Published National Guidelines (published + national_guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Nordic guidelines for neuraxial blocks in disturbed haemostasis from the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine

Background: Central neuraxial blocks (CNBs) for surgery and analgesia are an important part of anaesthesia practice in the Nordic countries. More active thromboprophylaxis with potent antihaemostatic drugs has increased the risk of bleeding into the spinal canal. National guidelines for minimizing this risk in patients who benefit from such blocks vary in their recommendations for safe practice. Methods: The Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI) appointed a task force of experts to establish a Nordic consensus on recommendations for best clinical practice in providing effective and safe CNBs in patients with an increased risk of bleeding. We performed a literature search and expert evaluation of evidence for (1) the possible benefits of CNBs on the outcome of anaesthesia and surgery, for (2) risks of spinal bleeding from hereditary and acquired bleeding disorders and antihaemostatic drugs used in surgical patients for thromboprophylaxis, for (3) risk evaluation in published case reports, and for (4) recommendations in published national guidelines. Proposals from the taskforce were available for feedback on the SSAI web-page during the summer of 2008. Results: Neuraxial blocks can improve comfort and reduce morbidity (strong evidence) and mortality (moderate evidence) after surgical procedures. Haemostatic disorders, antihaemostatic drugs, anatomical abnormalities of the spine and spinal blood vessels, elderly patients, and renal and hepatic impairment are risk factors for spinal bleeding (strong evidence). Published national guidelines are mainly based on experts' opinions (weak evidence). The task force reached a consensus on Nordic guidelines, mainly based on our experts' opinions, but we acknowledge different practices in heparinization during vascular surgery and peri-operative administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during neuraxial blocks. Conclusions: Experts from the five Nordic countries offer consensus recommendations for safe clinical practice of neuraxial blocks and how to minimize the risks of serious complications from spinal bleeding. A brief version of the recommendations is available on [source]

Administration of blood transfusions to adults in general hospital settings: a review of the literature

Dip N Ed, John Wilkinson BSc
,,The Serious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT) haemovigilance scheme for the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland has clearly indicated that there are avoidable risks to which recipients of blood transfusion are exposed. ,,Sometimes errors in practice have led to serious and even fatal consequences, particularly when a haemolytic response occurs due to an incompatible transfusion. ,,Despite the risks, blood transfusion is an important and frequently life-saving therapy and its use in clinical practice is common. ,,This paper discusses recently published national guidelines for the care of recipients of blood transfusion in the light of a review of the literature relevant to the administration of blood transfusions to adults in general hospital settings. ,,Recommendations for practitioners, managers and teachers are offered in relation to preventing errors and to patient care associated with blood transfusion in the context of contemporary emphasis upon evidence based care. [source]

The role of the adult urologist in the care of children: findings of a UK survey

D.F.M. Thomas
Objective To document the current role of adult urologists in the care of children in the UK and to consider the future provision of urological services for children within the context of published national guidelines. Methods A detailed postal questionnaire was sent to all 416 consultant urologists listed as full members of the British Association of Urological Surgeons and resident in the UK. The range of information sought from each urologist included details of personal paediatric training, scope of personal practice, and information about facilities and provision of urological services for children in their base National Health Service hospital. Results The response rate was 69%; most consultant urologists (87%) in District General Hospitals (DGHs) undertake paediatric urology, mainly routine procedures of minor or intermediate complexity. Of urologists in teaching hospitals, 32% treat children but their involvement is largely collaborative. Consultants appointed within the last 10 years are less willing to undertake procedures such as ureteric reimplantation or pyeloplasty than those in post for ,10 years. Currently, 18% of DGH urologists hold dedicated children's outpatient clinics and 34% have dedicated paediatric day-case operating lists. Almost all urologists practise in National Health Service hospitals which meet existing national guidelines on the provision of inpatient surgical care for children. Conclusion Urologists practising in DGHs will retain an important role as providers of routine urological services for children. However, the tendency for recently appointed consultants to limit their practice to the more routine aspects of children's urology is likely to increase. Training and intercollegiate assessment should focus on the practical management of the conditions most commonly encountered in DGH practice. The implementation of national guidelines may require greater paediatric subspecialization at DGH level to ensure that urologists treating children have a paediatric workload of sufficient volume to maintain a high degree of surgical competence. [source]