Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Purchase

  • food purchase
  • future purchase
  • household cheese purchase
  • insider purchase

  • Terms modified by Purchase

  • purchase behavior
  • purchase behaviour
  • purchase decision
  • purchase frequency
  • purchase intent
  • purchase intention
  • purchase price

  • Selected Abstracts

    Lottery Expenditures in Canada: Regional Analysis of Probability of Purchase, Amount of Purchase, and Incidence

    Mohamed Abdel-Ghany
    This article has two purposes: First, to examine the effect of household characteristics on lottery expenditures in six regions of Canada using a double hurdle model to distinguish between the decision to play and the decision of how much to spend. Second, to estimate the incidence of lottery expenditures. Using the 1996 Canadian Family Expenditure Survey, the results portray the profile of households that have the probability of becoming participants in lottery play as well as the profile of households that spend more on lottery purchases. Lottery expenditures are found to be regressive in all regions. [source]

    Getting a Purchase on "The School of Tomorrow" and its Constituent Commodities: Histories and Historiographies of Technologies

    Stephen Petrina
    First page of article [source]


    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Carmona, R.1, Kraemer G. P.2, Zertuche, J. A.3, Chanes, L.4, Chopin, T.5, Neefus C.4,6 & Yarish, C.1 1Dept. of Ecol. and Evol. Biol., University of Connecticut, One University Place, Stamford, CT 06901, USA; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, State University of New York, Purchase, NY 10577 USA; 3IIO, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California. Ensenada,B.C., Mexico; 4DGETI-CBTis41, Mexico; 5CCSA, Dept. of Biol., University of New Brunswick, Saint John, N.B., E2L 4L5, Canada; 6Department of Plant Biology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA Finfish mariculture along the Northeast US coast continues to develop into a strong industry. At a regional level, mariculture can be a significant contributor to nutrient loading in coastal waters. Since macroalgae are able to concentrate nutrients and grow at high rates, they can be an useful tool for alleviating this problem. In addition, seaweed mariculture is by itself a multi-billion dollar industry, with the red alga Porphyra (nori) valued at over $US 1.8 billion. Local species and strains of Porphyra from the Northeast U.S.A. are being studied to determine their capacity as nutrient scrubbers under different nutrient and temperature conditions. P. purpurea was grown under two N sources (NO3- vs. NH4+). The fastest growth (up to 13% d-1) and greatest N content (ca. 7% DW) were measured in plants grown at 300 µM NH4+. Short-term NH4+ uptake by P. purpurea (strains from Maine and Long Island Sound) and by P. amplissima was not saturated at 150 µM, the highest concentration tested. The P. purpurea isolate from Maine took up NH4+ faster than did the Long Island Sound isolate. NH4+ uptake by P. amplissima was faster than uptake by either P. purpurea strain. The high growth rates obtained and the ability for N uptake and tissue accumulation make these species suitable for using as a biological nutrient removal system. [source]


    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Zertuche-González, J. A1., Chanes-Miranda L2., Carmona, R3., Kraemer G4., Chopin T.5 & Yarish, C3 1Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, PO Box #453, C.P. 22830, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. 2CBTIS-41, Km 115 Carretera Transpeninsular, Ensenada, BC Mexico. 3University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 1 University Place, Stamford, CT, 06901-2315, USA. 4State University of New York, Purchase College, Div. of Nat. Sciences, Purchase, NY, 10577, USA. 5University of New Brunswick, Centre for Coastal Studies and Aquaculture and Centre for Environmental and Molecular Algal Research, P.O. Box 5050, Saint John, New Brunswick, E2L 4L5, Canada Porphyra perforata is a highly preferred seaweed used as fodder in abalone culturing due to its relatively high nutritional value. High growth rates of abalone, particularly in the early stages, are suspected to be due the high protein-aminoacid and low water content of the Porphyra. Also, high NO3 content may be important to improve the bacterial flora in the animals, which in turn may favor more efficient digestion. Changes in the composition of Porphyra, however, can occur rapidly due to environmental conditions decreasing the nutritional value of the plant. Short term N pulse fertilization were performed on P. perforata in order to evaluate the feasibility to increase its nutritional value. Enrichment was performed under low light conditions (<5 ,E m -2 s -1) to inhibit growth and promote higher N enrichment per unit of biomass. Tissue N in the form of NO3, NH4 and total organic N were measured, after 3,6,12 and 24 hrs, in tissue exposed to 500 ,M of N. Results indicated a rapid N tissue enrichment particularly in the form of NO3. Nitrate accumulation occurs continuously, up to 24 hrs. Total organic N is maximum after 12 hrs and tends to decrease after that. Fertilization with NH4 promotes NO3 accumulation. These results suggest the feasibility to improve the nutritional value of P. perforata by short-term pulse fertilization. The capacity of this species to uptake NH4 under low light conditions (similar to those use in abalone culturing) makes it also ideal for integrated aquaculture. [source]

    Presidents as Supreme Court Advocates: Before and After the White House

    Allen Sharp
    Eight men who took the presidential oath also appeared before the Supreme Court of the United States as advocates. From Senator John Quincy Adams at the outset of the Marshall Court to Richard M. Nixon during the high-water mark of the Warren Court, future and past Presidents have argued before the Supreme Court on such varied and important topics as land scandals in the South, slavery at home and on the high seas, the authority of military commissions over civilians during the Civil War, international disputes as an aftermath of the Alaskan Purchase, and the sensitive intersection between the right to personal privacy and a free press. Here, briefly, are stories of men history knows as Presidents performing as appellate lawyers and oral advocates before the nation's highest court. [source]

    Selenium Content of Venison, Squirrel, and Beef Purchased or Produced in Ohio, a Low Selenium Region of the United States

    D.H. HolbenArticle first published online: 20 JUL 200
    ABSTRACT: The selenium (Se) content (AOAC fluorometric method) of: 1) raw and cooked venison, squirrel, and beef from a low selenium region of the United States and 2) nonregion-raised beef was assessed and compared by region, species, and gender. For both raw and cooked meats, the Se content of venison was not different from region-raised beef (p > .05), and their contents were generally less than squirrel, which was less than nonregion-raised beef (p < .05). Gender and age did not influence Se content of the meats. Field-dressed weight did not affect Se content of deer, and antler size did not impact Se content of meat from male deer. [source]

    Variation in Food Purchases: A Study of Inter-Ethnic and Intra-Ethnic Group Patterns Involving the Hispanic Community

    Geoffrey D. Paulin
    The Hispanic community in the United States is growing rapidly. Understanding food expenditure patterns for this group is of increasing importance. Yet, as implied by the term Hispanic community, most literature treats Hispanics as one group rather than as a collection of diverse cultures with some common linguistic and other characteristics. This article uses data from the 1995 and 1996 U.S. Consumer Expenditure Diary Surveys to examine food expenditure patterns for Hispanics as a group compared to non-Hispanics and for subgroups within the Hispanic community (i.e., families of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, or other Spanish origin). The data show not only that Hispanics in general have different food expenditure patterns than non-Hispanics, but also, and perhaps more important, that the subgroups within the Hispanic community are not homogeneous in their food expenditure patterns. Researchers should recognize the diversity in the Hispanic population when considering goals for nutritional and related policies. [source]

    The Role of Debt Purchases in Takeovers: A Tale of Two Retailers

    Thomas H. Noe
    In this paper, we examine acquisitions of two financially distressed retailers,Federated's takeover of Macy's, and Zell Chilmark's takeover of Carter Hawley Hale. In both cases the raider purchased some of the target's outstanding debt to launch its takeover attempt. These debt purchases appear to have been facilitated by two salient factors,the raider's expertise in dealing with distressed firm restructuring and the ability of the raider to acquire a large blockholding of debt. Our analysis indicates that, when these factors are present, it is optimal for a raider to initiate a takeover of a distressed firm through purchasing a block of the firm's debt. Target bondholder reaction will be favorable whereas shareholder reaction may be either favorable or unfavorable. [source]

    The Impact of Generic Advertising on U.S. Household Cheese Purchases: A Censored Autocorrelated Regression Approach

    Todd M. Schmit
    The impacts of generic cheese advertising on U.S. household cheese purchases are examined via the use of a unique household panel. Modest gains in overall at-home cheese purchases from generic cheese advertising appear to be largely the result of strong gains in purchases of natural cheese rather than processed cheese. Results indicate that relatively larger gains in household cheese purchases from generic advertising may be realized by targeting infrequent purchasers to increase purchase frequencies, rather than by targeting households in general to increase their conditional purchase levels. Les impacts de publicité de fromage générique sur les achats de fromage par les ménages américains sont examinés via l'usage d'un panneau unique fixé sur les ménages. Les accroissements modérés dans les achats du fromage à la maison à cause des avertissements génériques du fromage apparaissent d'être principalement le résultat des gains forts dans les achats de fromage de type nature plutôt que ceux de fromage traité. Les résultats indiquent que les plus grands gains dans les achats de fromage à la maison grâce à la publicité générique peuvent être rendus compte en visant sur les acheteurs rares pour augmenter leurs fréquences d'achat, plutôt que sur les ménages en général pour augmenter leurs niveaux d'achats conditionnels. [source]

    Nonaudit Services and Earnings Management: UK Evidence,

    Abstract Using a sample of UK firms for the period 1996-98, we provide empirical evidence on the relation between nonaudit services (NAS) purchase and three proxies for earnings management: (1) the likelihood that client firm accounting practices during the sample period were publicly criticized or subject to regulatory investigation; (2) the likelihood that client firms were required to restate prior financial statements or adjust current year results upon adoption of Financial Reporting Standard (FRS) No. 12, which was intended to curb opportunistic use of provisions; and (3) the mean absolute value of client discretionary working capital accruals over the sample period. The level of NAS purchase is measured, alternatively, as (1) the ratio of nonaudit to total auditor fees, (2) the natural log of NAS fees, and (3) the decile rank of a particular client's NAS fees given all NAS fees received by the audit firm practice office. With one exception, we find that all three measures of earnings management are positively and significantly associated with the three measures of NAS purchase. [source]

    ,Going out': the growth of Chinese foreign direct investment in Southeast Asia and its implications for corporate social responsibility

    Stephen Frost
    Abstract Analysts have finally started to pay increasing attention to the rapidly rising levels of Chinese investment abroad. Deals such as Lenovo's purchase of IBM's PC production arm have sparked interest in a quiet revolution. The story now is not just about the flow of foreign investment in China, but also of the flow of China's investment into other countries. However, most interest so far has concentrated on big ticket investments in the West and the consequences for European and particularly US geopolitical interests. Of less concern thus far have been the implications of Chinese investment on corporate social responsibility. This paper is a preliminary assessment of the potential implications of Chinese investments: in particular, the effect on sanctions designed to improve human rights (with specific reference to Myanmar), and whether pressure can be maintained on foreign investors to comply with international standards and norms in the face of Chinese investment. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Injury and alcohol: a hospital emergency department study

    Abstract A pilot survey was undertaken of injury presentations to a public hospital emergency department to determine patterns of alcohol use in this population. Of the 402 injury presentations in the study period, a total of 236 injury cases were interviewed, of whom 45% (n = 107) and 29% (n = 69) had consumed alcohol 24 and 6 hours prior to injury. Mean age for all injury presentations was 35.1 years, and 32.6 years for alcohol injury cases. For both injury groups, males were significantly younger than females. Recent alcohol ingestion was three times more common among male than female injury presentations, but with females drinking at significantly lower levels. Of males who had consumed alcohol 6 hours prior to injury, nearly 70% were drinking at NHMRC harmful levels and 61% had drunk more than eight standard drinks. Overall, alcohol-involved injury cases commonly occurred among low-income, single males around 30 years of age who were regular heavy drinkers who were drinking heavily in licensed premises prior to their injury, and who sustained injury through intentional harm. In addition, one in five of the alcohol-involved injury cases were aged 15,18 years, i.e. below the legal age of purchase. The high proportion of hazardous and harmful drinkers among those who had consumed alcohol within the last 6 hours, and the injury sample overall, highlights the need for further research to explore the relationship between the occurrence of injury and the drinking patterns and environments associated with injury. Further research is also required to assess the efficacy of early and brief interventions for alcohol and drug use within the emergency ward setting. This information would enable appropriate public health interventions to be initiated. [source]

    Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD), Stockholm University, Sweden

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
    Kerstin Stenius
    ABSTRACT The Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD) was established as a national research centre and department within the Faculty of Social Science at Stockholm University in 1997, following a Government Report and with the aim to strengthen social alcohol and drug research. Initially, core funding came from the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research and from the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs for several long-term projects. Today, SoRAD, with 25 senior and junior researchers, has core funding from the university but most of its funding comes from external national and international grants. Research is organized under three themes: consumption, problems and norms, alcohol and drug policy and societal reactions, treatment and recovery processes. SoRADs scientific approach, multi-disciplinarity, a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods and international comparisons was established by the centre's first leader, Robin Room. Regular internal seminars are held and young researchers are encouraged to attend scientific meetings and take part in collaborative projects. SoRAD researchers produce government-funded monthly statistics on alcohol consumption and purchase, and take part in various national government committees, but SoRADs research has no clear political or bureaucratic constraints. One of the future challenges for SoRAD will be the proposed system for university grants allocation, where applied social science will have difficulties competing with basic biomedical research if decisions are based on publication and citation measures. [source]

    Producing and Consuming Chemicals: The Moral Economy of the American Lawn

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2003
    Paul Robbins
    Abstract: The burgeoning application of fertilizers and pesticides to residential lawns, which has begun to offset the gains made in reducing the use of chemicals in agriculture, represents a serious environmental hazard in the United States and elsewhere. Increased use and purchase occur specifically among a sector of consumers who explicitly and disproportionately acknowledge the risks associated with chemical deposition, moreover, and who express concern about the quality of water and human health. What drives the production of monocultural lawns in a period when environmental consciousness has encouraged "green" household action (e.g., recycling)? And why does the production of chemical externalities occur among individuals who claim to be concerned about community, family, and environment? In this article, we explore the interactions that condition and characterize the growth of intensive residential yard management in the United States. We argue that the peculiar growth and expansion of the moral economy of the lawn is the product of a threefold process in which (1) the lawn-chemical industry has implemented new and innovative styles of marketing that (2) help to produce an association of community, family, and environmental health with intensive turf-grass aesthetics and (3) reflect an increasing local demand by consumers for authentic experiences of community, family, and connection to the nonhuman biological world through meaningful work. [source]

    Mr Drage, Mr Everyman, and the creation of a mass market for domestic furniture in interwar Britain1

    This article examines strategies used by durable goods retailers to create a mass market in interwar Britain, via a case study of domestic furniture. Interwar demand for new furniture witnessed particularly rapid growth,mainly owing to the extension of the market to lower-income groups. A number of innovative national retailers developed liberal hire purchase (HP) facilities in order to bring furniture within the economic reach of these groups, while sophisticated national advertising campaigns were used both to legitimize the buying of furniture on HP and to project the idea that furnishing by this means was key to achieving the type of aspirational lifestyles being promulgated in the popular media. [source]

    Why Do Mortgage Markets Matter?

    ECONOMIC OUTLOOK, Issue 4 2000
    Geoffrey Meen
    1999 saw the return of large scale mortgage equity - ie mortgage borrowing to finance consumption rather than house purchase - for the first time for a decade. Recent developments of the OEF macroeconometric model of the UK economy have focused on the determination of mortgage lending, looking in particular at the impact of downpayment constraints - ie the deposit borrowers have to put down when they buy a house. In this article, Geoffrey Meen uses this model to analyse the effects of mortgages on: (i) the cycle in the UK housing market at a national level; (ii) regional house price differentials; and (iii) aggregate savings and consumer behaviour. [source]

    Moving Toward a Comprehensive Assessment System: A Framework for Considering Interim Assessments

    Marianne Perie
    Local assessment systems are being marketed as formative, benchmark, predictive, and a host of other terms. Many so-called formative assessments are not at all similar to the types of assessments and strategies studied by,Black and Wiliam (1998),but instead are interim assessments. In this article, we clarify the definition and uses of interim assessments and argue that they can be an important piece of a comprehensive assessment system that includes formative, interim, and summative assessments. Interim assessments are given on a larger scale than formative assessments, have less flexibility, and are aggregated to the school or district level to help inform policy. Interim assessments are driven by their purpose, which fall into the categories of instructional, evaluative, or predictive. Our intent is to provide a specific definition for these "interim assessments" and to develop a framework that district and state leaders can use to evaluate these systems for purchase or development. The discussion lays out some concerns with the current state of these assessments as well as hopes for future directions and suggestions for further research. [source]

    Cigarettes and social differentiation in France: is tobacco use increasingly concentrated among the poor?

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2009
    Patrick Peretti-Watel
    ABSTRACT Aims This paper aimed to assess whether the increase of social differentiation of smoking is observed in France. Design and setting Five cross-sectional telephone surveys conducted in France between 2000 and 2007. Participants The surveys were conducted among national representative samples of French subjects aged 18,75 years (n = 12 256, n = 2906, n = 27 499, n = 2887, n = 6007 in 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively). We focused on three groups: executives, manual workers and the unemployed. Measurements Time trends of smoking prevalence were assessed, and socio-economic factors (especially occupation and job status) associated with smoking were identified and compared in 2000 and 2005. We also computed respondents' equivalized household consumption (EHI) and their cigarette budget to assess the financial burden of smoking. Findings Between 2000 and 2007, smoking prevalence decreased by 22% among executive managers and professionals and by 11% among manual workers, and did not decrease among the unemployed. Indicators of an underprivileged social situation were associated more markedly with smoking in 2005 than in 2000. In addition, the falling-off of smoking initiation occurred later and was less marked among manual workers than it was among executive managers and professionals. Finally, in 2005 15% of French smokers devoted at least 20% of their EHI to the purchase of cigarettes, versus only 5% in 2000, and smoking weighted increasingly heavily on the poorest smokers' budgets. Conclusions While these results point out an increased social differentiation in tobacco use, they underline the need to design and implement other forms of action to encourage people to quit, in particular targeting individuals belonging to underprivileged groups. [source]

    Old enough for a beer?

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2008
    Compliance with minimum legal age for alcohol purchases in monopoly, Norway, other off-premise outlets in Finland
    ABSTRACT Aim To assess whether government monopoly outlets comply better with minimum legal age for purchase of alcohol compared to other off-premise outlets for alcohol sales. Methods Under-age-appearing 18-year-olds attempted to purchase alcohol in off-premise outlets applying identical procedures in Finland (n = 290) and Norway (n = 170). Outcomes were measured as whether or not the buyers were asked to present an identity (ID) card and whether or not they succeeded in purchasing alcohol. Results The buyers were asked to present an ID card in slightly more than half the attempts, and they succeeded in purchasing alcohol in 48% of the cases. The buyers were more likely to be requested to present an ID card and less likely to succeed in purchasing alcohol in monopoly outlets compared to other types of outlets, and also when other outcome predictors, such as age and gender of salesperson and crowdedness in the outlet, were taken into account. Conclusion Monopoly outlets may facilitate compliance with minimum legal age for purchase of alcohol. [source]

    Ecological modernization and wind power in the UK

    Dave Toke
    Abstract We analyse the UK wind power programme using a particular variant of ecological modernization (EM) theory developed by Christoff (1996). This distinguishes between a centralist ,weak' EM strategy and a more decentralized ,strong' approach. A radical critique of EM is also considered. The ,weak' EM typology is most relevant to the case of wind power in the UK. However, ,strong' EM may have some purchase on account of its normative dimensions. Deployment of ,strong' EM may, in this case, go some way to defusing some of the criticisms made by observers operating from a radical green perspective. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    European Food Marketing: Understanding Consumer Wants , The Starting Point in Adding Value to Basic Food Products La commercialisation des aliments en Europe : comprendre des désirs des consommateurs , point de départ pour ajouter de la valeur aux produits alimentaires de base Lebensmittelhandel in Europa: Das Verständnis der Kundenwünsche ist Voraussetzung für zusätzliche Wertschöpfung bei Grundnahrungsmitteln

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 3 2009
    David Hughes
    Summary European Food Marketing: Understanding Consumer Wants , The Starting Point in Adding Value to Basic Food Products European consumers have been in sombre mood as they battle to make ends meet in an economic recession. Yet, for many countries, the past 50 years or so has been a halcyon period of economic growth and, in real terms, declining food prices. Apart from lower food prices, attributes of convenience, health, pleasure and more esoteric social elements such as animal welfare-friendliness and environmental sustainability are increasingly important to consumers in their food choices. With higher household incomes has come an increasingly segmented food market, as businesses seek to differentiate their products from competitors to earn a premium above the basic commodity price. In an increasingly competitive European and global market, whether the firm is small or large, the first step in successful product differentiation requires an insightful understanding of the drivers of consumer purchase and consumption behaviour. These have fundamental commercial importance in the marketing strategy of any business. Yet, a surprising number of businesses in the food and beverage industry know very little about who buys and consumes their products. In the 21st century, the primacy of consumers and citizens will be substantially more ,front and centre' than in the previous 50 years of production-driven agricultural and food policy. Les consommateurs européens font grise mine depuis qu'ils peinent à joindre les deux bouts dans un contexte de récession économique. Pourtant, dans de nombreux pays, les cinquante dernières années ont formé une période en or de croissance économique et de baisse des prix alimentaires en termes réels. Outre des prix plus bas, les consommateurs accordent, dans leurs choix alimentaires, une importance de plus en plus grande à des attributs en termes de commodité, de santé, de plaisir et d'éléments sociaux plus ésotériques comme le bon traitement des animaux et la durabilité environnementale. La hausse des revenus des ménages a entraîné une segmentation accrue des marchés des produits alimentaires car les entreprises cherchent à différencier leurs produits de ceux de leurs concurrents pour obtenir une prime en sus du prix du produit classique. Dans un marché européen et mondial de plus en plus concurrentiel, que l'entreprise soit petite ou grande, la première étape d'une différentiation de produit réussie consiste à bien comprendre les motivations des consommateurs en termes d'achat et leur comportement en terme de consommation. Ces considérations ont une importance commerciale primordiale dans la stratégie de commercialisation de toute entreprise. Pourtant, un nombre surprenant de firmes de l'industrie des aliments et boissons savent très peu de chose sur les clients qui achètent et consomment leurs produits. Au vingt-et-unième siècle, la primauté des consommateurs et des citoyens sera nettement plus ,,frontale et centrale" qu'elle ne l'était dans les cinquante dernières années durant lesquelles la politique agricole et alimentaire était axée sur la production. Gedrückte Stimmung hat sich unter den europäischen Verbrauchern breit gemacht, da sie in der Rezession über die Runden kommen müssen. Dabei konnten viele Länder in den vergangenen etwa 50 Jahren auf eine glückliche Zeit wirtschaftlichen Wachstums und real rückläufiger Lebensmittelpreise blicken. Einmal abgesehen von den geringeren Lebensmittelpreisen, richtet der Verbraucher sein Hauptaugenmerk bei der Auswahl seiner Lebensmittel zunehmend auf Kriterien wie Verbraucherfreundlichkeit, Gesundheit, Genuss sowie esoterischere soziale Elemente wie Tierschutzfreundlichkeit und Umweltverträglichkeit. Höhere Haushaltseinkommen führten zu einem immer stärker segmentierten Lebensmittelmarkt, da die Unternehmen danach streben, ihre Produkte von denen der Konkurrenz abzuheben, um einen Aufschlag auf den Grundwarenpreis zu erzielen. Ob es sich nun um ein kleines oder großes Unternehmen handelt: Auf einem zunehmend wettbewerbsorientierten europäischen Markt und Weltmarkt und auf dem Weg hin zu einer erfolgreichen Produktdifferenzierung ist es zunächst einmal erforderlich, die Triebfedern für die Kaufentscheidung und das Konsumverhalten des Verbrauchers zu verstehen. Diese spielen eine wichtige wirtschaftliche Rolle in der Marketingstrategie eines jeden Unternehmens. Dennoch wissen erstaunlich viele Unternehmen aus der Lebensmittel- und Getränkeindustrie nur sehr wenig darüber, wer ihre Produkte kauft und konsumiert. Im 21. Jahrhundert werden die Wünsche der Verbraucher und Bürger wesentlich stärker Vorrang haben als dies in den vergangenen 50 Jahren produktionsorientierter Agrar- und Lebensmittelpolitik der Fall war. [source]

    The Economics of IPO Stabilisation, Syndicates and Naked Shorts

    Tim Jenkinson
    G3; G24 Abstract Stabilisation is the bidding for and purchase of securities by an underwriter immediately after an offering for the purpose of preventing or retarding a fall in price. Stabilisation is price manipulation, but regulators allow it within strict limits , notably that stabilisation may not occur above the offer price. For legislators and market authorities, a false market is a price worth paying for an orderly market. This paper compares the rationale for regulators' allowing IPO stabilisation with its effects. It finds that stabilisation does have the intended effects, but that underwriters also seem to have other motives to stabilise, including favouring certain aftermarket sellers and enhancing their own reputation and profits. A puzzling aspect of stabilisation is why underwriters create ,naked short' positions which are loss-making to cover when, as is usual, the aftermarket price rises to a premium. We set up a model to show that the lead underwriter may profit from a naked short at the expense of the rest of the syndicate given the way commissions are apportioned between them. We argue that a naked short mitigates the misalignment of interests which stabilisation causes between issuer and lead underwriter, although it does so at the expense of the non-lead underwriters. [source]

    Hedging Affecting Firm Value via Financing and Investment: Evidence from Property Insurance Use

    Hong Zou
    I provide evidence about the value effects of alternative risk management by examining corporate purchase of property insurance, a commonly used pure hedge of asset-loss risks. Using an insurance data set from China, I find that there is an inverted U-shape effect of the extent of property insurance use on firm value measured by several versions of Tobin's Q. Therefore, the use of property insurance, to a certain degree, has a positive effect on firm value; however, over insurance appears detrimental to firm value. Given that the inflection points occur at relatively high levels of the observed insurance spending, insurance use appears beneficial to the majority of my sample firms. The estimated average hedging premium is about 1.5%. I demonstrate that an avenue for insurance to create value in China is that it helps firms secure valuable new debt financing and enhance investment. [source]

    The artisanal fishery fleet of the lower Amazon

    V. J. ISAAC
    Abstract, The present study analyses temporal trends in the characteristics of the artisanal fleet landing at ports in the city of Santarém (lower Amazon) from 1993 to 2003. A total of 2714 boats visited the city, accounting for more than 76 000 landings. Of these, 1952 were fishing boats; the others were buyer boats, specialised in the purchase of fish in rural areas for resale in Santarém. The activity involves more than 13 000 fishermen. Fishing boats are made of wood, are on average 11 m long and powered by a 20 hp outboard motor. Boats operate with an average of six to seven fishermen, spending 6 days per trip and catching between 300 and 800 kg of fish. Most variability in yield can be explained by the ice consumed (70%), the number of fishermen trip,1 (19%), fuel consumed (4%) and days spent fishing (3%). The yield changed according to the size, origin and type of boat. Fishing boats coming from more distant locations, in the state of Amazonas, performed better than those from Santarém. Total yield declined slightly during the study period. Mean age of fishing boats and fishing power is increasing. Consumption of ice and fuel by trip, number of fishermen trip,1 and mean days fishing showed positive trends. Financial subsidies from governmental agencies are criticised. Fleet performance and management options are discussed. [source]

    Impact of Alternative Interventions on Changes in Generic Dispensing Rates

    A. James O'Malley
    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of four alternative interventions (member mailings, advertising campaigns, free generic drug samples to physicians, and physician financial incentives) used by a major health insurer to encourage its members to switch to generic drugs. Methods. Using claim-level data from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, we evaluated the success of four interventions implemented during 2000,2003 designed to increase the use of generic drugs among its members. Around 13 million claims involving seven important classes of drugs were used to assess the effectiveness of the interventions. For each intervention a control group was developed that most closely resembled the corresponding intervention group. Logistic regression models with interaction effects between the treatment group (intervention versus control) and the status of the intervention (active versus not active) were used to evaluate if the interventions had an effect on the generic dispensing rate (GDR). Because the mail order pharmacy was considered more aggressive at converting prescriptions to generics, separate generic purchasing models were fitted to retail and mail order claims. In secondary analyses separate models were also fitted to claims involving a new condition and claims refilled for preexisting conditions. Results. The interventions did not appear to increase the market penetration of generic drugs for either retail or mail order claims, or for claims involving new or preexisting conditions. In addition, we found that the ratio of copayments for brand name to generic drugs had a large positive effect on the GDR. Conclusions. The interventions did not appear to directly influence the GDR. Financial incentives expressed to consumers through benefit designs have a large influence on their switching to generic drugs and on the less-costly mail-order mode of purchase. [source]

    Secrecy, splendour and statecraft: the jewel accounts of King Henry III of England, 1216,72

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 221 2010
    Benjamin L. Wild
    Appended to the royal wardrobe accounts, the jewel accounts of King Henry III of England are the earliest records of their type. Describing gifts that were given and received by the king, the purchase of textiles, precious metal objects and specie, as well as the regalia, the Henrician jewel accounts provide valuable information about the aesthetics and material culture of English kingship during the thirteenth century. This article explains how the royal jewel accounts were created and structured, considers their utility, and shows how they can be used to shed new light on Henry III's character and kingship. [source]

    Politics for Better or Worse: Political Nonconformity, the Gambling Dilemma and the North of England Newspaper Company, 1903,1914

    HISTORY, Issue 286 2002
    Paul Gliddon
    Edwardian Britain saw a revival of political activity by nonconformists, who campaigned fervently for the Liberal Party. This resurgence included the purchase of newspapers by nonconformists in the Liberal cause. Many of these nonconformists held strong moral beliefs, and scholars have suggested that there was a tension between such ideals and political practicalities, a tension that caused nonconformists to become disillusioned with political activity and to withdraw from it. However, since such arguments tend to be generalized, this article analyses one example of nonconformists' difficulties, namely those experienced by Liberals who acquired several newspapers in Darlington in 1903. These Liberal nonconformists tried in vain to run The Northern Echo, a paper of note (or notoriety, depending on one's politics), without the betting content they so deplored. This article argues that the episode does demonstrate a tension between high ideals and political practicalities, though the nonconformist response here was a pragmatic and even a mixed one that ensured the survival of a strong Liberal press in north-east England for the next fifty years. It also suggests that, although there was a significant demand for betting content among newspaper audiences, none the less that demand was of a lesser extent than historians have so far supposed. [source]

    Observing Purchase-Related Parent,Child Communication in Retail Environments: A Developmental and Socialization Perspective

    Moniek Buijzen
    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N= 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent,child communication (i.e., children's purchase influence attempts, their coercive behavior, parent-initiated communication) and (b) the relative influence of different socialization variables (e.g., television viewing, family communication patterns) on these communication variables. Our inverted-U hypothesis for the effect of developmental level on purchase influence attempts received support: Children's purchase influence attempts increased until early elementary school and started to decline in late elementary school. Our inverted-U hypothesis for the effect of developmental level on coercive behavior was also supported: Children's coercive behavior was highest among preschoolers. With increasing age, children were more likely to be involved in the purchase decision-making process, and parent,child communication more often resulted in a product purchase. Finally, children's television viewing was the most important (positive) predictor of their purchase influence attempts. Résumé L'observation dans des environnements commerciaux de la communication parent-enfant liée à l,achat: Une perspective du développement et de la socialisation Dans une étude quantitative par observation, nous avons discrètement examiné la communication liée à l'achat entre des enfants de 0 à 12 ans et leurs parents (N= 269 dyades) au cours de visites dans des supermarchés et des boutiques de jouets. Les objectifs de l'étude étaient de déterminer a) le développement de la communication parent-enfant liée à l,achat (c.-à-d. les tentatives des enfants d'influencer l,achat, leur comportement coercitif ainsi que la communication initiée par le parent) et b) l'influence relative de différentes variables de socialisation (par exemple l'écoute de la télévision ou les schémas de communication familiaux) sur ces variables communicationnelles. Notre hypothèse en U inversé concernant l,effet du niveau de développement sur les tentatives d'influence d,achat fut appuyée : les tentatives des enfants d'influencer les achats ont augmenté jusqu,au début de l'école élémentaire et ont commencéà décliner à la fin de l'école élémentaire. Notre hypothèse en U inversé supposant des effets du niveau de développement sur le comportement coercitif fut aussi appuyée : le comportement coercitif fut le plus élevé chez les enfants d'âge préscolaire. Plus l'âge augmentait et plus les enfants étaient susceptibles d'être impliqués dans le processus décisionnel d'achat, et la communication parent-enfant résultait plus souvent en l,achat d'un produit. Finalement, l'écoute télévisuelle des enfants était la variable explicative (positive) la plus importante de leurs tentatives d,influence des achats. Abstract Beobachtung von kaufbezogener Elternteil-Kind-Kommunikation in Einzelhandelsumgebungen: Eine Entwicklungs- und Sozialisationsperspektive In einer quantitativen Beobachtungsstudie untersuchten wir verdeckt die kaufbezogene Kommunikation zwischen Kindern (0-12 Jahre) und einem Elternteil (N=269 Dyaden) während ihres Besuchs im Supermarkt oder Spielzeugladen. Ziele der Studie waren: a) die Entwicklung von kaufbezogener Kommunikation zwischen Elternteil und Kind und b) den relativen Einfluss verschiedener Sozialisationsvariablen (z.B. Fernsehnutzung, Familienkommunikationsmuster) auf diese Variablen zu untersuchen. Unsere umgekehrte U-Hypothese bezüglich des Einflusses des Entwicklungsstadiums auf den Grad der Einflussnahmeversuche auf den Kauf wurde gestützt: Die Einflussnahmeversuche nahmen bis zur frühen Grundschulzeit zu und gingen in der späten Grundschulzeit zurück. Unsere umgekehrte U-Hypothese bezüglich des Einflusses des Entwicklungsstadiums auf erzwingendes Verhalten wurde auch bestätigt: erzwingendes Verhalten von Kindern war am stärksten im Vorschulalter. Mit zunehmendem Alter wurden Kinder mehr in Kaufentscheidungsprozesse einbezogenen und die Eltern-Kind-Kommunikation resultierte häufiger im Kauf des Produkts. Letztendlich zeigte sich, dass das Fernsehnutzungsverhalten der Kinder der wichtigste (positive) Prädiktor für Kaufeinflussversuche war. Resumen Observando la Comunicación entre Padres y Niños durante las Compras en los Ambientes de Venta al por Menor: Una Perspectiva de Desarrollo y Socialización En un estudio de observación cuantitativa, examinamos de manera discreta la comunicación relacionada con la compra entre niños de 0- a 12-anos de edad y sus padres (N= 269 dúos) durante sus visitas al supermercado y las tiendas de juguetes. Los propósitos de este estudio fueron determinar (a) el desarrollo de la comunicación entre padres e hijos durante las compras (a saber, los intentos de los niños de influir en la compra, el comportamiento coercitivo, la comunicación iniciada por los padres), y (b) la influencia relativa de las diferentes variables de socialización (a saber, exposición a la televisión, pautas de comunicación familiar) sobre estas variables de comunicación. Nuestra hipótesis U invertida para los efectos del nivel de desarrollo sobre los intentos de influencia de compra recibieron apoyo: Los intentos de los niños de influir en la compra incrementaron hasta antes de la escuela primaria y comenzó a declinar más tarde en la escuela primaria. Nuestra hipótesis U invertida para los efectos del nivel de desarrollo sobre el comportamiento coercitivo recibieron apoyo: El comportamiento coercitivo fue mayor durante la etapa pre-escolar. Con el aumento de la edad, los niños se involucraron más probablemente en el proceso de decisión de compra, y la comunicación padre-hijo resultó más a menudo en la compra de un producto. Finalmente, la exposición de los niños a la televisión fue el vaticinador más importante (positivo) de sus intentos de influencia de compra. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Undermining or reframing collective bargaining?

    Variable pay in two sectors compared
    Although it is widely presumed that variable payments systems (VPS) such as individual merit and profit-related pay are corrosive of collective bargaining, the actual relationship between the two remains little explored. Drawing on company case studies from retail banking and machinery and equipment, this article finds that collective bargaining can variously be reconfigured , as over individual merit pay in the banks; extended to cover local bonus arrangements, evident in instances in both sectors; or lose its purchase on a significant proportion of earnings , as with management-determined profit-related bonus in both sectors. In terms of the implications for collective bargaining, much therefore depends on the type of VPS. [source]

    Relative importance of evaluation criteria for enterprise systems: a conjoint study

    Mark Keil
    Abstract., While a large body of research exists on the development and implementation of software, organizations are increasingly acquiring enterprise software packages [e.g. enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems] instead of custom developing their own software applications. To be competitive in the marketplace, software package development firms must manage the three-pronged trade-off between cost, quality and functionality. Surprisingly, prior research has made little attempt to investigate the characteristics of packaged software that influence management information system (MIS) managers' likelihood of recommending purchase. As a result, both the criteria by which MIS managers evaluate prospective packaged systems and the attributes that lead to commercially competitive ERP software products are poorly understood. This paper examines this understudied issue through a conjoint study. We focus on ERP systems, which are among the largest and most complex packaged systems that are purchased by organizations. In a conjoint study, 1008 evaluation decisions based on hypothetical ERP software package profiles were completed by managers in 126 organizations. The study represents the first empirical investigation of the relative importance that managers ascribe to various factors that are believed to be important in evaluating packaged software. The results provide important insights for both organizations that acquire such systems and those that develop them. The results show that functionality, reliability, cost, ease of use and ease of customization are judged to be important criteria, while ease of implementation and vendor reputation were not found to be significant. Functionality and reliability were found to be the most heavily weighted factors. We conclude the paper with a detailed discussion of the results and their implications for software acquisition and development practice. [source]