Quantum Wells (quantum + well)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Quantum Wells

  • GaA quantum well
  • asymmetric double quantum well
  • double quantum well
  • ingan quantum well
  • ingan/gan quantum well
  • multiple quantum well
  • semiconductor quantum well
  • single quantum well


  • Selected Abstracts


    Effects of lattice-mismatch induced built-in strain on the valence band properties of wurtzite ZnO/Zn1,xMgxO quantum well heterostructures

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 1 2007
    K. Zitouni
    Abstract We present a theoretical study of the effects of lattice-mismatch induced built-in strain on the electronic properties of valence band states in wurtzite ZnO/Zn1,xMgxO Quantum Well (QW) heterostructures. In this purpose, a 6x6 kp method has been used to incorporate the effects of strain and nonparabolicity. The energies corresponding to the transitions between conduction band (C), heavy hole (HH), light hole (LH) and crystal-field split-off hole (CH) bands have been calculated as a function of Mg composition and strain. We have also calculated the energy dispersions and wave functions of strained wurtzite ZnO. It is found that ZnO is always under a biaxial tensile strain, in the whole Mg composition range investigated (x < 40%). As a consequence, the light hole valence subband is shifted upwards with respect to the corresponding heavy hole valence subband, resulting in a reduction of ZnO direct band gap by almost 6% when x = 35%. This is found to result in turn in a significantly reduced in-plane hole effective mass at the top of the valence band which is always LH-like. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Analysis of Improved Efficiency of InGaN Light-Emitting Diode With Bottom Photonic Crystal Fabricated by Anodized Aluminum Oxidxe

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 10 2009
    Sang-Wan Ryu
    Abstract The improved performance of a bottom photonic crystal (PC) light-emitting diode (LED) is analyzed based on internal quantum efficiency (,int) and light-extraction efficiency (,ex). The bottom PC is fabricated by anodized aluminum oxide nanopatterns and InGaN quantum wells (QWs) are grown over it. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that threading dislocations are blocked at the nanometer-sized air holes, resulting in improved optical emission efficiency of the QWs. From temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements, the enhancement of ,int is estimated to be 12%. Moreover, the enhancement of ,ex is simulated to be 7% by the finite-difference time-domain method. The fabricated bottom PC LED shows a 23% higher optical power than a reference, which is close to the summation of enhancements in ,int and ,ex. Therefore, the bottom PC improves LED performance through higher optical quality of QWs as well as increased light extraction. [source]


    Integral evaluation in semiconductor device modelling using simulated annealing with Bose,Einstein statistics

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NUMERICAL MODELLING: ELECTRONIC NETWORKS, DEVICES AND FIELDS, Issue 4 2007
    E.A.B. Cole
    Abstract Fermi integrals arise in the mathematical and numerical modelling of microwave semiconductor devices. In particular, associated Fermi integrals involving two arguments arise in the modelling of HEMTs, in which quantum wells form at the material interfaces. The numerical evaluation of these associated integrals is time consuming. In this paper, these associated integrals are replaced by simpler functions which depend on a small number of optimal parameters. These parameters are found by optimizing a suitable cost function using a genetic algorithm with simulated annealing. A new method is introduced whereby the transition probabilities of the simulated annealing process are based on the Bose,Einstein distribution function, rather than on the more usual Maxwell,Boltzmann statistics or Tsallis statistics. Results are presented for the simulation of a four-layer HEMT, and show the effect of the approximation for the associated Fermi integrals. A comparison is made of the convergence properties of the three different statistics used in the simulated annealing process. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Influence of the carrier diffusion process on the transient response of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NUMERICAL MODELLING: ELECTRONIC NETWORKS, DEVICES AND FIELDS, Issue 1 2003
    M. S. Torre
    Abstract We investigate the transverse mode dynamics of weakly index-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL). The turn-on time of transverse modes are calculated by implementing a model for the VCSEL dynamics including diffusion and transport/capture phenomena. It takes into account the spatial dependence of the two carrier density profiles associated with the confined carriers in the quantum wells, and with the unconfined carriers in the barrier region. Devices of different aperture diameter under different excitation conditions are also studied. The model displays the correct turn-on time dependence on the injection current density when compared with the experimental data available. We show that the turn-on time of the modes increases when capture time increases and escape time decreases and also when diffusion increases. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    ZnCdO/ZnO , a new heterosystem for green-wavelength semiconductor lasing

    LASER & PHOTONICS REVIEWS, Issue 3 2009
    S. Kalusniak
    Abstract We report on our efforts to cultivate the ternary compound ZnCdO as a semiconductor laser material. Molecular beam epitaxy far from thermal equilibrium allows us to overcome the standard solubility limit and to fabricate alloys with band gaps ranging from 3.4 down to 2.1 eV. Optimized structures containing well-defined quantum wells as active zones are capable of low-threshold lasing under optical pumping up to room temperature. The longest lasing wavelength achieved so far is 510 nm. [source]


    Modulation bandwidth of semiconductor lasers based on coupled quantum wells

    MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 4 2004
    M. S. Wartak
    Abstract The effect of well coupling on differential gain and maximum-modulation bandwidth for semiconductor lasers based on coupled quantum wells is analyzed using the K -factor method. We determine differential gain in coupled quantum wells within the self-consistent solution of the Poisson, Schroedinger, and 4 4 Luttinger,Kohn equations. The multiple-body effects of bandgap renormalization, coulombic scattering interactions, and a nonMarkovian distribution are also included. The analysis has been performed for coupled wells at 1.55 ,m in an InGaAsP/InP lattice-matched system grown in the [001] direction. Our results suggest that in order to maximize modulation bandwidth and differential gain, one should design structures with barrier widths larger than 40 . 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 42: 272,274, 2004; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.20275 [source]


    Nonradiative resonance energy transfer directed from colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots to epitaxial InGaN/GaN quantum wells for solar cells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI - RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS, Issue 7 2010
    Sedat Nizamoglu
    Abstract We report on Frster-type nonradiative resonance energy transfer (NRET) directed from colloidal quantum dots (QDs) to epitaxial quantum wells (QWs) with an efficiency of 69.6% at a rate of 1.527 ns,1 for potential application in III-nitride based photovoltaics. This hybrid exciton generation,collection system consists of chemically-synthesized cyan CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs (,PL = 490 nm) intimately integrated on epitaxially-grown green InGaN/GaN QWs (,PL = 512 nm). To demonstrate directional NRET from donor QDs to acceptor QWs, we simultaneously show the decreased photoluminescence decay lifetime of dots and increased lifetime of wells in the hybrid dipole,dipole coupled system. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Optical gain and gain saturation of blue-green InGaN quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    Dmitry Sizov
    Abstract Using varied stripe length method we systematically studied optical gain properties of blue-green 3,nm InGaN QWs grown on c -plane and (11,22) semipolar substrates. We determined that for such structures when the product of modal net gain at peak and stripe length exceeds factor 5 the gain saturation occurs due to depletion of pumped carriers. We then focused our attention on the gain in unsaturated conditions. We observed strong gain peak position blue shift with increase of pumping power for both substrate orientations due to quantum well state filling and for c -plane due to piezoelectric field screening. Thus in order to increase lasing wavelength, minimizing optical losses, and maximizing modal gain are essential. We then found that for the semipolar QWs the gain at ,500,nm was 2 higher with the stripe along [,1,123] direction despite the fact that at low pumping level the polarization switching of spontaneous emission resulted predominant E||[,1,123]. Finally we compared the semipolar and c -plane QWs and found that the gain increase with pumping power of c -plane QW is slower than that for semipolar QW in high gain direction while the transparency pumping power is lower for c -plane. [source]


    Low thermal resistance, high-speed 980 nm asymmetric intracavity-contacted oxide-aperture VCSELs

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 7 2009
    Y. M. Song
    Abstract We demonstrated high-speed characteristics of an oxide-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with intracavity structures for both p- and n-contacts, based on InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells operating at , , 980 nm, indicating a low thermal resistance (Rth). The asymmetric current injection scheme is employed for reducing current crowding around the rim of the oxide aperture. A high aluminium content undoped Al0.88Ga0.12As and GaAs distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror is used for efficient heat dissipation. The VCSEL with a 7 ,m oxide aperture exhibited an output power of 2.5 mW and a threshold current of 0.8 mA with a slope efficiency of 0.39 mW/mA at 20 C under continuous-wave operation and it still worked with 1.3 mW at 90 C. The temperature tuning coefficient of 0.081 nm/C and dissipated electrical power tuning coefficient of 0.104 nm/mW were observed, leading to a low Rth of 1.28 C/mW. A high modulation bandwidth up to 13 GHz with a modulation current efficiency factor of 6.1 GHz/mA1/2 was achieved. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Nitride-based quantum structures and devices on modified GaN substrates

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
    Piotr Perlin
    Abstract We have studied the properties of InGaN layers and quantum wells grown on gallium nitride substrates with intentional surface misorientation with respect to its crystalline c -axis. Misorientation varied in the range from 0 up to 2 degree. The indium content was changed by using the different growth temperature (between 750 C and 820 C) during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. With increasing misorientation angle the average indium content decreased significantly. This effect was accompanied by the strong increase of the emission line bandwidth suggesting more pronounced indium segregation. The results of cathodoluminescence measurements show that these effects correspond to different number of atomic steps/terraces existing on the surface of gallium nitride substrate. Very interesting result is also demonstrated concerning p-type GaN layers. With increasing misorientation, the free hole density drastically increases above 1018 cm,3. This improvement in p-type doping is not related to the increased Mg concentration but to the reduction in the compensating donor density. Using this advantage we demonstrate nitride light emitters with improved electrical properties. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Optimization of InGaN/(In,Al,Ga)N based near UV-LEDs by MQW strain balancing with in-situ wafer bow sensor

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
    A. Knauer
    Abstract A high resolution curvature sensor was used for in-situ monitoring of the strain state during the growth of the InGaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) for near UV light emitting diodes (LEDs). The LED heterostructures were grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. LEDs containing different Inx Al0.16Ga0.84,xN barrier layers were compared. The results were correlated with the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and the current induced shift of the emission wavelength of the LEDs. It was found that strain-compensated or slightly compressively strained Inx Al0.16Ga0.84,xN barrier layers in the MQW, for which the net polarization in the InGaN quantum wells is close to zero, result in the highest EQE and in a stable emission wavelength independent of the drive current. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    TEM investigations of (In,Ga)N/GaN quantum structures

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 11 2008
    P. Manolaki
    Abstract The paper reports on the influence of the growth temperature on the structural and chemical properties of (In,Ga)N quantum wells (QWs) on GaN. Two different samples A and B were fabricated. The QWs of the sample A were grown at a constant temperature of 600 C. For the QWs of the sample B the temperature was 530 C, while for the GaN barrier it was raised to 600 C. The chemical and structural properties were studied by electron diffraction contrast imaging using the 0001 and 0002 reflection, respectively. Sample A exhibits homogeneous (In,Ga)N QWs. For sample B some undulated strain contrast of the QWs is visible hinting to the formation of quantum dots (QDs). The self-organisation of (In,Ga)N QDs in sample B is also evidenced by composition sensitive STEM-HAADF imaging, where the individual (In,Ga)N layers exhibit inhomogeneous intensity as well as varied thickness. Moreover, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy yielded enrichment of indium at QD sites. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and quantum dots on GaAs(11n) substrates studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 2 2007
    J. S. Rojas-Ramirez
    Abstract Pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) and self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs(11n)A substrates. Photoreflectance spectroscopy was employed to investigate the transitions in the heterostructures. The transitions in QWs have two contributions, a blue shift due to the compressive strain, and a red shift due to the quantum confined Stark effect produced by the piezoelectric field. A traditional theoretical interpretation of the QWs transitions employing a simple well model with sharp interfaces shows discrepancies with the experimental results. In order to satisfactorily explain the transitions we proposed to include segregation effects of Indium at the wells interfaces. The matrix transfer method was implemented to numerically solve the Schrdinger equation taking into account In segregation effects by including an asymmetric potential well with a profile depending on the details of the In incorporation. With segregation effects included, the calculated transitions fit very well the PR spectra. On the other hand, the transitions in self-assembled QDs were obtained by fitting the PR spectra employing a first derivative line-shape function. For n = 2, 4, 5, two functions were required to fit the spectra. For n = 3 only one function was required, in agreement with the more uniform QDs size distribution observed by atomic force microscopy on GaAs(113)A. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    The influence of antimony on the optical quality of highly strained GaInNAs/GaAs QWs investigated by contacless electroreflectance

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 2 2007
    R. Kudrawiec
    Abstract Contactless electroreflectance (CER) has been applied to study the influence of Sb atoms on the optical quality of highly strained GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs). A set of QWs grown under various antimony fluxes has been analyzed in this work. The broadening of the CER resonance has been used as an indicator of the QW quality. It has been observed that broadening of the CER resonance related to the ground state transition decreases about three times (from ,60 meV to 20 meV) after the incorporation of antimony into GaInNAs/GaAs QWs. Moreover, it has been observed that the broadening parameter does not decrease with the rise of antimony content from 0.5% to 2.0%. It means that only 0.5% Sb is enough to improve the optical quality of GaInNAs/GaAs QWs. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Time-resolved optically-detected magnetic resonance of II,VI diluted-magnetic-semiconductor heterostructures

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
    V. Yu.
    Abstract Time-resolved optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique was used to study spin dynamics of Mn2+ ions in (Zn,Mn)Se- and (Cd,Mn)Te-based diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wells. Times of spin,lattice relaxation have been measured directly from a dynamical shift of exciton luminescence lines after a pulsed impact of 60 GHz microwave radiation. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Effects of Si doping position on the emission energy and recombination dynamics of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 1 2006
    Hamid Haratizadeh
    Abstract We report results from detailed optical spectroscopy from MOCVD grown GaN/Al0.07Ga0.93N multiple quantum wells (MQWs). Effects of Si doping position on the emission energy and recombination dynamics were studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements. The samples were Si doped with the same level but different position of the dopant layer. Only the sample doped in the well shows the MQW emission redshifted compare to the GaN bandgap. The redshift is attributed to the self-energy shift of the electron states due to the correlated motion of the electrons exposed to the fluctuating potential of the donor ions. At low temperature the PL decay time of the sample doped in the well by a factor of two is longer than for the barrier doped case. The difference is explained by the effect of interplay of free carriers and ions on the screening of the polarization field in these doped structures. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Influence of the annealing temperature on the optical transitions of InGaAsP-based quantum well structures investigated by photoreflectance spectroscopy

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 7 2005
    A. Podhorodecki
    Abstract Photoreflectance (PR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies have been used to study the effect of the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on InGaAsP-based quantum wells (QWs) which are the active part of a laser structure tailored at 1.5 m. In the case of PL, it has been observed that the RTA enhances PL intensity and tunes the emission wavelength of the laser structure to blue. In case of PR due to its absorption character, we were able to study QW transitions related to excited states, besides the fundamental transition observed in PL. In addition, optical transitions related to other part of the laser structure have been observed in PR. It has been shown that there exists a "critical" annealing temperature (720 C) where the energy shift appears. We have observed a blueshift for both the ground and excited state transitions, but in the case of the ground state transitions the blueshift has been found to be bigger. The magnitude of this blueshift has been found to change linearly from 0 to ,15 meV with the rise of temperature from 720 to 780 C. Below 720 C no significant change in the energy of the QW transitions is observed. In the case of PR transitions related to the other part of the laser structure, i.e., the quaternary InGaAsP barriers, it has been observed that after annealing PR features associated with these layers rather do not shift, they change only their line-shape. Also, it has been shown that RTA does not destroy the optical quality of the samples. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Effect of electric field on the probability of optical transitions in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells observed by photo- and electroreflectance methods

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 7 2005
    A. N. Pikhtin
    Abstract The influence of an electric field on the energy spectrum and the probability of optical transitions in InGaAs/GaAs single quantum wells (QWs) of different widths has been investigated with photo- and electroreflectance techniques. The electric field in the area of a QW is varied in a wide range and controlled by well-defined Franz,Keldysh oscillations. A quadratic red shift of electroreflectance features concerned with interband excitonic transitions in QWs is observed. The electric field dependence of the intensity of these features and calculated data for the probability of optical transitions are compared. There are some field values when transitions that are symmetry-forbidden in zero field are much stronger than symmetry-allowed transitions. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Development of CdSSe/CdS VCSELs for Application to Laser Cathode Ray Tubes

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 4 2004
    K. P. O'Donnell
    Abstract This report summarises recent progress towards the realisation of Laser Cathode Ray Tube (LCRT) devices on the basis of II,VI semiconductors. Although such devices were demonstrated over 30 years ago, using bulk crystalline materials as the active media, practical lasers that operate at room temperature for extended periods of time are not yet readily available. We aim to overcome this roadblock by reducing the threshold power densities of working lasers. By embedding heterostructures, grown using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), within all-dielectric microcavities, the necessary threshold reductions can be made. The construction and testing of an exemplar device, based upon CdSSe/CdS (hex) multiple quantum wells, is described. ( 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r -plane sapphire substrates

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 1 2003
    W. H. Sun
    Abstract GaN and GaN/Al0.25Ga0.75N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) over c - and r -plane sapphire substrates have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. A comparative study of photoluminescence (PL) in GaN epitaxial layers and AlGaN/GaN MQWs on these two types of substrates is reported. At low excitation levels, the measured room temperature PL signal in GaN layers grown over r -plane sapphire was more than order of magnitude lower than in GaN on c -plane substrates. In contrast, the emission intensity from AlGaN/GaN MQWs grown over r -plane substrates was almost 30 times stronger than in the structures grown over c -plane sapphire. Furthermore, with excitation power density up to 1 MW/cm2, the PL peak position for the non-polar MQWs kept completely stable whereas the one for the c -plane structures exhibited a blue shift as large as 250 meV. We attribute this large difference in the ultraviolet emission intensity to the suppression of a strong quantum Stark effect in the AlGaN/GaN MQWs on the r -plane sapphire. ( 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells with inversion domains

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 3 2003
    T. V. Shubina
    Abstract Two-band photoluminescence (PL) and respective absorption and reflection features are observed in GaN/AlGaN MBE-grown quantum well (QW) structures of dominant N polarity with inversion domains (IDs). The PL bands are related to transitions in the regions of different polarity, characterized by differ-ent strain and electric fields. A micro-PL study reveals sharp and narrow (1.5,2.5 meV) PL lines placed between the bands, which are tentatively attributed to recombination at localization sites associated with intersections of the QWs with the domains. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ID formation decreases the overall strength of the intrinsic electric fields in the QW structures. [source]


    Polarization properties in deep-ultraviolet AlGaN quantum wells with various substrate orientations

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2010
    A. Atsushi Yamaguchi
    Abstract It is known that emission polarization in AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) on c-plane substrates switches from in-plane polarization to c -axis polarization with increasing Al composition. This behaviour is unfavourable for light extraction from c-plane based light emitting diodes (LEDs). Previously, we proposed theoretically that this unfavourable polarization can be changed into favourable in-plane polarization by decreasing well width and/or introduction of compressive strain in c-oriented AlGaN-QWs. In this work, we have investigated the substrate orientation dependence of polarization properties in such AlGaN QWs by numerical calculation using the 6,,6 kp Hamiltonian. It is shown that even small inclination of c-plane substrate makes a drastic change in the polarization characteristics and that the use of the vicinal substrates as well as semipolar and nonpolar substrates could be beneficial in improving optical device performance. [source]


    Exciton states and tunneling in semimagnetic asymmetric double quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 2 2010
    S. V. Zaitsev
    Abstract Exciton level structure and interwell relaxation are studied in Cd(Mn,Mg)Te-based asymmetric double quantum wells (ADQWs) by a steady-state optical spectroscopy in magnetic fields up to B,=,10,T. The as grown heterostructures with CdTe QWs and nonmagnetic interwell CdMgTe barrier were subjected to a rapid temperature annealing to introduce Mn and Mg atoms from opposite barriers inside the QWs which results in a formation of the ADQW with completely different magnetic field behavior of the intrawell excitons. The giant Zeeman effect in the QW with magnetic Mn ions gives rise to a crossing of the ground exciton levels in two QWs at BC,,,3,6,T which is accompanied by a reverse of the interwell tunneling direction. In a single-particle picture the exciton tunneling is forbidden at B,<,1,T as supported by calculations. Experimentally, nevertheless, a very efficient interwell relaxation of excitons is found at resonant excitation in the whole magnetic field range, regardless of the tunneling direction, emphasizing importance of excitonic correlations in the interwell tunneling. At nonresonant excitation an unexpectedly slow relaxation of the ,, -polarized excitons from the nonmagnetic QW to the ,+ -polarized ground state in the semimagnetic QW is observed at B,>,BC, giving rise to a nonequilibrium distribution of excitons in ADQW. A strong dependence of the total circular polarization degree on the hh,lh splitting ,hh,lh in the nonmagnetic QW is found and attributed to the spin dependent interwell tunneling controlled by an exciton spin relaxation. Different charge-transfer mechanisms are analyzed in details and an elastic scattering due to a strong disorder is suggested as the main tunneling mechanism with the underlying influence of the valence band-mixing. [source]


    Theory of laser cooling of semiconductor quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2008
    G. Rupper
    Abstract We present a microscopic many-body theory of laser cooling of semiconductor quantum wells. The cooling mechanism is the upconversion of pump photons through absorption and subsequent luminescence by an electron,hole,exciton mixture maintained at steady state in the quantum well. Assuming this Coulomb plasma to be in quasi-thermal equilibrium, our theory calculates its absorption/luminescence spectra within a diagrammatic (real-time) Green's function approach at the self-consistent T-matrix level. These spectra are used in a cooling threshold analysis for GaAs quantum wells that also takes into account other losses into heat. We compare the present results with previous ones obtained for bulk GaAs. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Excitons in motion: universal dependence of the magnetic moment on kinetic energy

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2008
    V. P. Kochereshko
    Abstract We have observed remarkable changes in the magnetic properties of excitons as they acquire kinetic energy. In particular, the Zeeman splittings and diamagnetic shifts of excitonic transitions when magnetic fields are applied along the growth direction of (001) wide quantum wells of CdTe, ZnSe, ZnTe and GaAs are found to to have a strong dependence on the translational wavevector Kz. The behaviour of the Zee-man splittings corresponds to enhancement of the magnetic moments of the excitons. This enhancement is particularly marked when their translational kinetic energy becomes comparable with the exciton Rydberg and can be described by what appears to be a universal function of Kz. A model for the behaviour is outlined which involves motionally-induced mixing between the 1S hydrogenic exciton ground state and excited nP states. The observations imply that there are significant changes in the structure of the exciton as its translational kinetic energy increases. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Atom probe reveals the structure of Inx Ga1,xN based quantum wells in three dimensions

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 5 2008
    M. J. Galtrey
    Abstract The three-dimensional atom probe has been used to characterize Inx Ga1,xN based multiple quantum well structures emitting from the green to the ultra-violet with sub-nanometre resolution over a 100 nm field of view. The results show gross discontinuities and compositional variations within the UV-emitting quantum well layers on a 20,100 nm length scale. We propose that these may contribute to the high efficiency of this structure. In addition, the analysis shows the presence of indium in the barrier layers of all the samples, whether or not there was an indium precursor present during barrier growth. The distribution of indium within the blue- and green-emitting Inx Ga1,xN quantum wells is also analyzed, and we find no evidence that Inx Ga1,xN with a range of compositions is not a random alloy, and so rule out indium clustering as the cause of the reported carrier localization in these structures. The upper interface of each quantum well layer is shown to be rougher and more diffuse than the lower, and the existence of monolayer steps in the interfaces that could effectively localize carriers at room temperature is revealed. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Optically and electrically induced dissipation in quantum Hall systems

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 2 2008
    G. Nachtwei
    Abstract We have studied the onset of dissipation in quantum Hall systems (QHSs), patterned in various geometries (Hall bars, meanders and Corbino rings) from wafers with heterojunctions (GaAs/GaAlAs) and HgTe quantum wells with adjacent HgCdTe barriers. The QH samples were excited by electrical pulses with pulse durations tP of 0.5 ns , tP , 180 ns or by illumination with electromagnetic waves of 1.7 THz , f , 2.5 THz. These waves were either emitted coherently by a pulsed p-Ge laser system or by a thermal source. In the case of excitation by electric pulses, it is necessary to exceed a certain critical pulse length which is a function of various extrinsic parameters and sample properties. For no dissipation occurs inside the QHSs. Also, using THz illumination, the QHSs can be driven to dissipation. We found different mechanisms to be responsible for the photoresponse (PR) of the QHSs: non-resonant (bolometric) and resonant (cyclotron resonance) contributions to the PR of the QHSs. First attempts to develop a quantitative model for the observed data are made. We are able to describe a part of the observations by either a drift model or a two-level model. The quantitative agreement of these calculations with the measured data is, however, limited. This is due to the simplicity of the models applied so far and to the complex behaviour of QHSs when nonlinearly excited. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Excitons in ZnO/Zn1,xMnxO quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 5 2007
    T. Tchelidze
    Abstract In order to estimate the perspectives of using ZnO/Zn1,xMnxO quantum wells for reliable high temperature ferromagnetism (specially for increasing Curie temperature in this structure) we investigate excitons in ZnO/Zn1,xMnxO quantum wells. The existence of weak built-in electric field is investigated. Electric field and Coulomb interaction is accounted by means of direct diagonalization. Calculations showed weak dependence of exciton binding energy on well width. Electric field only slightly increases the distance between electron and hole. It rotates ground state excitons and aligns them along the field. Calculations also showed increase of ground state exciton lifetime with increasing well width. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Strong coupling in artificial semimagnetic Cd(Mn,Mg)Te quantum dot molecule

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 15 2006
    S. V. Zaitsev
    Abstract Exciton photoluminescence in a pair of strongly coupled artificial asymmetric quantum dots (QDs) has been studied in a magnetic field up to 8 T. The QD molecules have been fabricated by a selective interdiffusion technique applied to asymmetric semimagnetic CdTe/Cd(Mg,Mn)Te double quantum wells. The lateral confinement potential within the plane, induced by the diffusion, gives rise to effective zero-dimensional exciton localization. In contrast to a typically positive exciton Lande g -factor, an exciton transition in the non-magnetic QD demonstrates a nearly zero g -factor, indicating a strong electron tunnel coupling between the QDs. The strong coupling results in the formation of an inter-QDs indirect exciton, which is a ground exciton state at high magnetic field, as found in the experiment and confirmed by our calculations. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Confinement of magnetoexcitons in GaAs quantum well with a superconducting disk on top of the well

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 15 2006
    Z. G. Koinov
    Abstract We study the confinement of magnetoexcitons in quantum wells in the presence of a strong external homogeneous magnetic field and a cylindrical symmetric inhomogeneous magnetic field created by a superconducting disk, placed on the top of the well. We calculate numerically the trapping energy and the corresponding center-of-mass wave function of magnetoexcitons in a GaAs single quantum well. The calculations clearly indicate the formation of bound exciton states with nonzero values for the center-of-mass exciton wave function only in a sufficiently small area. This effect of exciton trapping can be used to design new functional nanoelectronic devices. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]