QWs

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of QWs

  • ingan QW


  • Selected Abstracts


    Analysis of Improved Efficiency of InGaN Light-Emitting Diode With Bottom Photonic Crystal Fabricated by Anodized Aluminum Oxidxe

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 10 2009
    Sang-Wan Ryu
    Abstract The improved performance of a bottom photonic crystal (PC) light-emitting diode (LED) is analyzed based on internal quantum efficiency (,int) and light-extraction efficiency (,ex). The bottom PC is fabricated by anodized aluminum oxide nanopatterns and InGaN quantum wells (QWs) are grown over it. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that threading dislocations are blocked at the nanometer-sized air holes, resulting in improved optical emission efficiency of the QWs. From temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements, the enhancement of ,int is estimated to be 12%. Moreover, the enhancement of ,ex is simulated to be 7% by the finite-difference time-domain method. The fabricated bottom PC LED shows a 23% higher optical power than a reference, which is close to the summation of enhancements in ,int and ,ex. Therefore, the bottom PC improves LED performance through higher optical quality of QWs as well as increased light extraction. [source]


    Nonradiative resonance energy transfer directed from colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots to epitaxial InGaN/GaN quantum wells for solar cells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI - RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS, Issue 7 2010
    Sedat Nizamoglu
    Abstract We report on Frster-type nonradiative resonance energy transfer (NRET) directed from colloidal quantum dots (QDs) to epitaxial quantum wells (QWs) with an efficiency of 69.6% at a rate of 1.527 ns,1 for potential application in III-nitride based photovoltaics. This hybrid exciton generation,collection system consists of chemically-synthesized cyan CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs (,PL = 490 nm) intimately integrated on epitaxially-grown green InGaN/GaN QWs (,PL = 512 nm). To demonstrate directional NRET from donor QDs to acceptor QWs, we simultaneously show the decreased photoluminescence decay lifetime of dots and increased lifetime of wells in the hybrid dipole,dipole coupled system. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Various misfit dislocations in green and yellow GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    Mingwei Zhu
    Abstract We report the growth and structural characteristics of green and yellow (529,576,nm) GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on two types of c -plane substrates , bulk GaN and sapphire. In this longer wavelength range, depending on the substrate, we find different strain relaxation mechanisms within the GaInN/GaN quantum well (QW) region. In optimized epitaxy, structures on sapphire that contain a low density of threading dislocations (TDs) within the n -GaN show virtually no generation of additional misfit dislocations (MDs) (<108,cm,2) or V -defects within the QW region for emission wavelengths up to 571,nm. On bulk GaN substrate, however, where much fewer TDs reach the QWs, strain relaxation is observed by inclined dislocation pairs in green emitters and a high density of edge-type MDs in yellow emitters. The electroluminescence line width, as well as the efficiency droop, was found to increase with dislocation density in the QWs. [source]


    Optical gain and gain saturation of blue-green InGaN quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    Dmitry Sizov
    Abstract Using varied stripe length method we systematically studied optical gain properties of blue-green 3,nm InGaN QWs grown on c -plane and (11,22) semipolar substrates. We determined that for such structures when the product of modal net gain at peak and stripe length exceeds factor 5 the gain saturation occurs due to depletion of pumped carriers. We then focused our attention on the gain in unsaturated conditions. We observed strong gain peak position blue shift with increase of pumping power for both substrate orientations due to quantum well state filling and for c -plane due to piezoelectric field screening. Thus in order to increase lasing wavelength, minimizing optical losses, and maximizing modal gain are essential. We then found that for the semipolar QWs the gain at ,500,nm was 2 higher with the stripe along [,1,123] direction despite the fact that at low pumping level the polarization switching of spontaneous emission resulted predominant E||[,1,123]. Finally we compared the semipolar and c -plane QWs and found that the gain increase with pumping power of c -plane QW is slower than that for semipolar QW in high gain direction while the transparency pumping power is lower for c -plane. [source]


    TEM investigations of (In,Ga)N/GaN quantum structures

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 11 2008
    P. Manolaki
    Abstract The paper reports on the influence of the growth temperature on the structural and chemical properties of (In,Ga)N quantum wells (QWs) on GaN. Two different samples A and B were fabricated. The QWs of the sample A were grown at a constant temperature of 600 C. For the QWs of the sample B the temperature was 530 C, while for the GaN barrier it was raised to 600 C. The chemical and structural properties were studied by electron diffraction contrast imaging using the 0001 and 0002 reflection, respectively. Sample A exhibits homogeneous (In,Ga)N QWs. For sample B some undulated strain contrast of the QWs is visible hinting to the formation of quantum dots (QDs). The self-organisation of (In,Ga)N QDs in sample B is also evidenced by composition sensitive STEM-HAADF imaging, where the individual (In,Ga)N layers exhibit inhomogeneous intensity as well as varied thickness. Moreover, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy yielded enrichment of indium at QD sites. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Self-sustained current oscillations in a multi-quantum-well spin polarized structure with normal contacts

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
    R. Escobedo
    Abstract Self-sustained current oscillations (SSCO) are found in a nonlinear electron spin dynamics model of a n-doped dc voltage biased semiconductor II,VI multi-quantum well structure (MQWS) having one or more of its wells doped with Mn. Provided one well is doped with magnetic impurities, spin polarized current can be obtained even if normal contacts have been attached to this nanostructure. Under certain conditions, the system exhibits static electric field domains and stationary current or moving domains and time-dependent oscillatory current. We have found SSCO for nanostructures with four or more QWs. The presence of SSCO depends on the spin-splitting induced by both, the exchange interaction and the external magnetic field. We also calculate the minimal doping density needed to have SSCO, and a bound above which SSCO disappear. This range is crucial to design a device behaving as a spin polarized current oscillator. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and quantum dots on GaAs(11n) substrates studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 2 2007
    J. S. Rojas-Ramirez
    Abstract Pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) and self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs(11n)A substrates. Photoreflectance spectroscopy was employed to investigate the transitions in the heterostructures. The transitions in QWs have two contributions, a blue shift due to the compressive strain, and a red shift due to the quantum confined Stark effect produced by the piezoelectric field. A traditional theoretical interpretation of the QWs transitions employing a simple well model with sharp interfaces shows discrepancies with the experimental results. In order to satisfactorily explain the transitions we proposed to include segregation effects of Indium at the wells interfaces. The matrix transfer method was implemented to numerically solve the Schrdinger equation taking into account In segregation effects by including an asymmetric potential well with a profile depending on the details of the In incorporation. With segregation effects included, the calculated transitions fit very well the PR spectra. On the other hand, the transitions in self-assembled QDs were obtained by fitting the PR spectra employing a first derivative line-shape function. For n = 2, 4, 5, two functions were required to fit the spectra. For n = 3 only one function was required, in agreement with the more uniform QDs size distribution observed by atomic force microscopy on GaAs(113)A. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    The influence of antimony on the optical quality of highly strained GaInNAs/GaAs QWs investigated by contacless electroreflectance

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 2 2007
    R. Kudrawiec
    Abstract Contactless electroreflectance (CER) has been applied to study the influence of Sb atoms on the optical quality of highly strained GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs). A set of QWs grown under various antimony fluxes has been analyzed in this work. The broadening of the CER resonance has been used as an indicator of the QW quality. It has been observed that broadening of the CER resonance related to the ground state transition decreases about three times (from ,60 meV to 20 meV) after the incorporation of antimony into GaInNAs/GaAs QWs. Moreover, it has been observed that the broadening parameter does not decrease with the rise of antimony content from 0.5% to 2.0%. It means that only 0.5% Sb is enough to improve the optical quality of GaInNAs/GaAs QWs. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Influence of the annealing temperature on the optical transitions of InGaAsP-based quantum well structures investigated by photoreflectance spectroscopy

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 7 2005
    A. Podhorodecki
    Abstract Photoreflectance (PR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies have been used to study the effect of the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on InGaAsP-based quantum wells (QWs) which are the active part of a laser structure tailored at 1.5 m. In the case of PL, it has been observed that the RTA enhances PL intensity and tunes the emission wavelength of the laser structure to blue. In case of PR due to its absorption character, we were able to study QW transitions related to excited states, besides the fundamental transition observed in PL. In addition, optical transitions related to other part of the laser structure have been observed in PR. It has been shown that there exists a "critical" annealing temperature (720 C) where the energy shift appears. We have observed a blueshift for both the ground and excited state transitions, but in the case of the ground state transitions the blueshift has been found to be bigger. The magnitude of this blueshift has been found to change linearly from 0 to ,15 meV with the rise of temperature from 720 to 780 C. Below 720 C no significant change in the energy of the QW transitions is observed. In the case of PR transitions related to the other part of the laser structure, i.e., the quaternary InGaAsP barriers, it has been observed that after annealing PR features associated with these layers rather do not shift, they change only their line-shape. Also, it has been shown that RTA does not destroy the optical quality of the samples. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Effect of electric field on the probability of optical transitions in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells observed by photo- and electroreflectance methods

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 7 2005
    A. N. Pikhtin
    Abstract The influence of an electric field on the energy spectrum and the probability of optical transitions in InGaAs/GaAs single quantum wells (QWs) of different widths has been investigated with photo- and electroreflectance techniques. The electric field in the area of a QW is varied in a wide range and controlled by well-defined Franz,Keldysh oscillations. A quadratic red shift of electroreflectance features concerned with interband excitonic transitions in QWs is observed. The electric field dependence of the intensity of these features and calculated data for the probability of optical transitions are compared. There are some field values when transitions that are symmetry-forbidden in zero field are much stronger than symmetry-allowed transitions. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells with inversion domains

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 3 2003
    T. V. Shubina
    Abstract Two-band photoluminescence (PL) and respective absorption and reflection features are observed in GaN/AlGaN MBE-grown quantum well (QW) structures of dominant N polarity with inversion domains (IDs). The PL bands are related to transitions in the regions of different polarity, characterized by differ-ent strain and electric fields. A micro-PL study reveals sharp and narrow (1.5,2.5 meV) PL lines placed between the bands, which are tentatively attributed to recombination at localization sites associated with intersections of the QWs with the domains. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ID formation decreases the overall strength of the intrinsic electric fields in the QW structures. [source]


    Polarization properties in deep-ultraviolet AlGaN quantum wells with various substrate orientations

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2010
    A. Atsushi Yamaguchi
    Abstract It is known that emission polarization in AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) on c-plane substrates switches from in-plane polarization to c -axis polarization with increasing Al composition. This behaviour is unfavourable for light extraction from c-plane based light emitting diodes (LEDs). Previously, we proposed theoretically that this unfavourable polarization can be changed into favourable in-plane polarization by decreasing well width and/or introduction of compressive strain in c-oriented AlGaN-QWs. In this work, we have investigated the substrate orientation dependence of polarization properties in such AlGaN QWs by numerical calculation using the 6,,6 kp Hamiltonian. It is shown that even small inclination of c-plane substrate makes a drastic change in the polarization characteristics and that the use of the vicinal substrates as well as semipolar and nonpolar substrates could be beneficial in improving optical device performance. [source]


    Exciton states and tunneling in semimagnetic asymmetric double quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 2 2010
    S. V. Zaitsev
    Abstract Exciton level structure and interwell relaxation are studied in Cd(Mn,Mg)Te-based asymmetric double quantum wells (ADQWs) by a steady-state optical spectroscopy in magnetic fields up to B,=,10,T. The as grown heterostructures with CdTe QWs and nonmagnetic interwell CdMgTe barrier were subjected to a rapid temperature annealing to introduce Mn and Mg atoms from opposite barriers inside the QWs which results in a formation of the ADQW with completely different magnetic field behavior of the intrawell excitons. The giant Zeeman effect in the QW with magnetic Mn ions gives rise to a crossing of the ground exciton levels in two QWs at BC,,,3,6,T which is accompanied by a reverse of the interwell tunneling direction. In a single-particle picture the exciton tunneling is forbidden at B,<,1,T as supported by calculations. Experimentally, nevertheless, a very efficient interwell relaxation of excitons is found at resonant excitation in the whole magnetic field range, regardless of the tunneling direction, emphasizing importance of excitonic correlations in the interwell tunneling. At nonresonant excitation an unexpectedly slow relaxation of the ,, -polarized excitons from the nonmagnetic QW to the ,+ -polarized ground state in the semimagnetic QW is observed at B,>,BC, giving rise to a nonequilibrium distribution of excitons in ADQW. A strong dependence of the total circular polarization degree on the hh,lh splitting ,hh,lh in the nonmagnetic QW is found and attributed to the spin dependent interwell tunneling controlled by an exciton spin relaxation. Different charge-transfer mechanisms are analyzed in details and an elastic scattering due to a strong disorder is suggested as the main tunneling mechanism with the underlying influence of the valence band-mixing. [source]


    Light scattering study on hybrid structures of Zn1,x,yCdxMnySe quantum wells with ferromagnetic Co wires

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 3 2004
    M. Sakuma
    Abstract Sub-micron scale hybrid structures of Zn1,x,yCdxMnySe diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) quantum wells (QWs) with ferromagnetic Co wires have been fabricated for the purpose of applying local magnetic fields to the DMS-QW. The wire of DMS-QW with the width down to 100 nm was sandwiched between the Co wires. The magneto-optical properties are studied by spin-flip light scattering of paramagnetic Mn-ions in the DMS. The application of uniform magnetic fields higher than 0.25 T has been attained from the Co wires to the DMS-QWs. In addition, the field application from the Co to the DMS-QWs is switched on by weak magnetic fields of 0.03 T due to the magnetic shape anisotropy of the Co wires, which can realize the switching behavior of the spin alignment of Mn-ions in the DMS-QW. ( 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Polarization field crossover in semi-polar InGaN/GaN single quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 10 2010
    H. Shen
    Abstract We present an electroreflectance study of the polarization field in semi-polar (10) and (112) oriented InGaN quantum wells (QW). For the () sample, the flat-QW condition (the electric field in the QW is zero) is at a reverse bias voltage. For the (112) sample, the flat-QW condition is at a forward bias voltage larger than the turn on voltage of the diode. However, the flat-barrier condition (the electric field in the barrier region is zero) is at a forward bias voltage less than the turn on voltage of the diode. The flat-QW condition and the flat-barrier condition are determined by examining the zero-crossing and the Franz-Keldysh oscillations in the electroreflectance signal for (10) and (112) InGaN QWs, respectively. From the corresponding bias voltages, we deduce the polarization field in the QWs and conclude that in the semi-polar InGaN/GaN QW there is a crossover angle between the polar and non-polar orientations where the polarization field vanishes. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Light emitting diodes on silicon substrates: preliminary results

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 10 2009
    Alexandre Bondi
    Abstract III-V quantum wells (QW) superlattices have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaP substrates for photonics applications on silicon. We first present room temperature photoluminescence (PL) results for GaAsP/GaP QWs. A detailed analysis of low temperature PL experiments is then performed. QW contribution is pointed out, and the structuration of the QW emission is attributed to LA phonon replica. A comparison with electronic bandstructure is performed, and a discussion is proposed on the nature of the observed transition (direct or indirect). Finally, it is shown that these QWs can be used as active zone in light emitters on silicon. Growth of good quality GaP epilayers on silicon is also presented. The crystalline quality of the deposited GaP near the GaP/Si interface is studied by Raman spectroscopy. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Mechanism of thermal degradation in GaInN/GaN quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
    H. Bremers
    Abstract In this contribution we focus on degradation processes of GaInN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) used in laser structures grown by metallorganic vapor pressure epitaxy (MOVPE). The influence of ramp-up time as well as the maximum temperature during growth of the barrier on the quantum well (QW) is investigated. Comparison of X-ray and photoluminescence (PL) measurements implies that a sufficient thickness of a cover layer grown at low temperature is required to prevent degradation of the QW. In a next step samples were grown using an optimal thermal budget during growth of the active region to investigate the influence of capping layers. To improve crystalline quality of these layers high temperatures are required. Our measurements show that these high temperatures lead to a decrease in average indium concentration of the QWs. This decrease is temperature as well as time dependent (, ,t) and can only explained by diffusion processes. The activation energies are in the range 0.7-0.9 eV ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Characterization of asymmetric GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
    Z. Z. Chen
    Abstract The microstructure and electronic structure of the asymmetric GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes are characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), cathodoluminescence (CL) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. In TEM images, the asymmetric structure of InGaN/GaN MQW are observed as designed with different width of QWs and barriers, and indium content in QWs as well. In high-resolution TEM images, the InGaN quantum wells and GaN barriers show the same lattice constant, and some degradation can be seen at the bottom of each InGaN QW. There are two emission peaks, 450 and 530 nm in CL spectrum, similar to the ones in electroluminescence spectrum. The double emission peaks are assigned to the irradiative recombination in different InGaN QWs. From the C-V data, the apparent carrier concentration in the asymmetric MQW is calculated. There are five obvious peaks which are well explained by an energy band scheme of InGaN/GaN MQW. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Discrete luminescence bands in AlGaN-based quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
    Hideaki Murotani
    Abstract The excitation-power-density dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been studied for AlGaN-based quantum wells (QWs) with a well-layer thickness of 2, 4, and 6 nm. With increasing excitation-power density, an additional luminescence line was observed at the higher energy side of an initial luminescence line for the QWs with the well-layer thickness of 4 and 6 nm. The additional line also shifted toward higher energy side with further increasing excitation-power density. It was found from a theoretical calculation of the transition energy under applied electric field that an energy difference between the additional and the initial lines agreed with an energy separation for a well-layer-thickness variation of 2 monolayer for each QW. Therefore, these observations indicated that in the QWs with the well-layer thickness of 4 and 6 nm, the screening of the internal electric field occurred effectively after the saturation of localized states caused by the interface disorder. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Computer-assisted analysis of TEM diffraction contrast images of (In,Ga)N/GaN nanostructures

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 12 2008
    P. Manolaki
    Abstract III-nitride semiconductor nanostructures are subject of intense studies with respect to their optoelectronic, structural and chemical properties. Important parameters for the wavelength of the emitted light are the chemical composition and the dimensionality of the nanostructures. Transmission electron microscopy is used to determine these characteristics at a nanometer scale. In this work, the information provided by diffraction contrast images of (In,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells (QWs) is studied. Experimental dark-field images alternatively using the 0001 and the 0002 reflection show a different contrast regime. In order to understand the contrast, one has to calculate the intensity Ig of the individual diffracted beam g. The intensity of the 0002 beam is a function of the sum of the atomic scattering amplitudes of the group III and the group V element. Consequently, the 0002 reflection is strain sensitive. According to the kinematical theory the 0001 reflection is forbidden. However, it is excited in the experiment. Therefore, dynamical effects have to be taken into account. The corresponding intensity is calculated by the Howie-Whelan equations. It turns out that the intensity of the 0001 beam strongly depends on the In content of (In,Ga)N. A good agreement of intensity profiles of 0001 dark-field images compared to the theory is found. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Thermal precipitation of self-organized PbTe quantum dots in CdTe host matrix

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 9 2008
    K. Koike
    Abstract This paper describes a selective growth of PbTe/CdTe quantum wells (QWs) and quantum dots (QDs) in CdTe host matrix by molecular beam epitaxy. These two tellurides possess almost identical lattice constants, but differ fundamentally in their lattice structure. Owing to a strong phase separation by the lattice-type mismatch, insertion of a PbTe thin layer in CdTe matrix at higher temperatures than 280 C was resulted in a self-organized growth of coherent and three-dimensionally isotropic QDs. The same growth procedure at lower temperatures, on the other hand, yielded a conventional QW structure with sharp heterointerface. This QW structure, however, was found to precipitate well-ordered QD-array by a postgrowth annealing, indicating that the QD formation is induced by the minimization of interface energy between the inmiscible two tellurides. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Theoretical investigations on anisotropic optical properties in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 9 2008
    Kazunobu Kojima
    Abstract The anisotropic band structures and spontaneous emission of the non c plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) were computed based on the kp perturbation theory. Spontaneous emission due to the A valence band is strongly polarized perpendicular to the c axis, while that from the B band has 90-rotated polarization, for the crystal angle , larger than 50. However, it was found that excited carriers can distribute into both the A and B bands, so that the effective polarization Peff defined by the integrated luminescence intensity is much reduced even for nonpolar InGaN/GaN QWs. Thus, Peff was systematically studied for arbitrary planes. We found that the energy separation between the A and B bands becomes significant and carrier population of the B valence band is suppressed as the In content increases, when Peff approaches unity. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Luminescence and energy structure of ultrathin InAs/AlAs quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2008
    T. S. Shamirzaev
    Abstract The energy spectrum of thin InAs/AlAs quantum wells (QWs) has been studied by photoluminescence (PL). It has been found that the PL spectra of the QWs consist of intense lines related to a no-phonon excitonic transition accompanied with its phonon replicas. The band alignment in the QWs with the lowest conduction band states belonging to the indirect minimum is shown to be of type I. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Exciton-polaritonic effects in the optical absorption by regular and disordered arrays of quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2008
    V. A. Kosobukin
    Abstract Exciton-polaritonic transfer and absorption are theoretically studied in short-period, Bragg-type and disordered quantum-well (QW) arrays. In all cases, the integral absorptivity is shown to increase monotonously with the nonradiative decay rate of quasi-2D excitons and the number of QWs. The scale and growth rate of integral absorptivity depend essentially on the above type of multiple-QW structure under consideration. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    High quality, high efficiency and ultrahigh In-content InGaN QWs , the problem of thermal stability

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2008
    D. Fuhrmann
    Abstract InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures with Indium concentrations above 30% suited for light emitters in the green and beyond have been investigated. The structures were optimized for homogeneous Indium distributions and abrupt interfaces. We obtained very high internal quantum efficiencies (IQE) of 80% and 70% for 460 nm and 510 nm emission wavelength, respectively. However, for high In concentrations the heterostructures are thermally less stable. This is evident from systematic studies including varied GaN cap temperatures and different post annealing procedures. For elevated temperatures we observe a reduction of the PL intensity, a broadening and a shift to higher energies of the PL lines without indication of phase separation. The reason is the soft indium-nitrogen bond, the degradation likely occurs by In interdiffusion or outdiffusion via defects in the structures. The critical temperatures are well below those typical for p-GaN contact layer growth and thus need to be considered in device applications. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Novel HVPE technology to grow nanometer thick GaN, AlN, AlGaN layers and multi-layered structures

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2007
    Alexander Usikov
    Abstract In this paper, we demonstrate new results on controllable HVPE growth of nitride materials with a deposition rate below 0.02 microns per minute and the first quantum size structures fabricated by HVPE. The nm-scale layer thicknesses were verified by transmision electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL). Quantum well (QW) GaN/AlGaN and AlN/AlGaN structures have been grown by HVPE for the first time. Properties of the HVPE grown QWs are reported. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Evidence of quantum dot-like nano-objects in InGaN quantum wells provided by narrow photoluminescence spectra from localized exciton

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2007
    H. Gotoh
    Abstract We report on narrow photoluminescence (PL) spectra obtained from spatially localized excitons in InGaN quantum wells (QW). These PL lines (less than 1 meV wide) are clearly detected in QWs on several buffer structures and substrates with the micro-PL technique in low temperature regions. A narrow PL spectrum is one of the characteristics of an exciton confined in a quantum dot (QD). Our results directly confirm that QD-like nano-objects exist in InGaN QWs. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    A theoretical investigation of carrier and optical mode confinement in GaInNAs QWs on GaAs and InP substrates

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 2 2007
    B. Gnl
    Abstract Both carrier and optical mode confinements are the basic ingredients while designing the semiconductor quantum well lasers. The former strongly depends on the band offsets of the heterostructure and the latter is mainly associated with the difference in the refractive index between the wave guiding core and the cladding layers. It is known that refractive index strongly depends on the direct band gap of the semiconductor material and the band gap of the III-N-V semiconductor layer can be engineered by means of adding nitrogen into InGaAs. We investigate, in this work, the refractive indices and the corresponding optical confinement factors of the proposed III-N-V laser material systems on GaAs and InP substrates. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Investigations on local Ga and In incorporation of GaInN quantum wells on facets of selectively grown GaN stripes

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2006
    B. Neubert
    Abstract Multiple GaInN quantum wells (QWs) were grown on side facets with reduced piezoelectric fields (PFs) of selectively grown GaN stripes oriented along the ,100, and ,110, directions by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The different luminescence wavelengths observed for the QWs on these facets can be explained by the reduced PFs, additionally the QW thickness depends on the facet type. Although stripes running along ,100, and ,110, develop similar triangular or trapezoidal shape, their detailed growth behaviour, electrical and luminescence properties differ significantly pointing to different adsorption/desorption and inter-facet migration processes of In, Ga and the p-type dopant Mg. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Barrier-to-well carrier dynamics of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells grown by plasma assisted MBE on bulk GaN substrates

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2006
    K. P. Korona
    Abstract We present study of carrier dynamics in GaInN/GaN multi quantum wells (MQWs) with screened electric fields. The PL emission showed clearly resolved peaks emitted from the Ga0.9In0.1N QWs (at about 3.1 eV, FWHM 30-50 meV). Two samples with 2.5-nm-QWs and 4-nm-QWs showed decay-times of 1.1 ns and 2.3 ns. The decay-rates in the barriers were thermally activated, activation energies were 21 meV and 46 meV, for the 2.5-nm-QWs and 4-nm-QWs structures, respectively. Analysis of correlation between rising-rates of the MQW PL and the decay-rates of the barriers PL confirmed increase of transport through barrier. The MQW PL energy changed with time. The phenomenon was due to trapping of excitons on donors or localization in potential minima. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]