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EVIDENCE FOR THE VALIDITY OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION'S CAREGIVER SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE AS A SCREENING MEASURE FOR DEPRESSIONJOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 2 2010
Gary Epstein-Lubow MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]
FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE PERSONAL AUTHORITY IN THE FAMILY SYSTEM QUESTIONNAIREJOURNAL OF MARITAL AND FAMILY THERAPY, Issue 4 2006
Daniel F. Brossart
The factor structure of the Personal Authority in the Family System Questionnaire (PAFS-Q) has been used in numerous studies, but the factor structure has not been examined since its development in 1984. This study examined the factor structure of the PAFS-Q. Findings suggest a six-factor solution with important differences from those reported when the PAFS-Q was developed. The main differences between this study and the original factor analysis are that this study found separate Mother and Father Intimacy factors instead of a single Intergenerational Intimacy factor and the original Spousal Fusion and Spousal Intimacy factors were not separate factors in the current study. Implications and future directions for research are also discussed. [source]
THE LIFE CYCLE RESEARCH OUTPUT OF PROFESSORS IN AUSTRALIAN ECONOMICS DEPARTMENTS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS BASED ON SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRESECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 2 2003
First page of article [source]
Impact of Provider Self-Management Education, Patient Self-Efficacy, and Health Status on Patient Adherence in Heart Failure in a Veterans Administration PopulationCONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 1 2008
Usha Subramanian MD
To address the need for more information on predictors of adherence to heart failure (HF) self-management regimens, this study analyzed surveys completed by 259 HF patients receiving care at 2 Veterans Affairs hospitals in 2003. Linear multivariable regression models were used to examine general health status, HF-specific health status (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire) self-management education, and self-efficacy as predictors of self-reported adherence to salt intake and exercise regimens. Self-management education was provided most often for salt restriction (87%) followed by exercise (78%). In multivariable regression analyses, education about salt restriction (P=.01), weight reduction (P=.0004), self-efficacy (P=.03), and health status (P=.003) were significantly associated with patient-reported adherence to salt restriction. In a similar model, self-efficacy (P=.006) and health status (P,.0001), but not exercise education, were significantly associated with patient-reported exercise adherence. Findings suggest that provider interventions may lead to improved adherence with HF self-management and thus improvements in patients' health. [source]
Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002): a new tool for surveying occupational skin diseases and exposureCONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 2 2003
Occupational skin diseases are among the most frequent work-related diseases in industrialized countries. Good occupational skin disease statistics exist in few countries. Questionnaire studies are needed to get more data on the epidemiology of occupational skin diseases. The Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire Group has developed a new questionnaire tool , Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002) , for surveys on work-related skin disease and exposures to environmental factors. The 2 NOSQ-2002 questionnaires have been compiled by using existing questionnaires and experience. NOSQ-2002/SHORT is a ready-to-use 4-page questionnaire for screening and monitoring occupational skin diseases, e.g. in a population or workplace. All the questions in the short questionnaire (NOSQ-2002/SHORT) are included in the long version, NOSQ-2002/LONG, which contains a pool of questions to be chosen according to research needs and tailored to specific populations. The NOSQ-2002 report includes, in addition to the questionnaires, a comprehensive manual for researchers on planning and conducting a questionnaire survey on hand eczema and relevant exposures. NOSQ-2002 questionnaires have been compiled in English and translated into Danish, Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic. The use of NOSQ-2002 will benefit research on occupational skin diseases by providing more standardized data, which can be compared between studies and countries. [source]
The Climate for Transformation: Lessons for LeadersCREATIVITY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2007
Scott G. Isaksen
This article reports insights for organizational leaders based on a series of case studies describing the use of the Situational Outlook Questionnaire as a tool to assist them with their transformation efforts. Leaders often assert the need to change their organizational cultures. This article seeks to clarify and differentiate culture from climate, and then focus on what leaders can do to transform their climate by applying a deliberate assessment tool. As the case studies illustrate, making organizational transformation happen is best approached through a systemic or ecological approach. This approach includes considering the people involved, the methods deployed, the desired outcome of the change as well as the context within which the transformation occurs. The broadest concept within this framework is context, which includes both culture and climate, among other things. Since context is key to initiating and sustaining transformation, emphasis on the leader's role in climate creation will be provided. [source]
Social and emotional detachment: A cross-cultural comparison of the non-disruptive behavioural psychopathic traits in childrenCRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2009
Background,Questions about the international reliability and validity of aspects of psychopathy have been raised for adults, but hardly considered when applying the constructs to children. Aims/objectives,Our aim was to compare the psychometrics of a new instrument to measure psychopathic traits in children between two countries , the Netherlands and Greece. We also tested the hypothesis that, in both countries, both narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional dimensions would be related to observed behavioural disorders. Methods,The Social and Emotional Detachment Questionnaire was used to assess narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional dimensions of personality in representative national and community samples of 4,12-year-old children in the Netherlands and Greece, respectively. Parents filled in the questionnaires anonymously and also provided ratings of conduct disorders. Results,A two-dimensional construct of the psychopathic syndrome depicting, respectively, narcissistic and unemotional traits was reliable and valid in both countries, although there was considerable correlation between these two dimensions, which we designated ,social detachment' and ,emotional detachment', respectively. In both countries, the composite of social and emotional detachment was associated with aggressive and antisocial conduct disorders. Conclusions/implications,The reliability, validity and predictive value of this questionnaire must be tested further, for example, through multiple informants and longitudinally, but our findings that the tool performs robustly in two very different European countries is encouraging in terms of its potential value as a clinical screening tool and a tool for furthering the understanding of serious behavioural disorders in children. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]
Evaluation of a treatment programme for alcohol-related aggressionCRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2008
Background,The development of effective treatments for alcohol-related aggression and violence is important in binge drinking cultures, as in parts of the UK. Aim,The aim was to evaluate the progress and experience of 10 participants in Control of Violence for Angry Impulsive Drinkers (COVAID) using a single case methodology. Method,Participants completed 10 individual weekly sessions with trained facilitators following the COVAID manual. Change scores on psychometric questionnaires were examined by calculating clinical significance and reliability of change. Self-reports of alcohol consumption and aggression were examined. Follow-up data on convictions were collected. Participants were asked their opinions about COVAID. Results,Scores on the Alcohol-Related Aggression Questionnaire (ARAQ) improved for nine participants; change was both clinically significant and reliable in five cases. Nine participants improved on the Controlled Drinking Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSES), with seven showing clinically significant improvement. Six participants reported a reduction in alcohol consumption from the first to the second half of the programme. At a mean of 29 weeks post-treatment, none of the participants had been reconvicted for a violent offence. Participants reported finding COVAID useful and interesting. Conclusion,Overall, our findings support the possibility that COVAID may assist in reducing alcohol-related violence and violent offending. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]
Alcohol expectancies in convicted rapists and child molestersCRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2001
Anu S. Aromäki PhD
Background Previous findings suggest that cognitive factors and expectancies related to drinking can mediate subjective sexual arousal as well as aggression in men. Our aim was to investigate the drinking habits and alcohol-related expectancies that might predispose men to sexually aggress in two groups of sexual offenders. Method Men convicted of rape (n = 10) were compared with men convicted of child molesting (n = 10) and with control subjects (n = 31). Current drinking habits (while not in prison) were assessed by self-report, and the extent of alcohol abuse was mapped by the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; Selzer, 1971). Cognitive expectancies related to alcohol use were explored by the standard Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ; Brown et al., 1980). Results The majority of the men who committed rape (70%) but only a third of the men convicted of child molesting were diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Alcohol abuse was common in men convicted of both rape and child molesting and the men convicted of rape expected significantly more positive effects from drinking than the control group. Both sex offender groups were the only groups to express significant alcohol-related cognitive expectancies linked to arousal and aggression. Expectancy patterns were directly linked to the antisocial personality characteristics. Conclusion Alcohol abuse is common in men who commit both rape and child molesting. Heavy drinking and the anticipation of alcohol effects such as sexual enhancement, arousal and aggression may facilitate sexual aggression in offenders with antisocial personality disorder. Copyright © 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]
Severity of anxiety and work-related outcomes of patients with anxiety disordersDEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 12 2009
Steven R. Erickson PharmD.
Abstract Background: This study examined associations between anxiety and work-related outcomes in an anxiety disorders clinic population, examining both pretreatment links and the impact of anxiety change over 12 weeks of treatment on work outcomes. Four validated instruments were used to also allow examination of their psychometric properties, with the goal of improving measurement of work-related quality of life in this population. Methods: Newly enrolled adult patients seeking treatment in a university-based anxiety clinic were administered four work performance measures: Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ), Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI), Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS), and Functional Status Questionnaire Work Performance Scale (WPS). Anxiety severity was determined using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The Clinical Global Impressions, Global Improvement Scale (CGI-I) was completed by patients to evaluate symptom change at a 12-week follow-up. Two severity groups (minimal/mild vs. moderate/severe, based on baseline BAI score) were compared to each other on work measures. Results: Eighty-one patients provided complete baseline data. Anxiety severity groups did not differ in job type, time on job, job satisfaction, or job choice. Patients with greater anxiety generally showed lower work performance on all instruments. Job advancement was impaired for the moderate/severe group. The multi-item performance scales demonstrated better validity and internal consistency. The WLQ and the WPAI detected change with symptom improvement. Conclusion: Level of work performance was generally associated with severity of anxiety. Of the instruments tested, the WLQ and the WPAI questionnaire demonstrated acceptable validity and internal reliability. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Does defense style or psychological mindedness predict treatement response in major depression?DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 7 2009
Kim Kronström M.D.
Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to define the impact of defense style and psychological mindedness (PM) on the prognosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) in patients treated with either fluoxetine (FLX) or short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) in a randomized comparative study. Method: 50 patients with MDD received either STPP or FLX treatment for 16 weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was the outcome measure completed at baseline and in the follow-ups at 4- and 12-months. Patients completed the Psychological Mindedness Scale (PMS) and the Defense Style Questionnaire at the baseline. Results: In the FLX group recovery measured by the decrease in the HDRS during the 4-month follow-up associated with baseline mature defense style (r=,.59, P=.015). There were no correlations between the PMS-scores and the outcome measures in either treatment groups nor defense status and the outcome in the STPP group. Conclusion: Mature defense style predicts good response to FLX therapy in major depression. This association was not found in the psychotherapy group. The results may imply that patients with immature defenses benefit relatively more from brief psychotherapy than medication. PM measured by the PMS was not useful in predicting recovery in MDD. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Relationship of illness perceptions with depression among individuals diagnosed with lupus,DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 6 2009
Errol J. Philip M.A
Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of illness perceptions, as outlined in the Self-Regulatory Model of illness, with depression among individuals diagnosed with lupus. Methods: A mail-out questionnaire was completed by 154 members of the Australia Lupus Foundation and Lupus Foundation of New South Wales. Each questionnaire consisted of a Lupus Medical and Symptoms Questionnaire, the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised and the Cardiac Depression Scale. Results: Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported a perception of their illness as having negative life consequences, an unpredictable nature and themselves possessing little understanding of lupus, reported high levels of depression. Conclusions: This study indicated the existence of a high level of depressive symptoms among individuals diagnosed with lupus, and reinforces the need for screening procedures in chronic illness, and treatment interventions that target maladaptive illness perceptions. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
The Penn State Worry Questionnaire: psychometric properties of the Korean versionDEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 10 2008
Young-Jin Lim M.A.
Abstract The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) were examined in two college student samples in Korea. We demonstrated method effects due to the inclusion of negatively keyed items. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the single-factor model with method factor. This indicates that the Korean version of the PSWQ (K-PSWQ) can be contaminated by method effects and response patterns are different between positively worded and reverse-scored items. Thus, the relevance of negatively worded items in the K-PSWQ is questioned. Depression and Anxiety, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Sexual dysfunction and physicians' perception in medicated patients with major depression in TaiwanDEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 9 2008
Kao Ching Chen M.D.
Abstract Although prevalent during antidepressant treatment, sexual dysfunction (SD) is frequently ignored by both physicians and patients in Asia. In spite of impact of SD on medicated patients with major depression, sexual issues and illness remain a forbidden topic for most Asian people. The aims of this study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of SD among stable outpatients taking different antidepressants in Taiwan; (2) investigate the factors related to SD; (3) compare physician-perceived with patient-reported prevalence rates of antidepressant-associated SD; and (4) study the differences of SD among antidepressant subgroups. In this cross-sectional observational study, 125 medicated patients with major depression were recruited. Patients were assessed using the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ), Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire (TDQ), Quality of Life Index (QOL), and neuroticism scores in the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI). Sixty-two physicians completed the Physician Antidepressant Experience Questionnaire. The estimated prevalence rate of SD was 53.6% (95% CI = 44.9,62.3%) in medicated patients with major depression. There were no significant differences in prevalence rate of SD among different antidepressants. The SD subgroup had poorer quality of life and lower moods than the non-dysfunction subgroup. An underestimation of the prevalence of SD by physicians was noted. Because antidepressant-associated SD is highly prevalent and seriously underestimated by physicians, greater physicians' recognition and better patients' education are imperative when prescribing antidepressants. Depression and Anxiety. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Depression and the metabolic syndrome: gender-dependent associationsDEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 8 2008
Sharon Toker Ph.D.
Abstract This study was designed to test the extent to which depressive symptoms are associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and each of its components, and whether these relationships are gender dependent. Participants were apparently healthy employed men (N=2,355) and women (N=1,525) who underwent a routine health check between the years 2003 and 2005. We used logistic regression analysis, predicting the MS by depressive symptoms, as assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the following control variables: age, education, smoking status, physical exercise, anxiety, and burnout. As hypothesized, we found that depression among women, but not men, was associated with a 1.94-fold risk of having the MS, and with an elevated risk of having two of its five components: elevated waist circumference (odds ratio, OR=2.23) and elevated glucose levels (OR=2.44). In addition, a positive trend was observed toward an association with the other three components: low high-density lipoprotein, hypertension, and elevated triglycerides. Among men depression was associated with elevated waist circumference only (OR=1.77). These findings suggest that especially among women, the association between depression and cardiovascular diseases might be linked to metabolic processes. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings may have important health-care policy implications with regard to depression management interventions. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,9, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Depression, desperation, and suicidal ideation in college students: results from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention College Screening Project at Emory UniversityDEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 6 2008
Ph.D., Steven J. Garlow M.D.
Abstract The objective of this investigation was to examine suicidal ideation and depression in undergraduate college students who participated in the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention-sponsored College Screening Project at Emory University. The principal measure of depressive symptoms was the nine-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Additional questions were focused on current suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and episodes of deliberate self-harm and on symptoms of anxiety and distress. Seven hundred and twenty-nine students participated over a 3-school-year interval (2002,2005). Most notably, 11.1% of the students endorsed current (past 4 weeks) suicidal ideation and 16.5% had a lifetime suicide attempt or self-injurious episode. Students with current suicidal ideation had significantly higher depression symptom severity than those without suicidal ideation (t = ,9.34, df = 706, P<.0001, d = 1.9), and 28.5% of the students with PHQ-9 scores of 15 or higher reported suicidal ideation compared to 5.7% of those with lower scores (,2 = 56.29, df = 1, P<.0001, two-tailed). Suicidal ideation was prominently associated with symptoms of desperation (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.5,4.6, P<.001). The vast majority of students with moderately severe to severe depression (85%) or current suicidal ideation (84%) were not receiving any psychiatric treatment at the time of assessment. These results suggest that there is a strong relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in college students, and that suicidal feelings and actions are relatively common in this group. This underscores the need to provide effective mental health outreach and treatment services to this vulnerable population. As this analysis was based on data collected at a single institution, the results may not be representative of all college students or young adults. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,7, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Anger experience and expression across the anxiety disordersDEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 2 2008
David A. Moscovitch Ph.D.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore possible differences in the experience and expression of anger across four anxiety disorder groups and non-clinical controls. Anger was assessed by two measures, the Reaction Inventory and the Aggression Questionnaire, in 112 individuals who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia (n=40), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=30), social phobia, (SOC; n=28), and specific phobia (SPC; n=14) as well as non-clinical controls (n=49). Patients with PD, OCD, and SOC reported a significantly greater propensity to experience anger than controls, whereas patients with SPC exhibited no differences in anger experience in comparison to controls. In addition, patients with PD reported significantly greater levels of anger aggression compared to both controls and patients with OCD, and patients with SOC reported significantly lower levels of verbal aggression than controls. Most, but not all, of these differences disappeared when symptoms of depression were controlled in the analyses. The implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed 0:1,7, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Are there gender differences in catastrophic appraisals in panic disorder with agoraphobia?DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 8 2007
F.R.A.N.Z.C.P., Ph.D., Vladan Starcevic M.D.
Abstract Our aim in this study was to compare panic-related catastrophic appraisals between women and men with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). One hundred two outpatients with PDA (75 women and 27 men) participated. Two instruments for the assessment of catastrophic appraisals, Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and Panic Appraisal Inventory, were administered before and after cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that also included pharmacotherapy in three-fourths of the patients. Female and male patients did not differ significantly in terms of their tendency to anticipate catastrophic consequences of panic, before or after CBT-based treatment. For both females and males, the tendency to make catastrophic appraisals decreased significantly with treatment. We conclude that among patients with PDA there are no gender differences in catastrophic appraisals of panic sensations and symptoms. The apparently higher risk of panic recurrence in women does not seem to be related to their panic-related catastrophic appraisals. These findings also support a notion that there is no gender difference in response to CBT-based treatment of PDA. Depression and Anxiety 24:545,552, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Panic disorder and suicidal ideation in primary careDEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 1 2006
Daniel J. Pilowsky M.D., M.P.H.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether panic disorder (PD) and suicidal ideation are associated in an inner-city primary care clinic and whether this association remains significant after controlling for commonly co-occurring psychiatric disorders. We surveyed 2,043 patients attending a primary care clinic using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) Patient Health Questionnaire, a screening instrument that yields provisional diagnoses of selected psychiatric disorders. We estimated the prevalence of current suicidal ideation and of common psychiatric disorders including panic disorder and major depression. A provisional diagnosis of current PD was received by 127 patients (6.2%). After adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, major depressive disorder [MDD], generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use disorders), patients with PD were about twice as likely to present with current suicidal ideation, as compared to those without PD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06,3.18; P=.03). After adjusting for PD and the above-mentioned potential confounders, patients with MDD had a sevenfold increase in the odds of suicidal ideation, as compared to those without MDD (AOR=7.00; 95% CI: 4.42,11.08; P<.0001). Primary care patients with PD are at high risk for suicidal ideation, and patients with PD and co-occurring MDD are at especially high risk. PD patients in primary care thus should be assessed routinely for suicidal ideation and depression. Depression and Anxiety 23:11,16, 2006. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Psychometric validation of a monitoring-blunting measure for social anxiety disorder: the coping styles questionnaire for social situations (CSQSS)DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 1 2005
Peter G. Mezo Ph.D.
Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a psychometric validation of the Coping Styles Questionnaire for Social Situations (CSQSS). The CSQSS was developed to measure monitoring and blunting coping styles in social situations based on Miller's conceptualization of how individuals cope with threat-related information. Study 1 evaluated the content validity of the CSQSS monitoring and blunting items. Study 2 examined factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the CSQSS in a sample of 443 college students. Evidence supported the content and face validity of the CSQSS. In addition, an exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution consistent with the monitoring and blunting constructs. Both monitoring and blunting scores were positively correlated with measures of social anxiety, with blunting having a stronger relationship. Moreover, individuals with high social anxiety engaged in a significantly higher degree of monitoring and blunting than did individuals with low social anxiety. Taken together, these results provide support for the reliability and validity of the CSQSS. The CSQSS may serve as a useful measure for further examination of monitoring and blunting coping styles in a social anxiety disorder sample. Depression and Anxiety 22:20,27, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Panic disorder phenomenology in urban self-identified caucasian,non-hispanics and caucasian,hispanicsDEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 1 2003
Michael Hollifield M.D.
Abstract The epidemiology of panic disorder is well known, but data about some phenomenological aspects are sparse. The symptom criteria for panic disorder were developed largely from rational expert consensus methods and not from empirical research. This fact calls attention to the construct validity of the panic disorder diagnosis, which may affect accuracy of epidemiological findings. Seventy self-identified Non-Hispanic,Caucasian (Anglo) and Hispanic,Caucasian (Hispanic) people who were diagnosed with DSM-III-R panic disorder with or without agoraphobia were invited to complete a Panic Phenomenological Questionnaire (PPQ), which was constructed for this study from the Hamilton Anxiety Scale Items and The DSM-III-R panic symptoms. Fifty (71%) subjects agreed to participate, and there was no response bias detected. Seven symptoms on the PPQ that are not in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were reported to occur with a high prevalence in this study. Furthermore, many symptoms that occurred with a high frequency and were reported to be experienced as severe are also not included in current nosology. A few of the DSM-IV criterion symptoms occurred with low prevalence, frequency, and severity. Cognitive symptoms were reported to occur with higher frequency and severity during attacks than autonomic or other symptoms. There were modest differences between ethnic groups with regard to panic attack phenomena. Further research using multiple empirical methods aimed at improving the content validity of the panic disorder diagnosis is warranted. This includes utilizing consistent methods to collect data that will allow for rational decisions about how to construct valid panic disorder criteria across cultures. Depression and Anxiety 18:7,17, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Factorial validity of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire in men and womenDEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 4 2001
Kristi D. Wright B.A.
Abstract In an effort to confirm the factorial validity of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) across sex, the items from the CTQ for 916 university students were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated that the factor structure for the CTQ was significantly different for men and women. For women, the items from the Physical Abuse subscale did not create a stable factor and thus appear not to be conceptually valid. Conversely, for men, the five-factor model provided a relatively good fit to the data. This investigation provides important information regarding sex differences in the factorial validity of the CTQ. Implications and future research directions are discussed. Depression and Anxiety 13:179,183, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Patient-Reported Outcomes with Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment of Glabellar Rhytids: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled StudyDERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 2007
FACS, STEVEN FAGIEN MD
BACKGROUND Global patient-reported outcomes do not evaluate specific aspects of treatment that are important to patients. OBJECTIVE The objective was to evaluate self-perception of age and specific outcomes that are important to patients receiving botulinum toxin type A or placebo for moderate to severe glabellar lines (using the Facial Line Outcomes Questionnaire to assess how much facial lines bother them, make them look older, detract from their facial appearance, prevent a smooth facial appearance, and make them look tired, stressed, or angry). METHODS AND MATERIALS In the double-blind phase of this 12-week study, 70 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with 20 U botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX Cosmetic) or placebo. At Week 4, those still with moderate or severe glabellar lines were offered open-label 20 U botulinum toxin type A. RESULTS Median glabellar line severity was significantly lower after botulinum toxin treatment than after placebo. Compared with placebo, botulinum toxin also resulted in significantly superior patient assessments and a greater proportion of patients considering they looked younger than their current age. CONCLUSIONS Botulinum toxin type A can achieve specific goals of treatment that are important to patients and help them feel that they look younger than their current age. [source]
Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment of Multiple Upper Facial Sites: Patient-Reported OutcomesDERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 2007
JEAN CARRUTHERS MD
BACKGROUND Aesthetic treatment planning must address subjects' goals and include subject-reported outcomes. OBJECTIVE The objective was to compare the effect of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) with placebo on subject-reported outcomes and to assess the utility of 64 U of BoNTA to treat the entire upper face. METHODS Forty female subjects were randomized to receive 64 U of BoNTA or identical placebo injections (double-masked) divided among 16 sites of the upper face and were followed for 12 weeks. Subjects unimproved at Week 4 were eligible for open-label BoNTA treatment and were followed through Week 16. Main outcome measures were scores on seven items of the Facial Line Outcomes Questionnaire (FLO-7) and results on the Self-Perception of Age (SPA) for assessing age of appearance relative to actual age. RESULTS BoNTA treatment resulted in significant improvements on the FLO-7 scores that were maintained throughout the study. BoNTA treatment also reduced age of appearance in a majority of subjects. Placebo had no effects on any measure. No serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION Sixty-four-unit BoNTA treatment of upper facial rhytids safely and significantly improves subject-reported outcomes, as measured by the FLO-7 and SPA, and results in a younger, more satisfying, relaxed appearance. [source]
Experience of trauma and conversion to psychosis in an ultra-high-risk (prodromal) groupACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2010
Bechdolf A, Thompson A, Nelson B, Cotton S, Simmons MB, Amminger GP, Leicester S, Francey SM, McNab C, Krstev H, Sidis A, McGorry PD, Yung AR. Experience of trauma and conversion to psychosis in an ultra-high-risk (prodromal) group. Objective:, We aimed to replicate a recent finding of high prevalence of trauma history in patients at ,ultra-high risk' (UHR) of psychotic disorder and to investigate whether trauma predicts conversion to psychosis in this population. Method:, A consecutive sample of UHR patients was assessed. History of trauma was accessed with the General Trauma Questionnaire. Cox regression models were used to explore relationship between conversion to psychosis and trauma. Results:, Of 92 UHR patients nearly 70% had experienced a traumatic event and 21.7% developed psychosis during follow-up (mean 615 days). Patients who had experienced a sexual trauma (36%) were significantly more likely to convert to first-episode psychosis (OR 2.96) after controlling for meeting multiple UHR intake groups. Conclusion:, UHR patients have a high prevalence of history of trauma. Previous sexual trauma may be a predictor of onset of psychotic disorder in this population. [source]
Psychotic-like experiences are associated with suicidal feelings and deliberate self-harm behaviors in adolescents aged 12,15 yearsACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 4 2010
Nishida A, Sasaki T, Nishimura Y, Tanii H, Hara N, Inoue K, Yamada T, Takami T, Shimodera S, Itokawa M, Asukai N, Okazaki Y. Psychotic-like experiences are associated with suicidal feelings and deliberate self-harm behaviors in adolescents aged 12,15 years. Objective:, Psychotic disorders are a significant risk factor for suicide, especially among young people. Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in the general population may share an etiological background with psychotic disorders. Therefore, the present study examined the association between PLEs and risk of suicide in a community sample of adolescents. Method:, Psychotic-like experiences, suicidal feelings, and self-harm behaviors were studied using a self-report questionnaire administered to 5073 Japanese adolescents. Depression and anxiety were evaluated using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Results:, The presence of PLEs was significantly associated with suicidal feelings (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.2,4.5) and deliberate self-harm behaviors (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.0,4.8) after controlling for the effects of age, gender, GHQ-12 score, victimization, and substance use. Suicidal feelings and behaviors were more prevalent in subjects with a greater number of PLEs. Conclusion:, Psychotic-like experiences may increase the risk of suicidal problems among adolescents. [source]
Development of the Facial Lines Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire and Initial Results for Botulinum Toxin Type A,Treated PatientsDERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 5 2003
Sue Ellen Cox MD
Background. Botulinum toxin type A treatment is a safe and effective treatment for facial lines. Patient satisfaction with treatment has not yet been systematically measured and reported. Objective. To create a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction with facial line treatment and to assess treatment satisfaction in facial line patients. Methods. Development of the Facial Line Treatment Satisfaction (FTS) Questionnaire followed the five-step process recommended by the Patient Reported Outcomes Harmonization Committee. Results. One hundred fifty-two pilot test participants received botulinum toxin type A treatment alone or in combination with a minimally invasive facial line treatment and were satisfied or very satisfied with their facial lines treatment. Conclusion. The FTS is a valid and reliable 14-item questionnaire that measures an aesthetic patient's satisfaction with facial line treatment. The FTS can be used in clinical practice or clinical trials of facial line treatments. Botulinum toxin type A treatment is associated with high patient satisfaction. [source]
The impact of language skills on mental health in teenagers with hearing impairmentsACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2009
Objective:, The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of language competence level and mental distress in teenagers with hearing impairments. Method:, 43 pupils were given a battery of linguistic tests and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was also completed by 40 parents. Comparisons were made between the group of 33 children in mainstream education and 10 who were in a segregated school for the deaf. Results:, The children had impaired language skills relative to published norms, especially marked in segregated schools. Parents rated children as having more distress than published norms. Those with superior level of spoken language had fewer peer relationship problems in mainstream education, but significantly more in segregated schools. The reverse was almost significant for those proficient in signed language. Conclusion:, Peer relationship problems are associated with the language competence levels in the way that children at school communicate with one another. [source]
Severity of personality disorders and suicide attemptACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2009
Objective:, Severity of personality disorders (PDs) may be more useful in estimating suicide risk than the diagnosis of specific PDs. We hypothesized that suicide attempters with severe PD would present more attempts and attempts of greater severity/lethality. Method:, Four hundred and forty-six suicide attempters were assessed. PD diagnosis was made using the International Personality Disorder Questionnaire , Screening Questionnaire. PDs were classified using Tyrer and Johnson's classification of severity (no PD, simple PD, diffuse PD). Severity/lethality of attempts was measured with the Suicide Intent Scale, Risk-Rescue Rating Scale and Lethality Rating Scale. Results:, Attempters with severe (diffuse) PD had more attempts than the other groups. After controlling for age and gender, this difference remained significant only for the younger age group and women. There was no relationship between severity of PDs and severity/lethality of attempts. Conclusion:, Younger female attempters with severe PD are prone to repeated attempts. However, the severity of PD was not related to the severity/lethality of suicide attempts. [source]
Beliefs about medications: measurement and relationship to adherence in patients with severe mental disordersACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 1 2009
Objective:, To determine if the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) has satisfactory psychometric properties in patients with severe mental disorders and if their scores differ from those of patients with severe medical disorders. To investigate if the scores are related to medication adherence. Method:, Two hundred and eighty psychiatric patients completed the BMQ and reported how much of their medication they had taken the past week. Serum concentrations of medications were analyzed. BMQ scores were compared with those of patients with chronic medical disorders. Results:, Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory for all subscales. The psychiatric group scored lower on the necessity of taking medication than the medical group. Non-adherent patients felt medication to be less necessary and were more concerned about it than adherent patients. The necessity subscale predicted adherence fairly well. Conclusion:, The BMQ has satisfactory psychometric properties for use in patients with severe mental disorders. The constructs measured by the BMQ are related to adherence in these patients. [source]