Public Health Concern (public + health_concern)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Public Health Concern

  • important public health concern
  • major public health concern

  • Selected Abstracts

    Income Inequality as a Public Health Concern: Where Do We Stand?

    Commentary on "Is Exposure to Income Inequality a Public Health Concern?"
    First page of article [source]

    Tanning and Cutaneous Malignancy

    BACKGROUND Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) results in a darkening of the skin known as tanning. Recently, it has been shown that tanning is a response to UVR-induced DNA damage and represents the skin's efforts to protect itself against further injury. Despite the link between UVR and cutaneous malignancy, people continue to pursue tanning from natural and artificial sources. This trend is reflected in the exponential rise in skin cancer incidence. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to review our current understanding of the factors controlling the tanning response and the relationship to cutaneous carcinogenesis, as well as the impact that the multibillion dollar tanning industry has had on the practice of dermatology. MATERIALS AND METHODS Extensive literature review was conducted in subjects related to tanning and the relationship to cutaneous malignancy. RESULTS Our knowledge of tanning and its effects on the skin has increased tremendously. It is clear that tanning contributes to the development of skin cancer. Despite this information, the incidence of skin cancer continues to increase exponentially. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer poses a major public health concern and tanning remains the most modifiable risk factor in its etiology. Social, economic, and legislative issues have become tightly intertwined with the complex nature of human behavior in the continued pursuit of an activity that clearly has detrimental effects on one's health. [source]

    Inadequacies of absolute threshold levels for diagnosing prediabetes

    Michael Bergman
    Abstract Prediabetes comprising Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) represents an intermediate stage of altered glucose metabolism between normal glucose levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with an increased risk for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is considerable evidence that glucose levels lower than those meeting the current definition of prediabetes may also be associated with similar risks particularly in high-risk individuals. Prediabetes is often unrecognized and therefore constitutes a major public health concern suggesting the need for earlier intervention than is currently recommended. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Human papillomavirus prevalence and cytopathology correlation in young Ugandan women using a low-cost liquid-based pap preparation

    Janis M. Taube M.D.
    Abstract Screening for HPV-driven cervical dysplasia and neoplasia is a significant public health concern in the developing world. The purpose of this study was to use a manual, low-cost liquid-based Pap preparation to determine HPV prevalence in HIV-positive and HIV-negative young women in Kampala, Uganda and to correlate cervical cytopathology with HPV-DNA genotype. About 196 post-partum women aged 18,30 years underwent rapid HIV testing and pelvic examination. Liquid-based cervical cytology samples were processed using a low-cost manual technique. A DNA collection device was used to collect specimens for HPV genotyping. HIV and HPV prevalence was 18 and 64%, respectively. Overall, 49% of women were infected with a high-risk HPV genotype. The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were 16 (8.2%), 33 (7.7%), 35 (6.6%), 45 (5.1%), and 58 (5.1%). The prevalence of HPV 18 was 3.6%. HIV-positive women had an HPV prevalence of 86% compared to 59% in HIV-negative women (P = 0.003). The prevalence of HPV 16/18 did not differ by HIV status. HIV-positive women were infected with a significantly greater number of HPV genotypes compared to HIV-negative women. By multivariate analysis, the main risk factor for HPV infection was coinfection with HIV. HIV-positive women were four times more likely to have abnormal cytology than HIV-negative women (43% vs. 11.6%, P < 0.001). These data highlight that HIV infection is a strong risk factor for HPV infection and resultant abnormal cervical cytology. Notably, the manual low-cost liquid-based Pap preparation is practical in this setting and offers an alternate method for local studies of HPV vaccine efficacy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010;38:555,563. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Health outcomes associated with methamphetamine use among young people: a systematic review

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    Brandon D. L. Marshall
    ABSTRACT Objectives Methamphetamine (MA) use among young people is of significant social, economic and public health concern to affected communities and policy makers. While responses have focused upon various perceived severe harms of MA use, effective public health interventions require a strong scientific evidence base. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify scientific studies investigating health outcomes associated with MA use among young people aged 10,24 years. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) was used to categorize outcomes and determine the level of evidence for each series of harms. Results We identified 47 eligible studies for review. Consistent associations were observed between MA use and several mental health outcomes, including depression, suicidal ideation and psychosis. Suicide and overdose appear to be significant sources of morbidity and mortality among young MA users. Evidence for a strong association between MA use and increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections is equivocal. Finally, we identified only weak evidence of an association between MA use and dental diseases among young people. Conclusions Available evidence indicates a consistent relationship between MA use and mental health outcomes (e.g. depression, psychosis) and an increased risk of mortality due to suicide and overdose. We found insufficient evidence of an association between MA use and other previously cited harms, including infectious diseases and dental outcomes. As such, future research of higher methodological quality is required to further investigate possible associations. Current interventions should focus attention upon MA-related health outcomes for which sound scientific evidence is available. [source]

    Ambient temperature and risk of death from accidental drug overdose in New York City, 1990,2006

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    Amy S. B. Bohnert
    ABSTRACT Background Mortality increases as ambient temperature increases. Because cocaine affects core body temperature, ambient temperature may play a role in cocaine-related mortality in particular. The present study examined the association between ambient temperature and fatal overdoses over time in New York City. Methods Mortality data were obtained from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for 1990 to 2006, and temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. We used generalized additive models to test the relationship between weekly average temperatures and counts of accidental overdose deaths in New York City, controlling for year and average length of daylight hours. Results We found a significant relation between ambient temperature and accidental overdose fatality for all models where the overdoses were due in whole or in part to cocaine (all P < 0.05), but not for non-cocaine overdoses. Risk of accidental overdose deaths increased for weeks when the average temperature was above 24°Celsius. Conclusions These results suggest a strong relation between temperature and accidental overdose mortality that is driven by cocaine-related overdoses rising at temperatures above 24°Celsius; this is a substantially lower temperature than prior estimates. To put this into perspective, approximately 7 weeks a year between 1990 and 2006 had an average weekly temperature of 24 or above in New York City. Heat-related mortality presents a considerable public health concern, and cocaine users constitute a high-risk group. [source]

    Quantitative microbial faecal source tracking with sampling guided by hydrological catchment dynamics

    G. H. Reischer
    Summary The impairment of water quality by faecal pollution is a global public health concern. Microbial source tracking methods help to identify faecal sources but the few recent quantitative microbial source tracking applications disregarded catchment hydrology and pollution dynamics. This quantitative microbial source tracking study, conducted in a large karstic spring catchment potentially influenced by humans and ruminant animals, was based on a tiered sampling approach: a 31-month water quality monitoring (Monitoring) covering seasonal hydrological dynamics and an investigation of flood events (Events) as periods of the strongest pollution. The detection of a ruminant-specific and a human-specific faecal Bacteroidetes marker by quantitative real-time PCR was complemented by standard microbiological and on-line hydrological parameters. Both quantitative microbial source tracking markers were detected in spring water during Monitoring and Events, with preponderance of the ruminant-specific marker. Applying multiparametric analysis of all data allowed linking the ruminant-specific marker to general faecal pollution indicators, especially during Events. Up to 80% of the variation of faecal indicator levels during Events could be explained by ruminant-specific marker levels proving the dominance of ruminant faecal sources in the catchment. Furthermore, soil was ruled out as a source of quantitative microbial source tracking markers. This study demonstrates the applicability of quantitative microbial source tracking methods and highlights the prerequisite of considering hydrological catchment dynamics in source tracking study design. [source]

    Methyl- tert -hexyl ether and methyl- tert -octyl ether as gasoline oxygenates: Anticipating widespread risks to community water supply wells,

    Jeff Snelling
    Abstract The widespread contamination of groundwater resources associated with methyl- tert -butyl ether (MtBE) use has prompted a search for replacement oxygenates in gasoline. Among the alternatives currently under development are higher methyl- tert -alkyl ethers, notably methyl- tert -hexyl ether (MtHxE) and methyl- tert -octyl ether (MtOcE). As was the case with MtBE, the introduction of these ethers into fuel supplies guarantees their migration into groundwater resources. In the present study, a screening-level risk assessment compared predicted well water concentrations of these ethers to concentrations that might cause adverse effects. A physicochemical model which has been successfully applied to the prediction of MtBE concentrations in community water supply wells (CSWs) was used to predict well water concentrations of MtHxE and MtOcE. The results indicate that these ethers are likely to contaminate water supply wells at slightly lower levels than MtBE as a result of migrating from leaking underground fuel tanks to CSWs. Because very little data is available on the physicochemical and environmental properties of MtHxE and MtOcE, estimation methods were employed in conjunction with the model to predict well water concentrations. Model calculations indicated that MtHxE and MtOcE will be present in many CSWs at concentrations approaching the concentrations that have caused widespread public health concern for MtBE. Based on these results and the possibility that MtHxE and MtOcE are potential carcinogens, testing of the toxicological properties of these ethers is recommended before they are used to replace MtBE in gasoline. [source]

    Inhalant abuse: a growing public health concern in india

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2003
    B. K. Waraich
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Service provision for elderly depressed persons and political and professional awareness for this subject: a comparison of six European countries

    Anke Bramesfeld
    Abstract Objective Under-treatment of depression in late-life is a subject of rising public health concern throughout Europe. This study investigates and compares the availability of services for depressed elderly persons in Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. Additionally, it explores factors that might contribute to an adequate services supply for depressed elderly people. Method Review of the literature and guide supported expert interviews. Analysis of the practice of care provision for depressed elderly persons and of indicators for political and professional awareness, such as university chairs, certification processes and political programmes in gerontopsychiatry. Results Only Switzerland and the UK offer countrywide community-oriented services for depressed elderly persons. Clinical experience in treating depression in late-life is not regularly acquired in the vocational training of the concerned professionals. Indicators suggest that the ,medical society' and health politics in Switzerland and the UK regard psychiatric disease in the elderly more importantly than it is the case in the other investigated countries. Conclusions Service provision for depressed elderly persons seems to be more elaborated and better available in countries where gerontopsychiatry is institutionalised to a greater extend in the ,medical society' and health politics. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The feasibility of providing community pharmacy-based services for alcohol misuse: A literature review

    Dr Margaret C. Watson
    Abstract Objectives Excessive consumption of alcohol is a major public health concern. The use of community pharmacies and pharmacists as sources of public health information and services is gaining greater recognition. The objective of this review was to provide an overview of the evidence on the feasibility, effectiveness and acceptability of providing community pharmacy-based services to address the excessive consumption of alcohol. Methods Electronic databases were searched for the period 1996,2007 to identify relevant evidence. Searches were also conducted of relevant pharmacy and addiction journals. Information was sought from key contacts in pharmacy and alcohol research. Studies were included if they were conducted in a community pharmacy setting. Key findings The review comprised three feasibility studies which included 14 pharmacies and 500 customers. Non-significant reductions in alcohol consumption were reported with two studies following brief interventions by pharmacists. Between 30% and 53% of pharmacy customers were identified as having hazardous or harmful drinking behaviour. Customer opinion of the pharmacy-based alcohol services was not reported. Conclusions There has been little empirical evaluation of the effectiveness of community pharmacy-based services for alcohol misuse. The evidence presented in this review suggests that community pharmacy-based screening is feasible. Organisations and individuals involved with tackling excessive alcohol consumption should consider the inclusion of community pharmacies and pharmacists as part of their strategies to address this problem. Large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects and cost-effectiveness of community pharmacy-based interventions to reduce excessive alcohol consumption, as well as to explore the acceptability of the service to users. [source]

    Nurses' attitudes towards adult patients who are obese: literature review

    Ian Brown BSc RGN RHV PhD PGCE
    Aims., This paper presents a review of all empirical studies focusing on nurses' attitudes towards adult overweight or obese patients, with the aim of clarifying the dimensions and patterns of these attitudes and the methods by which they have been studied. Background., Obesity has become a common condition and a major public health concern, but it is often associated with negative attitudes and discrimination. Nurses play a key role in providing support and care to patients who are obese. Methods., Electronic searches were carried out on seven databases from inception to December 2004, along with hand-searching of references in relevant studies. The search terms were built around obesity (and related terms), nursing (and its branches) and attitudes (and related terms). Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and summarized in tabular form and analysed in relation to the aims of this review during January 2005. Findings., There is relatively little research about nurses' attitudes towards obese patients, and the studies reviewed mostly have weaknesses of sampling and measurement. However, they do consistently suggest that a proportion of nurses have negative attitudes and beliefs, reflecting wider stereotypes within Western cultures. There is also a hint of a more complex mix of attitudes among nurses, some of which may counter the consequences of negative attitudes, but these have not been adequately investigated. A number of variables that influence attitudes of nurses can be identified, including age, gender, experience and the weight/body mass index of the nurse. Conclusion., Further research (both qualitative and quantitative) is needed with more rigorous sampling and, where appropriate, more consistency of measurement. A shift in focus towards the sets of attitudes (positive as well as negative) and behaviours that influence health service quality and outcomes for obese persons would be useful. [source]

    Direct analysis of clinical relevant single bacterial cells from cerebrospinal fluid during bacterial meningitis by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Michaela Harz
    Abstract Bacterial meningitis is a relevant public health concern. Despite the availability of modern treatment strategies it is still a life-threatening disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an initial treatment approach plays an important role. For in-time identification of specific bacterial pathogens of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and emerged antimicrobial and adjunctive treatment, microbiological examination is of major importance. This contribution spotlights the potential of micro-Raman spectroscopy as a biomedical assay for direct analysis of bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bacterial meningitis. The influence of miscellaneous artificial environments on several bacterial species present during bacterial meningitis was studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. The application of chemometric data interpretation via hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) allows for the differentiation of in vitro cultured bacterial cells and can also be achieved on a single cell level. Moreover as proof of principle the investigation of a CSF sample obtained from a patient with meningococcal meningitis showed that the cerebrospinal fluid matrix does not mask the Raman spectrum of a bacterial cell notably since via chemometric analysis with HCA an identification of N. meningitidis cells from patients with bacterial meningitis could be achieved. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    How Many Women Have Osteoporosis?

    L. Joseph Melton III
    Osteoporosis is widely viewed as a major public health concern, but the exact magnitude of the problem is uncertain and likely to depend on how the condition is defined. Noninvasive bone mineral measurements can be used to define a state of heightened fracture risk (osteopenia), or the ultimate clinical manifestation of fracture can be assessed (established osteoporosis). If bone mineral measurements more than 2 standard deviations below the mean of young normal women represent osteopenia, then 45% of white women aged 50 years and over have the condition at one or more sites in the hip, spine, or forearm on the basis of population-based data from Rochester, Minnesota. A smaller proportion is affected at each specific skeletal site: 32% have bone mineral values this low in the lumbar spine, 29% in either of two regions in the proximal femur, and 26% in the midradius. Although this overall estimate is substantial, some other serious chronic diseases are almost as common. More importantly, low bone mass is associated with adverse health outcomes, especially fractures. The lifetime risk of any fracture of the hip, spine, or distal forearm is almost 40% in white women and 13% in white men from age 50 years onward. If the enormous costs associated with these fractures are to be reduced, increased attention must be given to the design and implementation of control programs directed at this major health problem. [source]

    Effects of Gain Versus Loss Frame Antidrug Ads on Adolescents

    Hyunyi Cho
    Improving the effectiveness of antidrug ads is an important public health concern. Central to achieving this aim is identifying the message strategies that address the differential characteristics of adolescent audiences. This study examined the effects of gain versus loss frame antidrug ads on adolescents with different social and behavioral characteristics. A posttest-only experiment was conducted to examine if these audience factors moderate the effects of message framing. Loss-frame messages, rather than gain-frame messages, were more persuasive for adolescents who report that their friends use drugs. Neither gain nor loss framing had a persuasive advantage for adolescents who report that their friends do not use drugs, although this outcome may be the result of a ceiling effect. Implications of the results for future theory and research are discussed. [source]

    Invasiveness and Intracellular Growth of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella and Other Pathogens in Caco-2 Cells

    S.-H. Kim
    ABSTRACT:, The increase of multidrug-resistant pathogens of human and animal origins is a major public health concern. For a better understanding of the health consequences of multidrug-resistant bacteria transmitted from animal products to humans, the host interaction of zoonotic Salmonella isolates along with other pathogenic and commensal bacteria was evaluated using a human intestinal Caco-2 cell system. Multidrug-resistant S. Agona, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium possessed plasmid-mediated class 1 integrons. The S. Typhimurium DT104 isolate from ground beef showed the well-known genotypic and phenotypic resistance characteristics of the species, and contained the chromosomally located class 1 integron. Among the multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates, the S. Heidelberg 219 had the highest invasion number at 1.0 × 104 CFU/mL, followed by the S. Typhimurium DT104 isolate at 7.7 × 103 CFU/mL. Listeria monocytogenes was the best performer among the tested species in invading the Caco-2 cell. Multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogens Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also able to invade the cells. The invasion of S. Heidelberg 219, S. Typhimurium DT104, L. monocytogenes, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa into the Caco-2 cells was not affected even in the presence of commensal E. coli. During the intracellular growth of S. Heidelberg 219, S. Typhimurium DT104, and L. monocytogenes, the bacterial counts increased 2 log cycles in 9 h in the Caco-2 cells. Therefore, these strains could rapidly proliferate after their invasion into the cells. [source]

    When intimate partner violence against women and HIV collide:Challenges for healthcare assessment and intervention

    FAAN, Kimberly Adams Tufts DNP, WHNP-BC
    Abstract Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) both constitute major public health issues that impact the overall health of women. IPV, including sexual assault, remains a persistent public health concern that has proven to be both difficult and significantly dangerous to prevent and treat. Based on data from UNAIDS more than 14.5 million women were living with HIV by the end of 2005. IPV and HIV are often interrelated. Exposure to IPV has been associated with an increased risk for contracting HIV and women who are living with HIV may be more likely to become victims of IPV. Implications: comprehensive care and services have to be offered in the context of where women seek health care. Screening and effective intervention for IPV are essential components of HIV-related services including prevention programming, voluntary counseling and testing, and treatment. Including IPV-related services into the context of HIV-related services delivers the message that violence is not a taboo topic in the health-care setting. [source]

    Violence education in nursing: critical reflection on victims' stories

    Angela Frederick Amar PhD
    Abstract Violence against women is a major public health concern. This paper describes an educational strategy to increase nursing students' understanding of the experience of violence and to foster recognition and intervention with victims of violence. Students in an elective course were asked to critically reflect on the personal stories of victims/survivors of violence. The assignment provided four learning opportunities that include examination of societal myths on sexual victimization, understanding the lived experience of the victim, exploration of personal beliefs and values, and the relationship of the individual's experience to theoretical content of the course. Students gave permission for the use of quotes from papers to illustrate the learning opportunities. [source]

    Binge Drinking and Suboptimal Self-Rated Health Among Adult Drinkers

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
    James Tsai
    Background:, Binge drinking accounts for more than half of the 79,000 annual deaths in the United States that are owing to excessive drinking. The overall objective of our study was to examine the prevalence of binge drinking and consumption levels associated with suboptimal self-rated health among the general population of adult drinkers in all 50 states and territories in the United States. Methods:, The study included a total of 200,587 current drinkers who participated in the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. We estimated the prevalence of binge drinking (i.e., ,5 drinks on 1 occasion for men or ,4 drinks on 1 occasion for women) and heavy drinking (i.e., an average of >14 drinks per week for men or >7 drinks per week for women), as well as the average number of binge episodes per person during a 30-day period. Odds ratios were produced with multivariate logistic regression models using binge-drinking levels as a predictor; status of suboptimal self-rated health was used as an outcome variable while controlling for sociodemographic, health, and behavioral risk factors. Results:, We estimate that 34.7 million adult drinkers in the United States engaged in binge drinking in 2008, including an estimated 42.2% who reported either heavy drinking or at least 4 binge-drinking episodes in a 30-day period. Binge drinking with such levels was associated with a 13,23% increased likelihood of reporting suboptimal self-rated health, when compared to the nonbinge drinkers. Conclusions:, Binge drinking continues to be a serious public health concern. Frequent binge drinkers or binge drinkers who consume alcohol heavily are especially at risk of suboptimal self-rated health. Our findings underscore the importance of broad-based implementation in health care settings of screening for and brief interventions to address alcohol misuse, as well as the continuing need to implement effective population-based prevention strategies to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. [source]

    Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Two Canadian Provinces

    Hélène Ouellette-Kuntz
    Abstract, Although it is generally accepted that the proportion of children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) has increased in the past two decades, there is no consensus on the prevalence of these conditions. The accompanying large rise in demand for services, together with uncertainty regarding the extent to which the observed increases are due to a true change in risk, has made PDDs a major public health concern. As few data exist on the prevalence of PDDs in Canada, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed PDDs in two Canadian provinces (Manitoba and Prince Edward Island (PEI)) and compare characteristics of diagnosed cases between the two regions. To obtain the estimates, children under the age of 15 years with a PDD diagnosis who lived in either province in 2002 were identified by workers at Children's Special Services, a provincial government program that supports children with special needs in Manitoba, and by the PEI provincial early intervention coordinator (Department of Social Services and Seniors) and special education autism coordinator (Department of Education). The findings show that the prevalence among children 1,14 years of age was 28.4 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval: 26.1,30.8) in Manitoba and 35.2 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval: 28.2,43.4) in PEI. In Manitoba, children of aboriginal identity with PDDs (8.3%) were significantly underrepresented compared with the general population of aboriginal children living off native reserves (15.6%). Sex ratio, sibling risk, and age at initial diagnosis were similar in the two provinces. These findings can serve as a baseline from which to monitor the prevalence of these conditions over time, providing valuable data for researchers, planners, and service providers. [source]

    Hazardous Drinking: Prevalence and Associations in the Finnish General Population

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2008
    Jukka T. Halme
    Background:, Hazardous drinking, defined as consuming alcohol on a risky level and not meeting the diagnostic criteria of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), has been suggested for a new complementary nondependence diagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associations of hazardous drinking in comparison to AUDs, moderate drinking, and abstinence. Methods:, A national representative sample of Finns was examined in the Health 2000 Survey. For 4477 subjects aged 30 to 64 years (76%, 2341 females), both the quantity frequency data about alcohol consumption and Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) data concerning AUD diagnoses were available. The nationally recommended limits for hazardous dinking were used (males: 24 drinks, females: 16 drinks/wk). Logistic regression models were used to analyze associations. Results:, The prevalence of hazardous drinking was 5.8%. Hazardous drinking was more prevalent among males than females (8.5% vs. 3.1%). It was most prevalent among the subjects aged 40 to 49 years (7.3%), divorced or separated (8.3%), unemployed (8.2%) and subjects living in the southern (Helsinki) region (7.5%). AUDs versus hazardous drinking were more likely to be in males versus females and in the unemployed versus employed. Subjects aged 40 and over had higher odds for hazardous drinking versus AUDs. The odds for hazardous versus moderate drinking were higher for males versus females (adjusted odds ratio = 3.24), for subjects aged over 40 years, unemployed versus employed and cohabiting, divorced/separated or unmarried subjects versus married subjects. Conclusion:, The high prevalence of hazardous drinking makes it an important public health concern. Hazardous drinkers have different sociodemographic characteristics as compared to people in other alcohol use categories. [source]


    JOURNAL OF RENAL CARE, Issue 2 2010
    Andrew Connor MRCP
    SUMMARY Climate change is now considered to be a major global public health concern. However, the very provision of health care itself has a significant impact upon the environment. Action must be taken to reduce this impact. Water is a precious and finite natural resource. Vast quantities of high-grade water are required to provide haemodialysis. The reverse osmosis systems used in the purification process reject approximately two-thirds of the water presented to them. Therefore, around 250 litres of ,reject water' result from the production of the dialysate required for one treatment. This good quality reject water is lost-to-drain in the vast majority of centres worldwide. Simple methodologies exist to recycle this water for alternative purposes. We describe here a case study of the only UK renal service we know to have implemented such water-saving methodologies. We outline the benefits in terms of financial and environmental savings. [source]

    Integrating the transtheoretical model into the management of overweight and obese adults

    Judy Gainey Seals NP, MSN (Cardiovascular Nurse Practitioner)
    Abstract Purpose: To show how the nurse practitioner (NP) can incorporate stage-specific interventions from the transtheoretical model in the management of overweight and obese adults. Data sources: Research articles, clinical articles, and government guidelines pertaining to the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are complex and chronic conditions that require lifelong management. The NP can help clients to safely and successfully lose weight by developing stage-specific interventions, by using an expert multidisciplinary team, and by providing ongoing monitoring and motivation. Implications for practice: The prevalence of overweight and obesity continues to increase at an alarming rate and is a major public health concern. The NP has an important role in the assessment and management of clients with this condition. [source]

    Under the Microscope: Arcobacter

    W.J. Snelling
    Abstract This review describes characteristics of the genus Arcobacter. Unlike its close phenotypically related neighbour Campylobacter, Arcobacter is not currently a major public health concern, but is considered as an emerging human pathogen, and is of significance towards animal health. This review focuses on the public health significance, culturing and typing, reservoirs, and antimicrobial studies of Arcobacter. Collectively, increasing knowledge in these areas will help to develop measures, which can be used to control this emerging pathogen. [source]

    A critical analysis of UK public health policies in relation to diet and nutrition in low-income households

    Pamela Attree phd
    Abstract Diet and nutrition, particularly among low-income groups, is a key public health concern in the UK. Low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption, and obesity, especially among children, have potentially severe consequences for the future health of the nation. From a public health perspective, the UK government's role is to help poorer families make informed choices within healthy frameworks for living. However, the question is , to what extent are such policies in accordance with lay experiences of managing diet and nutrition on a low-income? This paper critically examines contemporary public health policies aimed at improving diet and nutrition, identifying the underlying theories about the influences on healthy eating in poor families, and exploring the extent to which these assumptions are based on experiential accounts. It draws on two qualitative systematic reviews , one prioritizing low-income mothers' accounts of ,managing' in poverty; and the other focusing on children's perspectives. The paper finds some common ground between policies and lay experiences, but also key divergencies. Arguably, the emphasis of public health policy on individual behaviour, coupled with an ethos of empowered consumerism, underplays material limitations on ,healthy eating' for low-income mothers and children. Health policies fail to take into account the full impact of structural influences on food choices, or recognize the social and emotional factors that influence diet and nutrition. In conclusion, it is argued that while health promotion campaigns to improve low-income families' diets do have advantages, these are insufficient to outweigh the negative effects of poverty on nutrition. [source]

    Xenotransplantation, Xenogeneic Infections, Biotechnology, and Public Health

    Louisa E. Chapman MD
    Abstract Xenotransplantation is the attempt to use living biological material from nonhuman animal species in humans for therapeutic purposes. Clinical trials and preclinical studies have suggested that living cells and tissue from other species have the potential to be used in humans to ameliorate disease. However, the potential for successful xenotransplantation to cure human disease is coupled with the risk that therapeutic use of living nonhuman cells in humans may also serve to introduce xenogeneic infections of unpredictable significance. Animal husbandry practices and xenotransplantation product preparation may eliminate most exogenous infectious agents prior to transplantation. However, endogenous retroviruses are present in the genomes of all mammalian cells, have an inadequately defined ability to infect human cells, and have generated public health concern. The history of xenotransplantation, the implications for public health, the global consensus on public safeguards necessary to accompany clinical trials, and the future direction of xenotransplantation are discussed in the context of public health. Mt Sinai J Med 76:435,441, 2009. © 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine [source]

    Sweet potato leaves: properties and synergistic interactions that promote health and prevent disease

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 10 2010
    Melissa Johnson
    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves provide a dietary source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, dietary fiber, and essential fatty acids. Bioactive compounds contained in this vegetable play a role in health promotion by improving immune function, reducing oxidative stress and free radical damage, reducing cardiovascular disease risk, and suppressing cancer cell growth. Currently, sweet potato leaves are consumed primarily in the islands of the Pacific Ocean and in Asian and African countries; limited consumption occurs in the United States. This comprehensive review assesses research examining the nutritional characteristics and bioactive compounds within sweet potato leaves that contribute to health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Research has affirmed the potential cardioprotective and chemopreventive advantages of consuming sweet potato leaves, thus indicating that increased consumption of this vegetable should be advocated. Since reducing the prevalence of chronic diseases is of public health concern, promoting the consumption of sweet potato leaves warrants further and more intensive research investigation. [source]

    Obesity, Lutein Metabolism, and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Web of Connections

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 1 2005
    Elizabeth J. Johnson PhD
    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of visual impairment in the United States. Currently there is no effective cure for this disease. Risk factors include decreased lutein and zeaxanthin status and obesity. Obesity is also an increasing public health concern. The alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity further exacerbates the public health concern of AMD. The mechanism by which obesity increases the risk of AMD may be related to the physiologic changes that occur with this condition. These include increased oxidative stress, changes in the lipoprotein profile, and increased inflammation. These changes would also result in an increased destruction and a decreased circulatory delivery of lutein and zeaxanthin to the macula of the eye. Therefore, the mechanism by which obesity is related to AMD risk may be through indirect effects on changes in lutein and zeaxanthin status and metabolism. [source]

    Neurocognitive and behavioral impact of sleep disordered breathing in children,

    Judith A. Owens MD
    Abstract The consequences of poor quality and/or inadequate sleep in children and adolescents have become a major public health concern, and one in which pediatric health care professionals have become increasingly involved. In particular, insufficient and/or fragmented sleep resulting from primary sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), often compounded by the presence of comorbid sleep disorders as well as by voluntary sleep curtailment related to lifestyle and environmental factors, has been implicated in a host of negative consequences. These range from metabolic dysfunction and increased cardiovascular morbidity to impairments in mood and academic performance. The following review will focus on what is currently known about the effects of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) specifically on neurobehavioral and neurocognitive function in children. Because of the scarcity of literature on the cognitive and behavioral impact of sleep disorders in infants and very young children, this review will target largely the preschool/school-aged child and adolescent populations. In addition, the focus will be on a review of the most recent literature, as a supplement to several excellent previous reviews on the topic.1,4 Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:417,422. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Severe ,0 thalassemia/hemoglobin E disease caused by de novo 22-base pair duplication in the paternal allele of , globin gene

    Ponlapat Rojnuckarin
    Abstract , Thalassemia is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. A prevention program has been implemented in Thailand comprising mass carrier screening and genetic testing. In this study, a Thai girl with severe , thalassemia/hemoglobin (Hb) E disease was born from the mother with Hb E trait and the genotypically normal father. DNA sequencing revealed novel 22-bp tandem duplication in the paternal allele of , globin gene, producing a severely truncated product. A short recurring nucleotide at the insertion site suggested a predisposition to this mutation. Therefore, spontaneous , globin mutations occasionally occur in normal population. Its clinical significance is noteworthy in countries with high prevalence of , thalassemia. Am. J. Hematol 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]