Putative Proteins (putative + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A MAGE/NDN-like gene in zebrafish

Jocelyn M. Bischof
Abstract The human necdin/MAGE gene family has over 50 members, but most of the proteins encoded by these genes are of unknown function. We have now identified a single locus in Danio rerio that encodes a putative protein with significant coding sequence similarity to the mammalian NDN/MAGE genes. Analysis of the complete Fugu ribripes genome sequence also suggests that there is only a single MAGE-like gene in teleost fish. mage is expressed in the larval and adult brain, specifically the retina, the medial region of the telencephalon, periventricular gray zone of the optic tectum, and most highly in the cerebellar corpus. The discovery of a zebrafish NDN/MAGE gene expressed the developing brain facilitates studies of the MAGE homology domain in vertebrate development. Developmental Dynamics, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cloning and sequence analysis of cnaA gene encoding the catalytic subunit of calcineurin from Aspergillus oryzae

Praveen Rao Juvvadi
Abstract Calcineurin has been implicated in ion-homeostasis, stress adaptation in yeast and for hyphal growth in filamentous fungi. Genomic DNA and cDNA encoding the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (cnaA) were isolated from Aspergillus oryzae. The cnaA open reading frame extended to 1727 bp and encoded a putative protein of 514 amino acids. Comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequence of cnaA genomic DNA and cDNA confirmed the presence of three introns and a highly conserved calmodulin binding domain. The deduced amino acid sequence was homologous to calcineurin A from Aspergillus nidulans (92%), Neurospora crassa (84%), human (67%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (58%) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (54%). Further, A. oryzae cnaA cDNA complemented S. cerevisiae calcineurin disruptant strain (,cmp1,cmp2), which was not viable in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (1.2 M) and at alkaline pH 8.5. [source]

An unusual ,-ketoacyl:acyl carrier protein synthase and acyltransferase motifs in TaK, a putative protein required for biosynthesis of the antibiotic TA in Myxococcus xanthus

Yossi Paitan
Abstract The antibiotic TA of Myxococcus xanthus is produced by a type-I polyketide synthase mechanism. Previous studies have indicated that TA genes are clustered within a 36-kb region. The chemical structure of TA indicates the need for several post-modification steps, which are introduced to form the final bioactive molecule. These include three C -methylations, an O -methylation and a specific hydroxylation. In this study, we describe the genetic analysis of taK, encoding a specific polyketide ,-ketoacyl:acyl carrier protein synthase, which contains an unusual ,-ketoacyl synthase and acyltransferase motifs and is likely to be involved in antibiotic TA post-modification. Functional analysis of this ,-ketoacyl:acyl carrier protein synthase by specific gene disruption suggests that it is essential for the production of an active TA molecule. [source]


INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2004
Yong-dan Li
Abstract, The spheroidin genes of Calliptamus italicus entomopoxvirus (CiEPV) and Gomphocerus sibiricus entomopoxvirus (GsEPV) were obtained by PCR, and the fragments were cloned, se-quenced and analyzed. The CiEPV and GsEPV spheroidin genes respectively harbored ORFs of 2 922 bps and 2 967 bps that were capable of coding polypeptides of 109.2 and 111.1 kDa. Computer analysis indicated that CiEPV and GsEPV spheroidins shared less than 20% amino acid identities with lepidopteran AmEPV and coleopteran AcEPV spheroidins, but more than 80% amino acid identities with orthopteran OaEPV, MsEPV and AaEPV spheroidins. The CiEPV and GsEPV spheroidins respectively contained 19 and 21 cysteine residues that were particularly abundant at the C-termini, as is the case with those of the other orthopteran EPV spheroidins. The numbers and locations of the cysteine residues of the spheroidins were most similar to those of the spheroidins of EPVs that are virulent on the same insect orders. The promoter regions of the two spheroidin genes were highly conserved (99%) among the orthopteran EPVs and also contained the typical very A+T rich and TAAATG signal mediating transcription of poxvirus late genes. We also sequenced an incomplete ORF downstream of the pheroidin gene of CiEPV and GsEPV. The ORF was in the opposite direction to the spheroidin gene and was homologous to MSV072 putative protein of MsEPV. [source]

Noxp20 and Noxp70, two new markers of early neuronal differentiation, detected in teratocarcinoma-derived neuroectodermic precursor cells

M. Boucquey
Abstract The murine 1C11 cell line, derived from F9 pluripotent teratocarcinoma cells, exhibits features of a bipotential neuronal precursor as it converts into serotonergic or catecholaminergic neurons under appropriate induction. In order to point out molecular markers expressed in this early neuroectodermic commitment, we used a cDNA subtractive hybridization method. The 105 different isolated cDNAs represented 75 known genes, expressed sequence tags (EST) or genomic fragments. A majority of known proteins encoded by these sequences are involved in cellular mobility or migration. We characterized two sequences showing identities with ESTs and we called them Noxp20 and Noxp70. The Noxp20 transcript encodes a putative protein with a predicted caspase recruitment domain and the Noxp70 transcript encodes a putative protein displaying a Zn-finger domain. Consistent with their roles in neuronal cell development, in situ hybridization showed that Noxp20 and Noxp70 are over-expressed in brain. At embryonic days 12 and 15, Noxp20 is strongly expressed in the ventricular and intermediate zones of the brain and of the spinal cord. At embryonic day 15, Noxp70 was found to be strongly expressed in the ventricular zone around the telencephalic ventricle, and to a lower extent in the thalamus and hypothalamus. At post-natal day 10, Noxp20 mRNA was detected in the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus, the cerebellum and the olfactory bulb. [source]

Proteomic profiling reveals a catalogue of new candidate proteins for human skin aging

Martin Laimer
Abstract:, Studies of skin aging are usually performed at the genomic level by investigating differentially regulated genes identified through subtractive hybridization or microarray analyses. In contrast, relatively few studies have investigated changes in protein expression of aged skin using proteomic profiling by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, although this approach at the protein level is suggested to reflect more accurately the aging phenotype. We undertook such a proteomic analysis of intrinsic human skin aging by quantifying proteins extracted and fluorescently labeled from sun-protected human foreskin samples pooled from ,young' and ,old' men. In addition, we analyzed these candidate gene products by 1-D and 2-D western blotting to obtain corroborative protein expression data, and by both real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and microarray analyses to confirm expression at the mRNA level. We discovered 30 putative proteins for skin aging, including previously unrecognized, post-translationally regulated candidates such as phosphatidyl-ethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) and carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA1). [source]

Hemagglutinating activity and corresponding putative sequence identity from Curcuma aromatica rhizome

Ponpimol Tiptara
Abstract BACKGROUND:Curcuma aromatica is a medicinal plant belonging to the Zingiberaceae family with an incomplete genome sequence. It has been reported that extract from the rhizome of this plant contains haemagglutinating activity. In this study the profile of fractions containing hemagglutinating activity is described. RESULTS: Following extraction with saline buffer, the protein solution was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Ion-exchange chromatography was completed on fast-flow SP-Sepharose, as well as gel filtration chromatography on Superdex 75. The active fractions were then separated by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate,polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and labeled proteins were digested with trypsin. The digest bands were analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography,tandem mass spectrometry. Inferred peptide sequences were used in Mascot searching and mass spectrometry-driven BLAST (MS-BLAST) homology searches allowed the recognition of related proteins in other species of Viridiplantae. Six putative proteins from nine bands showed similarity with lectin sequences. CONCLUSION: This study reports the identification of six lectins from the Curcuma aromatica rhizome achieved by mass spectrometry using MS-BLAST algorithms to search for homology between de novo determined peptide sequences and protein sequences available in sequence databases. Copyright 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Thermoregulation of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 pO157 ecf operon and lipid A myristoyl transferase activity involves intrinsically curved DNA

Jang W. Yoon
Summary Escherichia coli O157:H7 survives in diverse environments from the ruminant gastrointestinal tract to cool nutrient-dilute water. We hypothesized that the gene regulation required for this flexibility includes intrinsically curved DNA that responds to environmental changes. Three intrinsically curved DNAs were cloned from the E. coli O157:H7 virulence plasmid (pO157), sequenced and designated Bent 1 through Bent 3 (BNT1, BNT2 and BNT3). Compared to BNT1 and BNT3, BNT2 had characteristics typical of intrinsically curved DNA including electrophoretic gel retardation at 4C, six partially phased adenine:thymine tracts and transcriptional activation. BNT2::lacZ operon fusions showed that BNT2 activated transcription at 24C compared to 37C and was partially repressed by a bacterial nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. BNT2 regulated the E. coli attaching and effacing gene-positive conserved fragments 1,4 (ecf1,4) that are conserved in Shiga toxin-producing E. coli associated with human disease. Experimental analyses showed that ecf1,4 formed an operon. ecf1, 2 and 3 encoded putative proteins associated with bacterial surface polysaccharide biosynthesis and invasion and ecf4 complemented a chromosomal deletion of lpxM encoding lipid A myristoyl transferase. Mass spectrometric analysis of lipid A from ecf and lpxM single and double mutants showed that myristoylation was altered at lower temperature. [source]

Identification of potato genes induced during colonization by Phytophthora infestans

Katinka Beyer
Summary Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was applied in a search for genes induced during the compatible interaction between Phytophthora infestans and potato. Using potato leaves that had been treated with benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methylester (BTH) as the control tissue, a low redundancy library with a relatively low frequency of the classic plant Pathogenesis-Related (PR) genes was generated. 288 of the clones were screened for induced sequences using Inverse Northern analysis (hybridizing the arrayed clones with radiolabelled cDNA populations). Of the 75 clones that were detectable by this method, 43 appeared to be induced. Eleven of these clones were then analysed by total RNA blot analysis, and elevation of transcript levels during P. infestans infection was confirmed for 10 of them. Some of the cDNAs analysed by RNA blot analysis have homology to genes already known to be induced during infection, e.g. to ,-1,3-glucanase. Another group of cDNAs have homology to enzymes involved in detoxification: gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase and an MRP-type ABC transporter. Other infection induced cDNAs encode putative proteins that have not previously been reported to be induced by infection: e.g. the ER-located chaperone BiP, and a homologue of Aspergillus nidulans SudD, which was isolated as a suppressor of a mutation in chromosome disjunction. The differential library therefore presents the opportunity to analyse the metabolic changes occurring during infection, and the disease process itself in more detail. [source]

Two sunflower 17.6HSP genes, arranged in tandem and highly homologous, are induced differently by various elicitors

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
P. Rampino
Abstract Plants respond to environmental stimuli, such as heat shock, by re-programming cellular activity through differential gene expression, mainly controlled at the transcription level. The current study refers to two sunflower small heat shock protein (sHSP) genes arranged in tandem in head-to-head orientation and linked by a 3809 bp region. These genes exhibit only slight structural differences in the coding portion. They code for cytosolic class I sHSPs and are named HaHSP17.6a and HaHSP17.6b according to the molecular weight of the putative proteins. The genomic organization of these genes is consistent with the idea that many HSP genes originate from duplication events; in this case, probably an inversion and duplication occurred. The HaHSP17.6a and HaHSP17.6b genes are characterized by different expression levels under various heat stress conditions; moreover, their expression is differently induced by various elicitors. The differential regulation observed for HaHSP17.6a and HaHSP17.6b genes differs from previous observations on duplicated sHSP genes in plants. [source]

The Arabidopsis thaliana ATP-binding cassette proteins: an emerging superfamily

T. G. E. Davies
ABSTRACT Solute transport systems are one of the major ways in which organisms interact with their environment. Typically, transport is catalysed by integral membrane proteins, of which one of the largest groups is the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. On the basis of sequence similarities, a large family of ABC proteins has been identified in Arabidopsis. A total of 60 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding ABC proteins were identified by BLAST homology searching of the nuclear genome. These 60 putative proteins include 89 ABC domains. Based on the assignment of transmembrane domains (TMDs), at least 49 of the 60 proteins identified are ABC transporters. Of these 49 proteins, 28 are full-length ABC transporters (eight of which have been described previously), and 21 are uncharacterized half-transporters. Three of the remaining proteins identified appear to be soluble, lacking identifiable TMDs, and most likely have non-transport functions. The eight other ORFs have homology to the nucleotide-binding and transmembrane components of multi-subunit permeases. The majority of ABC proteins found in Arabidopsis can, on the basis of sequence homology, be assigned to subfamilies equivalent to those found in the yeast genome. This assignment of the Arabidopsis ABC proteins into easily recognizable subfamilies (with distinguishable subclusters) is an important first step in the elucidation of their functional role in higher plants. [source]

The few virus-like genes of Cotesia congregata bracovirus ,

J-M. Drezen
Abstract The origin of the symbiotic association between parasitoid wasps and bracoviruses is still unknown. From phylogenetic analyses, bracovirus-associated wasp species constitute a monophyletic group, the microgastroid complex. Thus all wasp,bracovirus associations could have originated from the integration of an ancestral virus in the genome of the ancestor of the microgastroids. In an effort to identify a set of virus genes that would give clues on the nature of the ancestral virus, we have recently performed the complete sequencing of the genome of CcBV, the bracovirus of the wasp Cotesia congregata. We describe here the putative proteins encoded by CcBV genome having significant similarities with sequences from known viruses and mobile elements. The analysis of CcBV gene content does not lend support to the hypothesis that bracoviruses originated from a baculovirus. Moreover, no consistent homology was found between CcBV genes and any set of genes constituting the core genome of a known free-living virus. We discuss the significance of the scarce homology found between proteins from CcBV and other viruses or mobile elements. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 61:110,122, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Proteome analysis to assess physiological changes in Escherichia coli grown under glucose-limited fed-batch conditions

Babu Raman
Abstract Proteome analysis was used to compare global protein expression changes in Escherichia coli fermentation between exponential and glucose-limited fed-batch phase. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used to separate and identify 49 proteins showing >2-fold difference in expression. Proteins upregulated during exponential phase include ribonucleotide biosynthesis enzymes and ribosomal recycling factor. Proteins upregulated during fed-batch phase include those involved in high-affinity glucose uptake, transport and degradation of alternate carbon sources and TCA cycle, suggesting an enhanced role of the cycle under glucose- and energy-limited conditions. We report the upregulation of several putative proteins (ytfQ, ygiS, ynaF, yggX, yfeX), not identified in any previous study under carbon-limited conditions. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]