialdehyde, nitrate and nitrite levels. The blood oxidative stress marker levels in irradiated rats that were pretreated with NS and GSH were significantly decreased; however, non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were significantly increased. Also, our results suggest that NS and GSH administration prior to irradiation prevent the number of alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase peripheral blood T lymphocytes from declining. These results clearly show that NS and GSH treatment significantly antagonize the effects of radiation. Therefore, NS and GSH may be a beneficial agent in protection against ionizing radiation-related tissue injury. [source]


    Grade III Dermatitis in a Patient Treated with Paclitaxel and Radiotherapy

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 6 2003
    Ruffo De Freitas Jr. MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Psychophysiological Assessment of Sexual Function in Women After Radiotherapy and Total Mesorectal Excision for Rectal Cancer: A Pilot Study on Four Patients

    THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 4 2009
    Stephanie O. Breukink MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., The potential contribution of psychological and anatomical changes to sexual dysfunction in female patients following short-term preoperative radiotherapy (5 5 Gy) and total mesorectal excision (TME) is not clear. Aim., In this study we assessed female sexual dysfunction in patients who underwent radiotherapy and TME for rectal cancer. Main Outcome Measures., Genital arousal was assessed using vaginal videoplethysmography. Methods., Sexual functioning was examined in four patients who had rectal cancer and underwent radiotherapy and TME. All investigations were done at least 15 months after treatment. The results were compared with an age-matched group of 18 healthy women. Results., The patients and healthy controls showed comparable changes in vaginal vasocongestion during sexual arousal, though three out of four patients showed a lower mean spectral tension (MST) of the vaginal pulse compared with healthy controls. Subjective sexual arousal was equivalent between the two groups. Conclusions., In this study the changes of genital and subjective sexual arousal after erotic stimulus condition between patients and healthy controls were not different, though lower MST of the vaginal pulse was found in three out of four patients compared with healthy women. Additional work, however, must be performed to clarify the mechanisms of sexual dysfunction following treatment of rectal cancer. Breukink SO, Wouda JC, van der Werf - Eldering MJ, van de Wiel HBM, Bouma EMC, Pierie JP- EN, Wiggers T, Meijerink JWJHJ, and Weijmar Schultz WCM. Psychophysiological assessment of sexual function in women after radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: A pilot study on four patients. J Sex Med **;**:**,**. [source]


    Skull Base Osteoradionecrosis following Radiotherapy for Acromegaly

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue S3 2010
    Michael S. Harris MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Strategic Placement of Osseointegrated Implants in Orbital Exenteration Defects Prior to Postoperative Radiotherapy (PORT)

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue S1 2009
    John W. Werning MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Radiotherapy in laryngeal carcinoma: Can a panel of 13 markers predict response?,,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 2 2009
    Maarten A. M. Wildeman MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: To find biomarkers associated with response to radiotherapy in laryngeal cancer that can be used together with clinical parameters to improve outcome prediction. Methods: In this study, 26 patients irradiated for laryngeal carcinomas with a local recurrence within two years (cases) and 33 patients without recurrence (controls) were included. All pretreatment biopsies were arrayed onto a tissue array. Immunohistochemistry was performed for 13 biomarkers that were selected from the literature as potential predictors for radioresponse in head and neck (HN) cancer: Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, p16, p21, p27, p53, cyclin D1, HIF-1,, CA9, COX-2, EGFR, ki-67, and pRB. Results: Univariate logistic regression models showed borderline statistically significant increased relative risks, with positivity for CA9, COX-2, and p53. Goeman's global testing revealed an overall association between outcome and the 13 markers together with clinical variables. The most important markers were CA9 and COX-2. Conclusions: In laryngeal carcinoma, hypoxia and COX-2 overexpression provide a stronger contribution to an increased risk of local recurrence after radiotherapy compared with the well-known candidate markers p53, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1. However, no robust expression profile for the prediction of radioresistance was found. Laryngoscope, 2009 [source]


    Long-Term Results of a Phase III Randomized Trial of Postoperative Radiotherapy With or Without Carboplatin in Patients With High-Risk Head and Neck Cancer

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 3 2008
    Athanassios Argiris MD
    Abstract Background: The role of postoperative radiotherapy and carboplatin in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) has not been established. Methods: Patients with macroscopically resected stage III/IV SCCHN with high-risk pathologic features (,3 lymph nodes, extracapsular extension, perineural or angiolymphatic invasion, or involved margins) were randomized to receive postoperative radiotherapy alone (arm A) or the same radiotherapy plus carboplatin 100 mg/m2 intravenously once weekly during radiation (arm B). The primary endpoint was 2-year disease-free survival. Results: Seventy-six patients were randomized, of whom 72 were eligible and analyzable (36 in each arm). The study was prematurely closed because of slow accrual. With a median follow-up of 5.3 years, the disease-free survival at 2 and 5 years was 71% and 53% in arm B versus 58% (P = .27) and 49% (P = .72) in arm A. The overall survival at 2 and 5 years was 74% and 47% in arm B versus 51% (P = .04) and 41% (P = .61) in arm A. Serious toxicities were infrequent in both arms. Conclusions: We could not demonstrate a benefit with the addition of carboplatin to postoperative radiotherapy, possibly because of insufficient sample size. [source]