Radiosurgery

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Radiosurgery

  • gamma knife radiosurgery
  • knife radiosurgery
  • stereotactic radiosurgery


  • Selected Abstracts


    Salvage treatment for persistent and recurrent T1,2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma by stereotactic radiosurgery

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 9 2001
    Daniel T. T. Chua FRCR
    Abstract Objective To study the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in salvaging early-stage persistent and recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after primary radiotherapy. Methods A prospective single-arm study evaluating the response and outcome of patients with rT1,2 NPC treated by stereotactic radiosurgery. Eleven patients with rT1,2 were treated by radiosurgery between March 1998 and March 2000. Four patients were treated for persistent disease occurring within 4 months after primary radiotherapy, six were treated for first recurrence, and one for third recurrence. Six patients had rT1 disease and five had rT2 disease. Most patients had disease not amenable to brachytherapy, surgery, or external re-irradiation. The median target volume was 5.8 cc (range, 3.3,16.9). Radiosurgery was performed with multiple noncoplanar arcs of photon, with a median dose of 12.5 Gy delivered to the 80% isodose line (range, 12,14 Gy). Median follow-up time after radiosurgery was 18 months (range, 9,30). Results Nine patients had complete regression of tumor as assessed by imaging, nasopharyngoscopy, and biopsy; one patient had partial regression of tumor; whereas one patient had static disease. The overall response rate was 91% (10 of 11) and the complete response rate was 82% (9 of 11). Two patients with complete response subsequently had local relapse develop, with one recurrence outside the treated volume 8 months after radiosurgery, and the other within the treated volume 6 months after radiosurgery. One patient with a partial response had neck node recurrence develop. Temporal lobe necrosis occurred in one patient but probably represents sequelae of primary radiation after reviewing the dosimetry. Ten patients are still alive, whereas one patient with local relapse had distant metastases develop and died. The estimated 1-year local control rate after radiosurgery was 82%. Conclusions Our preliminary results indicate that stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective treatment modality for persistent and recurrent T1,T2 NPC, and early control rate seems to be comparable to other salvage treatments. More clinical experiences and longer follow-up are still needed to validate our results and to address fully the role of radiosurgery in salvaging local failures of NPC. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Head Neck 23: 791,798, 2001. [source]


    Repeat Trigeminal Nerve Radiosurgery for Refractory Cluster Headache Fails to Provide Long-Term Pain Relief

    HEADACHE, Issue 2 2007
    Shearwood McClelland III MD
    Objective/Background.,Medically refractory cluster headache (MRCH) is a debilitating condition that has proven resistant to many modalities. Previous reports have indicated that radiosurgery for MRCH provides little long-term pain relief, with moderate/significant morbidity. However, there have been no reports of repeated radiosurgery in this patient population. We present our findings from the first reports of repeat radiosurgery for MRCH. Methods.,Two patients with MRCH underwent repeat gamma knife radiosurgery at our institution. Each fulfilled clinical criteria for treatment, including complete resistance to pharmacotherapy, pain primarily localized to the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, and psychological stability. Both patients previously received gamma knife radiosurgery (75 Gy) for MRCH with no morbidity, but no long-term improvement of pain relief (Patient 1 = 5 months, Patient 2 = 10 months) after treatment. For repeat radiosurgery, each patient received 75 Gy to the 100% isodose line delivered to the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve, and was evaluated postretreatment. Pain relief was defined as: excellent (free of MRCH with minimal/no medications), good (50% reduction of MRCH severity/frequency with medications), fair (25% reduction), or poor (less than 25% reduction). Results.,Following repeat radiosurgery, long-term pain relief was poor in both patients. Neither patient sustained any immediate morbidity following radiosurgery. Patient 2 experienced right facial numbness 4 months postretreatment, while Patient 1 experienced no morbidity. Conclusion.,Repeat radiosurgery of the trigeminal nerve fails to provide long-term pain relief for MRCH. Given the reported failures of initial and repeat radiosurgery for MRCH, trigeminal nerve radiosurgery should not be offered for MRCH. [source]


    Update of radiosurgery at the Royal Adelaide Hospital

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING AND RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    DE Roos
    Summary This is an update of the Royal Adelaide Hospital radiosurgery experience between November 1993 and December 2004 comprising 165 patients with 168 intracranial lesions. Including re-treatment, there were 175 treatment episodes (163 radiosurgery and 12 stereotactic radiotherapy) at an average of 1.3 per month. The commonest lesions were acoustic neuroma (65), arteriovenous malformation (58), solitary brain metastasis (23) and meningioma (14). The clinical features, treatment details and outcome are described. Our results continue to be well within the range reported in the published work. Radiosurgery provides an elegant, non-invasive alternative to neurosurgery and conventional external beam radiotherapy for many benign and malignant brain tumours. [source]


    Cyberknife Radiosurgery for Basal Skull Plasmacytoma

    JOURNAL OF NEUROIMAGING, Issue 4 2006
    Eric T. Wong MD
    ABSTRACT The Cyberknife delivers frameless image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery to intracranial and extracranial tumors. We report our use of Cyberknife radiosurgery on a medullary plasmacytoma in the clivus extending into the foramen magnum. No acute toxicity was seen during or within 24 hours of treatment, and the subject had a complete and durable radiographic response on MRI 12+ months after treatment. To our knowledge, this is a first case of successful Cyberknife radiosurgery of a medullary plasmacytoma. [source]


    Radiosurgery versus carbon dioxide laser for dermatochalasis correction in Asians,

    LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE, Issue 2 2007
    Carol S. Yu MBBS (Hons), MRCS (Edin)
    Abstract Background and Objectives Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser and radiosurgery are techniques commonly employed in oculoplastic surgery. However, there is no literature comparing their results in blepharoplasty. Study Design/Materials and Methods Twenty Chinese patients with dermatochalasis underwent radiosurgery in one upper eyelid and CO2 laser in the contralateral eyelid. Intraoperative time, hemorrhage, and pain control were assessed. Subjects were evaluated at postoperative 1 hour, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months for hemorrhage and wound healing by a masked assessor. Results All patients reported minimal pain with either technique. A significantly shorter operative time was achieved with CO2 laser, with better intraoperative hemostasis. There was no significant difference in postoperative hemorrhage and wound swelling between radiosurgery and CO2 laser. No significant intraoperative complications were noted. Conclusions Both radiosurgery and CO2 laser are equally safe and effective for upper lid blepharoplasty. CO2 laser achieves shorter operative time with superior intraoperative hemostasis. Lasers Surg. Med. 39:176,179, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Small Vestibular Schwannomas With No Hearing: Comparison of Functional Outcomes in Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Microsurgery

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 11 2008
    Daniel H. Coelho MD
    Abstract Objectives: To date, numerous studies have compared functional outcomes between stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and microsurgery (MS) in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas (VS). However, most of them involve tumors of difference sizes, radiation dosages, and surgical approaches. Few have systematically compared issues of dysequilibrium. By studying only patients with small tumors and no hearing, we sought to minimize confounding variables. Study Design: A retrospective chart review and telephone questionnaire. Methods: From 1998,2006, 31 patients with small (<1.5 cm) VS and nonserviceable hearing (American Academy of Otolaryngology,Head and Neck Surgery [AAO-HNS] Class C or D) were treated at our institution. Twenty-two were available for follow-up and telephone questionnaire, including the University of California Los Angeles Dizziness Questionnaire (UCLA-DQ). Twelve underwent SRS and 10 underwent MS. All MS patients underwent the translabyrinthine approach to their tumors. Outcomes measurements included tumor control, facial nerve function, tinnitus, trigeminal function, and imbalance. Results: Patients undergoing SRS had comparable rates of tumor control, facial nerve function, tinnitus, and trigeminal function to MS patients. However, SRS did result in statistically significantly worse long-term imbalance when compared with MS patients. Detailed comparisons of the two modalities are made. Conclusions: In our study population, patients with small tumors and no serviceable hearing, these data suggest that MS results in comparable minimal morbidity with SRS, though posttreatment dysequilibrium is significantly decreased. While the authors recommend translabyrinthine resection of small VS with no hearing in patients able to tolerate surgery, the need for further prospective investigation is clear. [source]


    Long-Term Hearing Results in Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 6 2008
    Matthew L. Bush MD
    Abstract Objectives: There are many studies that have examined functional outcomes following Gamma Knife treatment; however, few have reported long-term audiometric data. This study analyzed the long-term hearing results of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in the treatment of acoustic neuromas. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Seventeen patients were selected from our acoustic neuroma Gamma Knife registry of 113 patients treated from 1991 to 2005. Pretreatment audiograms were analyzed for pure-tone average and word recognition scores and assigned a Gardner-Robertson classification score (GRC). Either a current audiogram was obtained or the most recent audiogram (if the patient was lost to follow-up) was reviewed from clinic charts and these were compared with the preoperative results. Audiometric data of the pre- and posttreatment normal ear were obtained and used as the patient's own control. Results: The tumor size ranged from 0.5 to 2.8 cm (mean, 1.33 cm) and patients received a range of 12.5,16 Gy (mean, 13.82 Gy) to 50% isodose line. Patient follow-up ranged from 3 to 82 months with a mean of 33.6 months. Pretreatment pure-tone average for the involved side group was 30.6 dB HL with a word recognition score of 74%. Pretreatment mean GRC was 1.76. posttreatment pure-tone average for the group was 59.7 dB HL with a word recognition score of 37%. posttreatment mean GRC was 3.29. Comparing pre- versus post-Gamma Knife radiosurgery results on the treatment ear, means were statistically significantly different for both pure-tone average and word recognition scores, based on a paired-samples t test (P < .001 for both). The group "normal" ear pure-tone average was 14 dB HL and 17.75 dB HL pre- and posttreat-ment, respectively. Normal ear pre- and posttreatment word recognition score and GRC were 93% and 98%, and 1.13 and 1.31, respectively. Conclusion: Gamma Knife radiosurgery remains a noninvasive treatment option for patients with acoustic neuromas; however, they may experience a delayed hearing loss. Of those patients with useful audition pretreatment, 42% maintained useful hearing posttreatment. [source]


    Proliferation Potential in Recurrent Acoustic Schwannoma Following Gamma Knife Radiosurgery versus Microsurgery,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 6 2002
    Frank Lee MD
    Abstract Objective To evaluate the proliferation potential of recurrent acoustic schwannoma following gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) versus microsurgery. Study Design Retrospective study. Methods A review of surgical records of the House Ear Clinic revealed 8 patients who had undergone GKR and 15 patients who had undergone microsurgery who had unilateral acoustic schwannoma recurrences. Immunohistochemical studies were performed to evaluate the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) on archival paraffin-embedded blocks. Results All 8 GKR and 15 microsurgical tumors had positive staining for PCNA. The recurrent GKR tumors had significantly lower proliferation levels than in the microsurgical group (P = .03). Two GKR tumors had high proliferation levels. Conclusions Our study indicates that recurrent vestibular schwannomas treated with GKR have lower proliferation potential as assessed by PCNA compared with recurrences following microsurgery. Radiation-induced apoptosis is thought to contribute to the lower tumor cell proliferation in GKR tumor. The two GKR tumors with high proliferation potential could be a result of radiation-induced sporadic mutation, resulting in high tumor cell proliferation. [source]


    Radiosurgical treatment of vestibular schwannomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2

    CANCER, Issue 2 2009
    Tumor control, hearing preservation
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The radiosurgical treatment of vestibular schwannomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is controversial. The authors investigated the radiologically proven tumor control rate after gamma knife radiosurgery. The factors that affect tumor control and serviceable hearing preservation were analyzed. METHODS: Thirty-six lesions in 30 patients were included. The median lengths of the clinical and radiologic follow-ups were 48.5 months and 36.5 months, respectively. The median tumor volume was 3.2 cm3. The mean marginal dose was 12.1 grays (Gy) (range, 8,14 Gy) at an isodose line of 50%0.6%. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used for the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The actuarial tumor control rate was 81%, 74%, and 66%, respectively, in the first, second, and fifth years. Five tumors required a salvage surgery because of tumor control failure. A low marginal dose and a young age at radiosurgery were associated with poor tumor control. Of the 16 tumors with which ipsilateral hearing was serviceable, the actuarial serviceable hearing preservation rates were 50%, 45%, and 33%, respectively, in the first, second, and fifth years. Better ipsilateral hearing (Gardner-Robertson grade 1, compared with grade 2) at the time of radiosurgery was associated with significantly greater serviceable hearing preservation. CONCLUSIONS: Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas in NF2 patients provided 5-year tumor control in approximately two-thirds of patients and preserved serviceable hearing in approximately one-third. The rates of other cranial nerve deficits were low, and no secondary malignancy was observed. Radiosurgery should be included in treatment options for NF2 patients. Cancer 2009. 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]


    Radiosurgery for the treatment of spinal lung metastases

    CANCER, Issue 11 2006
    Peter C. Gerszten MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND. Spinal metastases are a common source of pain as well as neurologic deficit in patients with lung cancer. Metastases from lung cancer traditionally have been believed to be relatively responsive to radiation therapy. However, conventional external beam radiotherapy lacks the precision to allow delivery of large single-fraction doses of radiation and simultaneously limit the dose to radiosensitive structures such as the spinal cord. The current study evaluated the efficacy of single-fraction radiosurgery for the treatment of spinal lung cancer metastases. METHODS. In the current prospective cohort evaluation, 87 lung cancer metastases to the spine in 77 patients were treated with a single-fraction radiosurgery technique with a follow-up period of 6 to 40 months (median, 12 months). The indication for radiosurgery treatment was pain in 73 cases, as a primary treatment modality in 7 cases, for radiographic tumor progression in 4 cases, and for progressive neurologic deficit in 3 cases. RESULTS. Tumor volume ranged from 0.2 to 264 cm3 (mean, 25.7 cm3). The maximum tumor dose was maintained at 15 to 25 grays (Gy) (mean, 20 Gy; median, 20 Gy). No radiation-induced toxicity occurred during the follow-up period. Long-term axial and radicular pain improvement occurred in 65 of 73 patients (89%) who were treated primarily for pain. Long-term radiographic tumor control was observed in all patients who underwent radiosurgery as their primary treatment modality or for radiographic tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS. Spinal radiosurgery was found to be feasible, safe, and clinically effective for the treatment of spinal metastases from lung cancer. The results of the current study indicate the potential of radiosurgery in the treatment of patients with spinal lung metastases, especially those with solitary sites of spine involvement, to improve long-term palliation. Cancer 2006. 2006 American Cancer Society. [source]


    Radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas

    CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
    M. Brada
    First page of article [source]


    Glomus jugulare tumor: Tumor control and complications after stereotactic radiosurgery

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 4 2002
    Robert L. Foote MD
    Abstract Background We evaluated toxicity and long-term efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with symptomatic or progressive glomus jugulare tumors. Methods Twenty-five consecutive patients (age, 30,88 years; 17 women, 8 men) who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife (dose, 12,18 Gy) were prospectively followed. MRI and clinical examinations were performed at 6 months and 1, 2, and 3 years, and then every 2 years. Results None of the tumors increased in size, 17 were stable, and 8 decreased (median imaging follow-up, 35 months; range, 10,113 months). Symptoms subsided in 15 patients (60%); vertigo occurred in 1, but balance improved with vestibular training (median clinical follow-up, 37 months; range, 11,118 months). No other new or progressive neuropathy of cranial nerves V,XII developed. Conclusions Stereotactic radiosurgery can achieve excellent tumor control with low risk of morbidity in the treatment of glomus jugulare tumors. The lower cranial nerves can safely tolerate a radiosurgical dose of 12 to 18 Gy. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 332,339, 2002; DOI 10.1002/hed.10005 [source]


    Salvage treatment for persistent and recurrent T1,2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma by stereotactic radiosurgery

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 9 2001
    Daniel T. T. Chua FRCR
    Abstract Objective To study the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in salvaging early-stage persistent and recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after primary radiotherapy. Methods A prospective single-arm study evaluating the response and outcome of patients with rT1,2 NPC treated by stereotactic radiosurgery. Eleven patients with rT1,2 were treated by radiosurgery between March 1998 and March 2000. Four patients were treated for persistent disease occurring within 4 months after primary radiotherapy, six were treated for first recurrence, and one for third recurrence. Six patients had rT1 disease and five had rT2 disease. Most patients had disease not amenable to brachytherapy, surgery, or external re-irradiation. The median target volume was 5.8 cc (range, 3.3,16.9). Radiosurgery was performed with multiple noncoplanar arcs of photon, with a median dose of 12.5 Gy delivered to the 80% isodose line (range, 12,14 Gy). Median follow-up time after radiosurgery was 18 months (range, 9,30). Results Nine patients had complete regression of tumor as assessed by imaging, nasopharyngoscopy, and biopsy; one patient had partial regression of tumor; whereas one patient had static disease. The overall response rate was 91% (10 of 11) and the complete response rate was 82% (9 of 11). Two patients with complete response subsequently had local relapse develop, with one recurrence outside the treated volume 8 months after radiosurgery, and the other within the treated volume 6 months after radiosurgery. One patient with a partial response had neck node recurrence develop. Temporal lobe necrosis occurred in one patient but probably represents sequelae of primary radiation after reviewing the dosimetry. Ten patients are still alive, whereas one patient with local relapse had distant metastases develop and died. The estimated 1-year local control rate after radiosurgery was 82%. Conclusions Our preliminary results indicate that stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective treatment modality for persistent and recurrent T1,T2 NPC, and early control rate seems to be comparable to other salvage treatments. More clinical experiences and longer follow-up are still needed to validate our results and to address fully the role of radiosurgery in salvaging local failures of NPC. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Head Neck 23: 791,798, 2001. [source]


    Definitive radiotherapy in the management of chemodectomas arising in the temporal bone, carotid body, and glomus vagale

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 5 2001
    Russell W. Hinerman MD
    Abstract Purpose To evaluate the results of treatment for 71 patients with 80 chemodectomas of the temporal bone, carotid body, or glomus vagale who were treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone (72 tumors in 71 patients) or subtotal resection and RT (8 tumors) at the University of Florida between 1968 and 1998. Methods and Materials Sixty-six lesions were previously untreated, whereas 14 had undergone prior treatment (surgery, 11 lesions; RT, 1 lesion; or both, 2 lesions) and were treated for locally recurrent disease. All three patients who received prior RT had been treated at other institutions. Patients had minimum follow-up times as follows: 2 years, 66 patients (93%); 5 years, 53 patients (75%); 10 years, 37 patients (52%); 15 years, 29 patients (41%); 20 years, 18 patients (25%); 25 years, 12 patients (17%); and 30 years, 4 patients (6%). Results There were five local recurrences at 2.6 years, 4.6 years, 5.3 years, 8.3 years, and 18.8 years, respectively. Four were in glomus jugulare tumors and one was a carotid body tumor. Two of the four patients with glomus jugulare failures were salvaged, one with stereotactic radiosurgery and one with surgery and postoperative RT at another institution. Two of the five recurrences had been treated previously at other institutions with RT and/or surgery. Treatment for a third recurrence was discontinued, against medical advice, before receiving the prescribed dose. There were, therefore, only 2 failures in 65 previously untreated lesions receiving the prescribed course of RT. The overall crude local control rate for all 80 lesions was 94%, with an ultimate local control rate of 96% after salvage treatment. The incidence of treatment-related complications was low. Conclusions Irradiation offers a high probability of tumor control with relatively minimal risks for patients with chemodectomas of the temporal bone and neck. There were no severe treatment complications. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Head Neck 23: 363,371, 2001. [source]


    Repeat Trigeminal Nerve Radiosurgery for Refractory Cluster Headache Fails to Provide Long-Term Pain Relief

    HEADACHE, Issue 2 2007
    Shearwood McClelland III MD
    Objective/Background.,Medically refractory cluster headache (MRCH) is a debilitating condition that has proven resistant to many modalities. Previous reports have indicated that radiosurgery for MRCH provides little long-term pain relief, with moderate/significant morbidity. However, there have been no reports of repeated radiosurgery in this patient population. We present our findings from the first reports of repeat radiosurgery for MRCH. Methods.,Two patients with MRCH underwent repeat gamma knife radiosurgery at our institution. Each fulfilled clinical criteria for treatment, including complete resistance to pharmacotherapy, pain primarily localized to the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, and psychological stability. Both patients previously received gamma knife radiosurgery (75 Gy) for MRCH with no morbidity, but no long-term improvement of pain relief (Patient 1 = 5 months, Patient 2 = 10 months) after treatment. For repeat radiosurgery, each patient received 75 Gy to the 100% isodose line delivered to the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve, and was evaluated postretreatment. Pain relief was defined as: excellent (free of MRCH with minimal/no medications), good (50% reduction of MRCH severity/frequency with medications), fair (25% reduction), or poor (less than 25% reduction). Results.,Following repeat radiosurgery, long-term pain relief was poor in both patients. Neither patient sustained any immediate morbidity following radiosurgery. Patient 2 experienced right facial numbness 4 months postretreatment, while Patient 1 experienced no morbidity. Conclusion.,Repeat radiosurgery of the trigeminal nerve fails to provide long-term pain relief for MRCH. Given the reported failures of initial and repeat radiosurgery for MRCH, trigeminal nerve radiosurgery should not be offered for MRCH. [source]


    Treatment of acquired syndactyly by gauze-fixed epidermal graft after radiosurgery

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 10 2003
    Seong Eon Kim MD
    Background, Acquired syndactyly is a rare disease that occurs mostly after disease, trauma, or other inflammatory conditions. It is usually treated by surgical incision with a flap or full-thickness skin graft, which is very invasive and requires hospitalization. Objective, The objective was to treat acquired syndactyly with an epidermal graft by suction blister after radiosurgery, because this procedure is much less invasive and can be performed in an outpatient base. Methods, A 65-year-old Korean woman had acquired syndactyly after various traditional treatments for tinea pedis. Five days after separation of syndactyly with radiosurgery, we prepared an epidermal sheet by suction blister, placed it on sterile meshed gauze, and applied it to the separated lesion. Results, The patient's lesion was completely healed after 7 days. Conclusion, Gauze-fixed epidermal graft after radiosurgery is a very effective and simple treatment for shallow acquired syndactyly. [source]


    Brain metastases from testicular germ cell tumors: A retrospective analysis

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 11 2009
    Norio Nonomura
    Objectives: To review our series of testicular germ cell tumors with brain metastases and to establish an optimal treatment strategy for them. Methods: Twenty-seven cases of testicular germ cell tumors from three institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Twenty-six were non-seminomatous tumors and only one was a seminoma. Based on the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification, two cases were classified as good prognosis, seven as intermediate prognosis and 18 as poor prognosis. Chemotherapy was carried out in all patients. Additionally, whole-brain radiotherapy was performed in 10 cases, stereotactic radiosurgery in six, whole-brain radiotherapy combined with stereotactic radiosurgery in three and complete surgical resection in five. Three patients received chemotherapy only. Cancer-specific 5- and 10-year survival rates were both 35.9%. The prognosis of those with brain metastases at the time of diagnosis tended to be better than those developing brain metastases during treatment. Those with a single brain metastasis showed significantly better survival than those with multiple brain metastases. No other significant prognostic factor was found at multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Testicular germ cell tumors with brain metastases can be managed with the combination of whole-brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and/or surgical resection in combination with chemotherapy. [source]


    MR angiography fusion technique for treatment planning of intracranial arteriovenous malformations

    JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, Issue 3 2006
    Kiaran P. McGee PhD
    Abstract Purpose To develop an image fusion technique using elliptical centric contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiography (MRA) and three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) acquisitions for radiosurgery treatment planning of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Materials and Methods CE and 3D-TOF MR angiograms with disparate in-plane fields of view (FOVs) were acquired, followed by k-space reformatting to provide equal voxel dimensions. Spatial domain addition was performed to provide a third, fused data volume. Spatial distortion was evaluated on an MRA phantom and provided slice-dependent and global distortion along the three physical dimensions of the MR scanner. In vivo validation was performed on 10 patients with intracranial AVMs prior to their conventional angiogram on the day of gamma knife radiosurgery. Results Spatial distortion in the phantom within a volume of 14 14 3.2 cm3 was less than 1 mm (1 standard deviation (SD)) for CE and 3D-TOF data sets. Fused data volumes were successfully generated for all 10 patients. Conclusion Image fusion can be used to obtain high-resolution CE-MRA images of intracranial AVMs while keeping the fiducial markers needed for gamma knife radiosurgery planning. The spatial fidelity of these data is within the tolerance acceptable for daily quality control (QC) purposes and gamma knife treatment planning. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Update of radiosurgery at the Royal Adelaide Hospital

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING AND RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    DE Roos
    Summary This is an update of the Royal Adelaide Hospital radiosurgery experience between November 1993 and December 2004 comprising 165 patients with 168 intracranial lesions. Including re-treatment, there were 175 treatment episodes (163 radiosurgery and 12 stereotactic radiotherapy) at an average of 1.3 per month. The commonest lesions were acoustic neuroma (65), arteriovenous malformation (58), solitary brain metastasis (23) and meningioma (14). The clinical features, treatment details and outcome are described. Our results continue to be well within the range reported in the published work. Radiosurgery provides an elegant, non-invasive alternative to neurosurgery and conventional external beam radiotherapy for many benign and malignant brain tumours. [source]


    Ear Necrosis Resulting from the Endovascular Onyx-18 Embolization of a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Fed by the Posterior Auricular Artery

    JOURNAL OF NEUROIMAGING, Issue 3 2009
    Brian T. Jankowitz MD
    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) can involve surgery, radiosurgery, or endovascular embolization. New embolization techniques and agents have expanded the role of endovascular treatment. METHODS We report the endovascular embolization with Onyx-18 of a DAVF fed by the posterior auricular artery. RESULTS The DAVF was successfully embolized; however, the patient's ear developed ischemic necrosis of the superolateral pinna. CONCLUSIONS Onyx-18 can provide high rates of success in the treatment of DAVFs in well-selected patients. Risks of end organ ischemia must be considered during endovascular embolization and when counseling patients regarding procedural risk. [source]


    Cyberknife Radiosurgery for Basal Skull Plasmacytoma

    JOURNAL OF NEUROIMAGING, Issue 4 2006
    Eric T. Wong MD
    ABSTRACT The Cyberknife delivers frameless image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery to intracranial and extracranial tumors. We report our use of Cyberknife radiosurgery on a medullary plasmacytoma in the clivus extending into the foramen magnum. No acute toxicity was seen during or within 24 hours of treatment, and the subject had a complete and durable radiographic response on MRI 12+ months after treatment. To our knowledge, this is a first case of successful Cyberknife radiosurgery of a medullary plasmacytoma. [source]


    Radiosurgery versus carbon dioxide laser for dermatochalasis correction in Asians,

    LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE, Issue 2 2007
    Carol S. Yu MBBS (Hons), MRCS (Edin)
    Abstract Background and Objectives Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser and radiosurgery are techniques commonly employed in oculoplastic surgery. However, there is no literature comparing their results in blepharoplasty. Study Design/Materials and Methods Twenty Chinese patients with dermatochalasis underwent radiosurgery in one upper eyelid and CO2 laser in the contralateral eyelid. Intraoperative time, hemorrhage, and pain control were assessed. Subjects were evaluated at postoperative 1 hour, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months for hemorrhage and wound healing by a masked assessor. Results All patients reported minimal pain with either technique. A significantly shorter operative time was achieved with CO2 laser, with better intraoperative hemostasis. There was no significant difference in postoperative hemorrhage and wound swelling between radiosurgery and CO2 laser. No significant intraoperative complications were noted. Conclusions Both radiosurgery and CO2 laser are equally safe and effective for upper lid blepharoplasty. CO2 laser achieves shorter operative time with superior intraoperative hemostasis. Lasers Surg. Med. 39:176,179, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Improved target volume characterization in stereotactic treatment planning of brain lesions by using high-resolution BOLD MR-venography

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 7-8 2001
    Lothar R. Schad
    Abstract In this methodological paper I report the stereotactic correlation of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques [MR angiography (MRA), MRI, blood bolus tagging (STAR), functional MRI, and high-resolution BOLD venography (HRBV)] in patients with cerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVM) and brain tumors. The patient's head was fixed in a stereotactic localization system which is usable in both MR-systems and linear accelerator installations. Using phantom measurements global geometric MR image distortions can be ,corrected' (reducing displacements to the size of a pixel) by calculations based on modeling the distortion as a fourth-order two-dimensional polynomial. Further object-induced local distortions can be corrected by additionally measured field maps. Using this method multimodality matching could be performed automatically as long as all images are acquired in the same examination and the patient is sufficiently immobilized to allow precise definition of the target volume. Information about the hemodynamics of the AVM was provided by a dynamic MRA with the STAR technique, leading to an improved definition of the size of the nidus, the origin of the feeding arteries, whereas HRBV imaging yielded detailed and improved information about the venous pattern and drainage. In addition, functional MRI was performed in patients with lesions close to the primary motor cortex area, leading to an improved definition of structures at risk for the high-dose application in radiosurgery. In patients with brain tumors the potential of HRBV to probe tumor angiogenesis and its use in intensity-modulated treatment planning is still hampered by the open question of how to translate a BOLD signal pattern measured in the tumor to a dose distribution, which should be addressed in future studies. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Management of patients with acoustic neuromas: A Markov decision analysis,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 4 2010
    Daniel Morrison MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: The management of patients with small (<1.5 cm) acoustic neuromas is controversial. Immediate treatment via microsurgical resection or radiosurgery is often advocated. A period of observation is sometimes advised followed by microsurgery or radiosurgery for tumors that demonstrate growth during the observation period. The purpose of this study is to calculate quality-adjusted life expectancy for the most commonly applied management strategies in hypothetical cohorts of patients of various ages. Study Design: Markov decision analysis; societal perspective. Methods: Assumptions used in creating this model and event probabilities were obtained from a thorough literature review. Key parameters were identified and defined by the best available evidence. The main outcome measure is the benefit derived from each management strategy in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Sensitivity analysis was used to define benchmark performance information for these parameters. Results: The benefit of a period of observation followed by radiosurgery, if needed, for significant tumor growth is greater then all other strategies for all age groups and both sexes. When compared to observation followed by microsurgery, the additional benefit is small. QALY totals for the two immediate treatment groups were significantly lower than that for the observation groups. Conclusions: For patients of all ages, a period of observation during which tumor growth and hearing thresholds are closely monitored is the superior strategy. For tumors that grow substantially or when hearing deteriorates, definitive management via radiosurgery is recommended. Laryngoscope, 2010 [source]


    Small Vestibular Schwannomas With No Hearing: Comparison of Functional Outcomes in Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Microsurgery

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 11 2008
    Daniel H. Coelho MD
    Abstract Objectives: To date, numerous studies have compared functional outcomes between stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and microsurgery (MS) in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas (VS). However, most of them involve tumors of difference sizes, radiation dosages, and surgical approaches. Few have systematically compared issues of dysequilibrium. By studying only patients with small tumors and no hearing, we sought to minimize confounding variables. Study Design: A retrospective chart review and telephone questionnaire. Methods: From 1998,2006, 31 patients with small (<1.5 cm) VS and nonserviceable hearing (American Academy of Otolaryngology,Head and Neck Surgery [AAO-HNS] Class C or D) were treated at our institution. Twenty-two were available for follow-up and telephone questionnaire, including the University of California Los Angeles Dizziness Questionnaire (UCLA-DQ). Twelve underwent SRS and 10 underwent MS. All MS patients underwent the translabyrinthine approach to their tumors. Outcomes measurements included tumor control, facial nerve function, tinnitus, trigeminal function, and imbalance. Results: Patients undergoing SRS had comparable rates of tumor control, facial nerve function, tinnitus, and trigeminal function to MS patients. However, SRS did result in statistically significantly worse long-term imbalance when compared with MS patients. Detailed comparisons of the two modalities are made. Conclusions: In our study population, patients with small tumors and no serviceable hearing, these data suggest that MS results in comparable minimal morbidity with SRS, though posttreatment dysequilibrium is significantly decreased. While the authors recommend translabyrinthine resection of small VS with no hearing in patients able to tolerate surgery, the need for further prospective investigation is clear. [source]


    Long-Term Hearing Results in Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 6 2008
    Matthew L. Bush MD
    Abstract Objectives: There are many studies that have examined functional outcomes following Gamma Knife treatment; however, few have reported long-term audiometric data. This study analyzed the long-term hearing results of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in the treatment of acoustic neuromas. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Seventeen patients were selected from our acoustic neuroma Gamma Knife registry of 113 patients treated from 1991 to 2005. Pretreatment audiograms were analyzed for pure-tone average and word recognition scores and assigned a Gardner-Robertson classification score (GRC). Either a current audiogram was obtained or the most recent audiogram (if the patient was lost to follow-up) was reviewed from clinic charts and these were compared with the preoperative results. Audiometric data of the pre- and posttreatment normal ear were obtained and used as the patient's own control. Results: The tumor size ranged from 0.5 to 2.8 cm (mean, 1.33 cm) and patients received a range of 12.5,16 Gy (mean, 13.82 Gy) to 50% isodose line. Patient follow-up ranged from 3 to 82 months with a mean of 33.6 months. Pretreatment pure-tone average for the involved side group was 30.6 dB HL with a word recognition score of 74%. Pretreatment mean GRC was 1.76. posttreatment pure-tone average for the group was 59.7 dB HL with a word recognition score of 37%. posttreatment mean GRC was 3.29. Comparing pre- versus post-Gamma Knife radiosurgery results on the treatment ear, means were statistically significantly different for both pure-tone average and word recognition scores, based on a paired-samples t test (P < .001 for both). The group "normal" ear pure-tone average was 14 dB HL and 17.75 dB HL pre- and posttreat-ment, respectively. Normal ear pre- and posttreatment word recognition score and GRC were 93% and 98%, and 1.13 and 1.31, respectively. Conclusion: Gamma Knife radiosurgery remains a noninvasive treatment option for patients with acoustic neuromas; however, they may experience a delayed hearing loss. Of those patients with useful audition pretreatment, 42% maintained useful hearing posttreatment. [source]


    Proliferation Potential in Recurrent Acoustic Schwannoma Following Gamma Knife Radiosurgery versus Microsurgery,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 6 2002
    Frank Lee MD
    Abstract Objective To evaluate the proliferation potential of recurrent acoustic schwannoma following gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) versus microsurgery. Study Design Retrospective study. Methods A review of surgical records of the House Ear Clinic revealed 8 patients who had undergone GKR and 15 patients who had undergone microsurgery who had unilateral acoustic schwannoma recurrences. Immunohistochemical studies were performed to evaluate the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) on archival paraffin-embedded blocks. Results All 8 GKR and 15 microsurgical tumors had positive staining for PCNA. The recurrent GKR tumors had significantly lower proliferation levels than in the microsurgical group (P = .03). Two GKR tumors had high proliferation levels. Conclusions Our study indicates that recurrent vestibular schwannomas treated with GKR have lower proliferation potential as assessed by PCNA compared with recurrences following microsurgery. Radiation-induced apoptosis is thought to contribute to the lower tumor cell proliferation in GKR tumor. The two GKR tumors with high proliferation potential could be a result of radiation-induced sporadic mutation, resulting in high tumor cell proliferation. [source]


    A multicenter, prospective pilot study of gamma knife radiosurgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: Seizure response, adverse events, and verbal memory,

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Nicholas M. Barbaro MD
    Objective The safety, efficacy, and morbidity of radiosurgery (RS) must be established before it can be offered as an alternative to open surgery for unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We report the 3-year outcomes of a multicenter, prospective pilot study of RS. Methods RS was randomized to 20 or 24Gy targeting the amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus. Seizure diaries evaluated the final seizure remission between months 24 and 36. Verbal memory was evaluated at baseline and 24m with the Wechsler Memory Scale,Revised (WMS-R) and California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Patients were classified as having "significant improvement," "no change," and "significant impairment" based on relative change indices. Results Thirteen high-dose and 17 low-dose patients were treated. Both groups showed significant reductions in seizures by 1 year after treatment. At the 36-month follow-up evaluation, 67% of patients were free of seizures for the prior 12 months (high dose: 10/13, 76.9%; low dose: 10/17, 58.8%). Use of steroids, headaches, and visual field defects did not differ by dose or seizure remission. The prevalence of verbal memory impairment was 15% (4/26 patients); none declined on more than one measure. The prevalence of significant verbal memory improvements was 12% (3/26). Interpretation RS for unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy offers seizure remission rates comparable with those reported previously for open surgery. There were no major safety concerns with high-dose RS compared with low-dose RS. Additional research is required to determine whether RS may be a treatment option for some patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Ann Neurol 2009 [source]


    Radiosurgical treatment of vestibular schwannomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2

    CANCER, Issue 2 2009
    Tumor control, hearing preservation
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The radiosurgical treatment of vestibular schwannomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is controversial. The authors investigated the radiologically proven tumor control rate after gamma knife radiosurgery. The factors that affect tumor control and serviceable hearing preservation were analyzed. METHODS: Thirty-six lesions in 30 patients were included. The median lengths of the clinical and radiologic follow-ups were 48.5 months and 36.5 months, respectively. The median tumor volume was 3.2 cm3. The mean marginal dose was 12.1 grays (Gy) (range, 8,14 Gy) at an isodose line of 50%0.6%. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used for the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The actuarial tumor control rate was 81%, 74%, and 66%, respectively, in the first, second, and fifth years. Five tumors required a salvage surgery because of tumor control failure. A low marginal dose and a young age at radiosurgery were associated with poor tumor control. Of the 16 tumors with which ipsilateral hearing was serviceable, the actuarial serviceable hearing preservation rates were 50%, 45%, and 33%, respectively, in the first, second, and fifth years. Better ipsilateral hearing (Gardner-Robertson grade 1, compared with grade 2) at the time of radiosurgery was associated with significantly greater serviceable hearing preservation. CONCLUSIONS: Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas in NF2 patients provided 5-year tumor control in approximately two-thirds of patients and preserved serviceable hearing in approximately one-third. The rates of other cranial nerve deficits were low, and no secondary malignancy was observed. Radiosurgery should be included in treatment options for NF2 patients. Cancer 2009. 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]


    A prospective pilot study of curative-intent stereotactic body radiation therapy in patients with 5 or fewer oligometastatic lesions,

    CANCER, Issue 3 2008
    Michael T. Milano MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND. It is hypothesized that oligometastatic disease represents a state of potentially curable, limited metastases. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an option for patients who are not amenable to or do not want resection. METHODS. From 2001 to 2006, 121 patients with ,5 detectable metastases were enrolled in 2 prospective studies that used curative-intent SBRT. Most patients were treated with 10 fractions of 5 Gray. Stereotactic radiosurgery was offered to patients with brain metastases. RESULTS. The 2-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local control (LC), and distant control (DC) rates were 50%, 26%, 67%, and 34%, respectively; and the respective 4-year rates values were 28%, 20%, 60%, and 25%. A greater net tumor volume predicted significantly worse OS, PFS, LC, and DC. Patients with breast cancer fared significantly better with respect to OS, PFS, LC, and DC; and patients with adrenal metastases had significantly worse OS, PFS, and DC despite the small number of such patients enrolled. Neither the number of metastatic lesions nor the number of organs involved was a significant predictor of outcome. Among 45 patients who remained alive at the last follow-up, 29 patients had no evidence of disease, including 23 patients with ,2 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS. Oligometastatic disease is a potentially curable state of distant cancer spread. In this hypothesis-generating analysis, patients with less volume burden of their metastatic disease and those with primary breast cancer fared better. SBRT delivered with curative intent in patients with limited metastases should be investigated further. The Southwest Oncology Group is developing a prospective protocol to treat women who have limited breast cancer metastases with SBRT. Cancer 2008. 2007 American Cancer Society. [source]