Purified Protein (purified + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Purified Protein

  • purified protein derivative

  • Selected Abstracts

    The different forms of PNS myelin P0 protein within and outside lipid rafts

    Anna Fasano
    Abstract It is now well established that plasma membranes, such as the myelin sheath, are made of different microdomains with different lipid and protein composition. Lipid rafts are made mainly of sphingolipids and cholesterol, whereas the non-raft regions are made mainly of phosphoglycerides. Most myelin proteins may distribute themselves in raft and non-raft microdomains but the driving force that gives rise to their different distribution is not known yet. In this paper, we have studied the distribution of protein zero (P0), the most representative protein of PNS myelin, in the membrane microdomains. To this end, we have purified P0 from both non-raft (soluble P0, P0-S) and raft (P0-R) regions of PNS. Purified proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified and characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A detailed structural description of the two P0 forms is given in terms of amino acid sequence, post-translational modifications, and composition of associated lipids. Our findings suggest that structural differences between the two proteins, mainly related to the glycogroups, might be responsible for their different localization. [source]

    Plasmodium falciparum Rab6 GTPase: expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies

    Debasish Chattopadhyay
    The Plasmodium falciparumrab6 gene encodes a 208 amino-acid polypeptide. Two recombinant versions of P. falciparum Rab6 protein were expressed in Escherichia coli: the full-length protein and a truncated form containing residues 1,175. Both forms were purified from the soluble fraction of bacterial extract and were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. Purified proteins were crystallized at pH 6.5 using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion technique at room temperature. The full-length protein diffracted to 2.4, and belongs to the tetragonal space group P43212 or P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 80.6, c = 90.4,. The crystals of the truncated protein were isomorphous with those of the full-length construct and diffracted X-rays to 2.2, resolution. [source]

    Biochemical and molecular characterization of a laccase from the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2004
    Shicheng Chen
    We have isolated a laccase (lac1) from culture fluid of Volvariella volvacea, grown in a defined medium containing 150 m CuSO4, by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Lac1 has a molecular mass of 58 kDa as determined by SDS/PAGE and an isoelectric point of 3.7. Degenerate primers based on the N-terminal sequence of purified lac1 and a conserved copper-binding domain were used to generate cDNA fragments encoding a portion of the lac1 protein and RACE was used to obtain full-length cDNA clones. The cDNA of lac1 contained an ORF of 1557 bp encoding 519 amino acids. The amino acid sequence from Ala25 to Asp41 corresponded to the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein. The first 24 amino acids are presumed to be a signal peptide. The expression of lac1 is regulated at the transcription level by copper and various aromatic compounds. RT-PCR analysis of gene transcription in fungal mycelia grown on rice-straw revealed that, apart from during the early stages of substrate colonization, lac1 was expressed at every stage of the mushroom developmental cycle defined in this study, although the levels of transcription varied considerably depending upon the developmental phase. Transcription of lac1 increased sharply during the latter phase of substrate colonization and reached maximum levels during the very early stages (primordium formation, pinhead stage) of fruit body morphogenesis. Gene expression then declined to ,,20,30% of peak levels throughout the subsequent stages of sporophore development. [source]

    Large-scale expression and thermodynamic characterization of a glutamate receptor agonist-binding domain

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 13 2000
    Dean R. Madden
    The ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluR) are the primary mediators of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. GluR agonist binding has been localized to an extracellular domain whose core is homologous to the bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (PBP). We have established routine, baculovirus-mediated expression of a complete ligand-binding domain construct at the 10-L scale, yielding 10,40 milligrams of purified protein. This construct contains peptides that lie outside the PBP-homologous core and that connect the domain core to the transmembrane domains of the channel and to the N-terminal ,X'-domain. These linker peptides have been implicated in modulating channel physiology. Such extended constructs have proven difficult to express in bacteria, but the protein described here is stable and monomeric. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that glutamate binding to the domain involves a substantial heat capacity change and that at physiological temperatures, the reaction is both entropically and enthalpically favorable. [source]

    Purification and characterization of ,-glucosidase in Apis cerana indica

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    Chanpen Chanchao
    Abstract Apis cerana indica foragers were used for the isolation of a full-length ,-glucosidase cDNA, and for purification of the active nascent protein by low salt extraction of bee homogenates, ammonium sulphate precipitation and diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and Superdex 200 chromatographies. The molecular mass of the purified protein was estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolution, and the pH, temperature, incubation, and substrate optima for enzymic activity were determined. Conformation of the purified enzyme as ,-glucosidase was performed by BLAST software homology comparisons between matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy analysed partial tryptic peptide digests of the purified protein with the predicted amino acid sequences deduced from the ,-glucosidase cDNA sequence. [source]

    Monoclonal Antibodies against the Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus and its Application in Virus Detection

    Jianxiang Wu
    Abstract Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is the type member of the tospovirus genus and causes significant losses in a wide range of economically important ornamental and vegetable crops worldwide. The nucleocapsid gene, located on the ambisense S RNA segment of TSWV was expressed in Escherichia coli using pET-32a as vector and correct expression of recombinant protein was confirmed by Western blot using an anti-TSWV monoclonal antibody (MAb). The recombinant protein was purified using Ni-NTA agarose and the purified protein was used for the production of MAbs. Three murine MAbs against the recombinant nucleocapsid protein were produced. Triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunocapture RT-PCR methods were then established for reliable and efficient detection of TSWV using the produced MAbs. [source]

    An amino-terminal domain of Enterococcus faecalis aggregation substance is required for aggregation, bacterial internalization by epithelial cells and binding to lipoteichoic acid

    Christopher M. Waters
    Summary Aggregation substance (AS), a plasmid-encoded surface protein of Enterococcus faecalis, plays important roles in virulence and antibiotic resistance transfer. Previous studies have suggested that AS-mediated aggregation of enterococcal cells could involve the binding of this protein to cell wall lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Here, a method to purify an undegraded form of Asc10, the AS of the plasmid pCF10, is described. Using this purified protein, direct binding of Asc10 to purified E. faecalis LTA was demonstrated. Equivalent binding of Asc10 to LTA purified from INY3000, an E. faecalis strain that is incapable of aggregation, was also observed. Surprisingly, mutations in a previously identified aggregation domain from amino acids 473 to 683 that abolished aggregation had no effect on LTA binding. In frame deletion analysis of Asc10 was used to identify a second aggregation domain located in the N-terminus of the protein from amino acids 156 to 358. A purified Asc10 mutant protein lacking this domain showed reduced LTA binding, while a purified N-terminal fragment from amino acids 44,331 had high LTA binding. Like the previously described aggregation domain, the newly identified Asc10(156,358) aggregation domain was also required for efficient internalization of E. faecalis into HT-29 enterocytes. Thus, Asc10 possess two distinct domains required for aggregation and eukaryotic cell internalization: an N-terminal domain that promotes binding to LTA and a second domain located near the middle of the protein. [source]

    Clinical outcome and IL-17, IL-23, IL-27 and FOXP3 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of pollen-allergic children during sublingual immunotherapy

    Kaisa Nieminen
    Nieminen K, Valovirta E, Savolainen J. Clinical outcome and IL-17, IL-23, IL-27 and FOXP3 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of pollen-allergic children during sublingual immunotherapy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e174,e184. 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S Induction of allergen-specific, tolerogenic, IL-10 and/or TGF-,-producing T-regulatory (Treg) cells that express transcription factor FOXP3 is considered as one of the key mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy. However, little is known of the induction of FOXP3 expression in children during sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Recently, also, a novel subgroup of T-helper (Th) cells, the Th17 cells, secreting predominantly IL-17 (IL-17A), was identified. The expressions of IL-17 or the Th17-regulating cytokines IL-23 and IL-27 during SLIT are currently completely unexplored. This randomized, placebo-controlled dose-response study was performed to analyze the effects of SLIT on FOXP3, IL-17, IL-23, and IL-27 expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of children with allergic rhinitis and their associations with clinical outcome. Thirty children were included: ten received SLIT with a glycerinated mixture of birch, hazel and alder with a cumulative weekly dose of 24,000 SQ-U, 10 with dose 200,000 SQ-U/wk, and ten received placebo. Cytokine and FOXP3 mRNA expressions in allergen-, purified protein derivative-stimulated and non-stimulated PBMC were determined at 0, 1 and 2 yr of SLIT by real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan). Symptoms and medications were recorded using diary cards. Allergen-induced IL-17 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the study subjects with elevated combined Symptom Medication Score (SMS) after 2 yr. There was also a significant positive correlation between the allergen-induced IL-17 and SMS in whole study group (r = 0.38, p = 0.039) and especially the 200,000 SQ-U dose-treated group (r = 0.74, p = 0.027) at 2 yr. Allergen-induced FOXP3 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the 200,000 SQ-U dose-treated children after two study years as compared with baseline (p = 0.016) and placebo-treated children (p = 0.028). The changes in FOXP3 mRNA expression positively correlated with IL-10 and TGF-, mRNAs during SLIT in whole study population. Increased allergen-induced IL-17 responses during SLIT are associated with elevated SMS. Increased tolerogenic, allergen-specific Treg responses are also observed in children during SLIT. [source]

    Tuberculin skin test positivity in pediatric allogeneic BMT recipients and donors in Turkey

    Betul Tavil
    Abstract:, The preliminary study was performed to determine the frequency of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity among 26 patients and their donors screened by TST to investigate whether tuberculin positivity of a recipient or donor influenced the rate of tuberculosis disease, transplant-related events, and to evaluate the effectiveness of isoniazide (INAH) prophylaxis administered to those with positive TST. The frequency of TST positivity was 23% (n = 6) among recipients and also 23% (n = 6) among donors. Two recipients and five donors with positive TST received INAH prophylaxis for six months. Our use of INAH prophylaxis in transplant patients was very conservative because of the risk of drug interaction. The transplantation procedure was not postponed for either recipient or donor TST positivity. Despite the high frequency of tuberculosis in our country, we have not detected any case of tuberculosis in our center, either among the purified protein derivative-screened (n = 26) or non-screened (n = 128) patients except for disseminated tuberculosis infection because of BCG vaccination in two patients with severe combined immunodeficiency. In conclusion, TST positivity in either recipient or donor may not be a contraindication for bone marrow transplantation and the procedure may not be postponed. Pretransplantation TST screening may be needed in countries where tuberculosis is common in the general population. [source]

    Activity-guided isolation of a novel protein from Croton tiglium with antifungal and antibacterial activities

    Muhammad Shahid
    Abstract This study describes the activity-guided isolation and purification of a novel antimicrobial protein from the seed of Croton tiglium Linn. Purification was carried out by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography. Antifungal and antibacterial activities were determined after each purification step. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified protein was a monomer with molecular mass of 50 kDa. This is a first report on purification of a protein from Croton tiglium, which possesses a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Biochemical and immunological characterization of the plant-derived candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal vaccine CTB,MPR649,684

    Nobuyuki Matoba
    Summary Plants are potentially the most economical platforms for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins. Thus, plant-based expression of subunit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines provides an opportunity for their global use against the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pandemic. CTB,MPR649,684[CTB, cholera toxin B subunit; MPR, membrane proximal (ectodomain) region of gp41] is an HIV-1 vaccine candidate that has been shown previously to induce antibodies that block a pathway of HIV-1 mucosal transmission. In this article, the molecular characterization of CTB,MPR649,684 expressed in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants is reported. Virtually all of the CTB,MPR649,684 proteins expressed in the selected line were shown to have assembled into pentameric, GM1 ganglioside-binding complexes. Detailed biochemical analyses on the purified protein revealed that it was N- glycosylated, predominantly with high-mannose-type glycans (more than 75%), as predicted from a consensus asparagine,X,serine/threonine (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) N- glycosylation sequon on the CTB domain and an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal attached at the C-terminus of the fusion protein. Despite this modification, the plant-expressed protein retained the nanomolar affinity to GM1 ganglioside and the critical antigenicity of the MPR649,684 moiety. Furthermore, the protein induced mucosal and serum anti-MPR649,684 antibodies in mice after mucosal prime-systemic boost immunization. Our data indicate that plant-based expression can be a viable alternative for the production of this subunit HIV-1 vaccine candidate. [source]

    Integrity of thermus thermophilus cytochrome c552 Synthesized by escherichia coli cells expressing the host-specific cytochrome c maturation genes, ccmABCDEFGH: Biochemical, spectral, and structural characterization of the recombinant protein

    PROTEIN SCIENCE, Issue 11 2000
    James A. Fee
    Abstract We describe the design of Escherichia coli cells that synthesize a structurally perfect, recombinant cytochrome c from the Thermus thermophilus cytochrome c552 gene. Key features are (1) construction of a plasmid-borne, chimeric cycA gene encoding an Escherichia coli -compatible, N-terminal signal sequence (MetLysIleSerIleTyrAlaThrLeu AlaAlaLeuSerLeuAlaLeuProAlaGlyAla) followed by the amino acid sequence of mature Thermus cytochrome c552; and (2) coexpression of the chimeric cycA gene with plasmid-borne, host-specific cytochrome c maturation genes (ccmABCDEFGH). Approximately 1 mg of purified protein is obtained from 1 L of culture medium. The recombinant protein, cytochrome rsC552, and native cytochrome c552 have identical redox potentials and are equally active as electron transfer substrates toward cytochrome ba3, a Thermus heme-copper oxidase. Native and recombinant cytochromes c were compared and found to be identical using circular dichroism, optical absorption, resonance Raman, and 500 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopies. The 1.7 resolution X-ray crystallographic structure of the recombinant protein was determined and is indistinguishable from that reported for the native protein (Than, ME, Hof P, Huber R, Bourenkov GP, Bartunik HD, Buse G, Soulimane T, 1997, J Mol Biol 271:629,644). This approach may be generally useful for expression of alien cytochrome c genes in E. coli. [source]

    An improved protocol for rapid freezing of protein samples for long-term storage

    Rapid freezing of protein samples
    Freezing of purified protein drops directly in liquid nitrogen is a convenient technique for the long-term storage of protein samples. Although this enhances reproducibility in follow-up crystallization experiments, some protein samples are not amenable to this technique. It has been discovered that plunging PCR tubes containing protein samples into liquid nitrogen results in more rapid freezing of the samples and can safely preserve some proteins that are damaged by drop-freezing. The PCR-tube method can also be adapted to a PCR-plate freezing method with applications for high-throughput and structural genomics projects. [source]

    Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the d -xylulose 5-phosphate phosphoketolase from Lactococcus lactis

    Georgiana Petrareanu
    Phosphoketolases are thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes which play a central role in the pentose-phosphate pathway of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. They belong to the family of aldehyde-lyases and in the presence of phosphate ion cleave the carbon,carbon bond of the specific substrate d -xylulose 5-phosphate (or d -fructose 6-phosphate) to give acetyl phosphate and d -glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (or d -erythrose 4-phosphate). Structural information about phosphoketolases is particularly important in order to fully understand their mechanism as well as the steric course of phosphoketolase-catalyzed reactions. Here, the purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of d -xylulose 5-phosphate phosphoketolase from Lactococcus lactis are reported. The presence of thiamine diphosphate during purification was essential for the enzymatic activity of the purified protein. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21. Diffraction data were obtained to a resolution of 2.2,. [source]

    Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the butyrolactone autoregulator receptor protein (BarA) from Streptomyces virginiae

    Young-Ho Yoon
    The Streptomyces butyrolactone autoregulator receptor protein (BarA) is a DNA-binding protein that regulates the biosynthesis of the antibiotic virginiamycin. In this study, BarA from S. virginiae was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals of purified protein have been grown that diffracted to beyond 3.0, resolution at 100,K using synchrotron radiation. The protein crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 128.0, c = 286.2,. With four molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein mass (VM) was 3.2,3,Da,1 and the solvent content was 62%. [source]

    Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of inverting trehalose phosphorylase from Thermoanaerobacter sp.

    Annelies Van Hoorebeke
    Disaccharide phosphorylases are attractive enzymatic platforms for tailor-made sugar synthesis owing to their ability to catalyze both the synthesis and the breakdown of disaccharides. Trehalose phosphorylase from Thermoanaerobacter sp. (TP) is a glycoside hydrolase family 65 enzyme which catalyzes the reversible breakdown of trehalose [d -glucopyranosyl-,(1,1),- d -glucopyranose] to ,- d -glucose 1-phosphate and d -glucose. Recombinant purified protein was produced in Escherichia coli and crystallized in space group P212121. Crystals of recombinant TP were obtained in their native form and were soaked with glucose, with n -octyl-,- d -glucoside and with trehalose. The crystals presented a number of challenges including an unusually large unit cell, with a c axis measuring 420,, and variable diffraction quality. Crystal-dehydration protocols led to improvements in diffraction quality that were often dramatic, typically from 7,8 to 3,4, resolution. The structure of recombinant TP was determined by molecular replacement to 2.8, resolution, thus establishing a starting point for investigating the structural and mechanistic determinants of the disaccharide phosphorylase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first crystal structure determination of an inverting trehalose phosphorylase. [source]

    Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase from Zymomonas mobilis ZM4

    Ho-Chang Ryu
    Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 is an organism optimized for ethanol production which uses the Entner,Doudoroff (ED) pathway for the breakdown of glucose. The key enzyme in this process is 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase, which produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate. In order to provide a molecular background for the KDPG aldolase from this ethanologenic organism (zmKDPG aldolase), the ZMO0997 gene of Z. mobilis ZM4 coding for zmKDPG aldolase was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized from 25%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 and 0.1,M bis-tris pH 5.5. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8, resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.7, b = 83.0, c = 117.2,. A trimeric zmKDPG aldolase molecule was present in the asymmetric unit, resulting in a crystal volume per unit protein weight of 2.40,3,Da,1 and a solvent content of 48%. [source]

    Purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of ,-microseminoprotein from human seminal plasma

    Vijay Kumar
    ,-Microseminoprotein (,-MSP) is a small cysteine-rich protein with a molecular mass of 10,kDa. It was first isolated from human seminal plasma and has subsequently been identified from several species. Comparison of the amino-acid sequences of ,-MSP proteins suggests that the protein is a rapidly evolving protein. The function of ,-MSP is poorly understood. Furthermore, no crystal structure has been reported of any ,-MSP; therefore, determination of the crystal structure of ,-MSP is the foremost task in order to understand the function of this protein completely. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ,-MSP from human seminal plasma are described. The protein was purified using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography and the purified protein was crystallized using 0.1,M ammonium sulfate, 0.1,M HEPES buffer pH 7.0 and 20%(w/v) PEG 3350. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4322 and contained three ,-MSP molecules in the asymmetric unit. X-ray intensity data were collected to 2.4, resolution. [source]

    The ybeY protein from Escherichia coli is a metalloprotein

    Chenyang Zhan
    The three-dimensional crystallographic structure of the ybeY protein from Escherichia coli (SwissProt entry P77385) is reported at 2.7, resolution. YbeY is a hypothetical protein that belongs to the UPF0054 family. The structure reveals that the protein binds a metal ion in a tetrahedral geometry. Three coordination sites are provided by histidine residues, while the fourth might be a water molecule that is not seen in the diffraction map because of its relatively low resolution. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the purified protein suggests that the metal is a nickel ion. The structure of ybeY and its sequence similarity to a number of predicted metal-dependent hydrolases provides a functional assignment for this protein family. The figures and tables of this paper were prepared using semi-automated tools, termed the Autopublish server, developed by the New York Structural GenomiX Research Consortium, with the goal of facilitating the rapid publication of crystallographic structures that emanate from worldwide Structural Genomics efforts, including the NIH-funded Protein Structure Initiative. [source]

    Purification and characterization of 66-kDa glycoprotein from human breast carcinoma

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 9 2007
    Renqing Feng
    We extracted a 66-kDa glycoprotein (GP-1D8) from breast invasive ductal carcinoma tissues. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) against GP-1D8 was prepared in our laboratory. Western blotting with the purified protein using the mAb demonstrated a single band of 66 kDa. Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong expression of GP-1D8 protein in the cytoplasm of MCF-7 cells and different types of breast carcinoma tissues, but GP-1D8 is absent in normal breast and benign breast tumor tissues. Glycosylation analysis showed GP-1D8 contained methylated salic acid. GP-1D8 was identified using mass-spectrometric techniques and N -terminal sequencing. These data were used to identify the protein through the SWISSPROT protein sequence database and BLAST homology search. These results showed GP-1D8 had some similarity to human albumin precursor. Co-immunoprecipitation assays of lysate from MCF-7 cells and mass spectrometric analysis revealed the interaction of GP-1D8 with ,-tubulin. This is the first time human breast carcinoma tissues and MCF-7 cells have been shown to express a 66-kDa glycoprotein similar to human albumin precursor. These results might be important in the detection of novel potential biomarkers and may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis. (Cancer Sci 2007; 98: 1344,1349) [source]

    A new evaluation technique for the detection of impurities in purified proteins via CE with native UV-LIF

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 2 2010
    Audrey Rodat
    Abstract An analytical methodology for quality control analyses of IgG and their impurities is presented using a new UV-LIF (266,nm) detector inside the cassette of a CE instrument and its performance was evaluated. The observed sensitivity was very close to that obtained by silver staining of slab gels (LOD of 25,ng/mL), while the sensitivity of the analysis is 80 times better than with CE/UV absorption (214,nm). Examples of the analysis of pharmaceutical and other commercial IgGs are provided and the kinetics of the reduction of IgG by ,-mercaptoethanol is reported, demonstrating the ease of performing the analysis. [source]

    Microscale characterization of the binding specificity and affinity of a monoclonal antisulfotyrosyl IgG antibody

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 12 2008
    Klaus S. Lassen Dr.
    Abstract Sulfation is a potentially important post-translational modification of proteins and has been demonstrated in a number of polypeptides, notably in gastrointestinal hormones. In contrast to phosphorylation, however, the investigation of sulfation patterns in tissues and on purified proteins has been complicated by the absence of specific immunoreagents (antibodies) for this modification as well as the chemical lability of the sulfate group. Here, we investigate the properties of a novel mAb against sulfated tyrosyl groups (anti-Tyr(SO3H) antibody) using CE and a panel of sulfated and nonsulfated peptides and proteins. The data show that the anti-Tyr(SO3H) antibody is completely specific for compounds containing sulfated tyrosyls. Affinity electrophoresis experiments allowed us to estimate dissociation constants for sulfated hirudin fragment (56,65), gastrin-17, and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8) in the 1,3,,M range. The affinity of the antibody toward complement 4 protein that contains three sulfotyrosines was analyzed by surface plasmon resonance technology and modeled according to a bivalent-binding model which yielded a Kd1 of 20.1,,M for the monovalent complex. The same binding was studied by CE and found to be in the micromolar scale albeit with some uncertainty due to complex separation patterns. The work illustrates the amount of information on antibody,antigen interactions that may be obtained with microelectrophoretic methods consuming minute quantities of material. Furthermore the specificity of this antibody could be confirmed in one operation using an array of sulfated and nonsulfated compounds. [source]

    High-efficiency protein extraction from polyacrylamide gels for molecular mass measurement by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 6 2005
    Ya Jin
    Abstract A simple and fast method of protein extraction from Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)-stained polyacrylamide gels suited for molecular mass measurement of proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is reported. Proteins in CBB-stained gel pieces were extracted by a 10-min soaking in 0.1,M NaOH at 25C. The recovery of this one-step extraction method was 34,73% for proteins <67,kDa. CBB adduction to proteins during mass spectrometric analysis was avoided by a destaining step before the alkaline extraction. The molecular mass values of the extracted proteins coincided with those of purified proteins within 0.01,0.10% deviation for all the proteins <36,kDa. Because of the high extraction recovery, mass measurement was possible for the proteins extracted from CBB-stained gels with loaded protein quantities as little as 34,ng for cytochrome,c, ,-lactalbumin, myoglobin, ,-lactoglobulin, trypsinogen, and carbonic anhydrase (12.4,29.0,kDa), 340,ng for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (35.6,kDa) and albumin (66.3,kDa). This method provides a highly efficient approach to utilize CBB-stained one- or two-dimensional gels for whole protein analysis using MALDI-TOF-MS. [source]

    The heat shock protein 70 molecular chaperone network in the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum , a quantitative approach

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 19 2007
    Andreas Weitzmann
    Traditionally, the canine pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been the workhorse for cell-free studies on protein transport into the mammalian ER. These studies have revealed multiple roles for the major ER-luminal heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, IgG heavy chain-binding protein (BiP), at least one of which also involves the second ER-luminal Hsp70, glucose-regulated protein (Grp) 170. In addition, at least one of these BiP activities depends on Hsp40. Up to now, five Hsp40s and two nucleotide exchange factors, Sil1 and Grp170, have been identified in the ER of different mammalian cell types. Here we quantified the various proteins of this chaperone network in canine pancreatic rough microsomes. We also characterized the various purified proteins with respect to their affinities for BiP and their effect on the ATPase activity of BiP. The results identify Grp170 as the major nucleotide exchange factor for BiP, and the resident ER-membrane proteins ER-resident J-domain protein 1 plus ER-resident J-domain protein 2/Sec63 as prime candidates for cochaperones of BiP in protein transport in the pancreatic ER. Thus, these data represent a comprehensive analysis of the BiP chaperone network that was recently linked to two human inherited diseases, polycystic liver disease and Marinesco,Sjgren syndrome. [source]

    Effects of proline mutations in the major house dust mite allergen Der f 2 on IgE-binding and histamine-releasing activity

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 22 2000
    Toshiro Takai
    Der f 2 is the major group 2 allergen from house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and is composed of 129 amino-acid residues. Wild-type and six proline mutants of Der f 2 (P26A, P34A, P66A, P79A, P95A, and P99A) expressed in Escherichia coli were refolded and purified. Formations of intramolecular disulfide bonds in the purified proteins were confirmed correct. The apparent molecular masses analyzed by gel-filtration were 14,15 kDa. The IgE-binding capacity in the sera of seven mite-allergic patients, inhibitory activity for IgE-binding to immobilized wild-type Der f 2, and activity to stimulate peripheral blood basophils to release histamine in two volunteers were analyzed. P95A and P99A, which slightly differed from the wild-type Der f 2 in their CD spectrum, showed reduced IgE-binding, reduced inhibitory activity, and less histamine-releasing activity than the wild-type. P34A also showed reduced allergenicity. Considering that Pro95, Pro99 and Pro34 are closely located in loops at one end of the tertiary structure of Der f 2, we concluded that these loop regions included an IgE-binding site common to all tested patients. P66A showed reduced IgE-binding in two sera out of seven. P26A and P79A showed no reduced allergenicity. However, in immunoblot analysis after SDS/PAGE under reduced conditions, P79A showed no or markedly reduced IgE-binding while the other mutants showed IgE-binding corresponding to that in the assay using correctly refolded proteins. This suggests that Pro79 is involved in refolding of Der f 2. The findings in this study are important for the understanding of the antigenic structure of mite group 2 allergens and for manipulation of the allergens for specific immunotherapy. [source]

    Isolation and characterization of novel inducible serine protease inhibitors from larval hemolymph of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 7 2000
    Andreas C. Frbius
    Three inducible serine protease inhibitors (ISPI-1, 2, 3) have been purified from larval hemolymph of greater wax moth larvae, Galleria mellonella, and characterized at a molecular level. These inhibitors were synthesized after larvae were injected with a yeast polysaccharide, zymosan preparation. ISPI-1,2,3 were active against various serine proteases including trypsin and toxic proteases released by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Precipitation by trichloroacetic acid and heat, followed by FPLC and HPLC separation steps were used for purification of the protease inhibitors from cell-free hemolymph samples. The molecular masses of purified proteins were determined by MS to be 9.2 kDa (ISPI-1), 6.3 kDa (ISPI-2) and 8.2 kDa (ISPI-3) with isoelectric points ranging between 7.2 and 8.3. The N-terminal amino-acid sequences of ISPI-1 and ISPI-3 are not similar to other known proteins, whereas that of ISPI-2 exhibits extensive similarity to known Kunitz-type protease inhibitors. [source]

    DPPA4 modulates chromatin structure via association with DNA and core histone H3 in mouse embryonic stem cells

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 4 2010
    Hisaharu Masaki
    Developmental pluripotency associated 4 (DPPA4) is one of the uncharacterized genes that is highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells. DPPA4 is associated with active chromatin and involved in the pluripotency of mouse ES cells. However, the biological function of DPPA4 remains poorly understood. In this study, we performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis to examine the dynamics of DPPA4 in ES cells. FRAP analysis showed that the mobility of DPPA4 is similar to that of histone H1. In addition, biochemical analysis with purified proteins and immunoprecipitation analysis showed that DPPA4 directly binds to both DNA and core histone H3. The analysis using truncated proteins indicated that DPPA4 is associated with DNA via the N-terminal region and histone H3 via the C-terminal region. In vitro assembled chromatin showed resistance to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion in the presence of DPPA4. Moreover, MNase assay and FRAP analysis with the truncated proteins implies that DPPA4 binding to both DNA and histone H3 is necessary for the chromatin structure resistant to MNase and for the proper localization of DPPA4 in ES cell nuclei. These results suggest that DPPA4 modulates the chromatin structure in association with DNA and histone H3 in ES cells. [source]

    Human catalytic antibody Se-scFv-B3 with high glutathione peroxidase activity

    Rui Huo
    Abstract In order to generate catalytic antibodies with glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, we prepared GSH-S-2,4-dinitrophenyl t -butyl ester (GSH-S-DNPBu) as target antigen. Three clones (A11, B3, and D5) that bound specifically to the antigen were selected from the phage display antibody library (human synthetic VH,+,VL single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) library). Analysis of PCR products using gel electrophoresis and sequencing showed that only clone B3 beared intact scFv-encoding gene, which was cloned into the expression vector pPELB and expressed as soluble form (scFv-B3) in Escherichia coli Rosetta. The scFv-B3 was purified by Ni2+ -immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The yield of purified proteins was about 2.0,3.0,mg of proteins from 1,L culture. After the active site serines of scFv-B3 were converted into selenocysteines (Secs) with the chemical modification method, we obtained the human catalytic antibody (Se-scFv-B3) with GPX activity of 1288,U/mol. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Design and use of multi-affinity surfaces in biomolecular interaction analysis,mass spectrometry (BIA/MS): a step toward the design of SPR/MS arrays

    Dobrin Nedelkov
    Abstract The feasibility of multi-affinity ligand surfaces in biomolecular interaction analysis,mass spectrometry (BIA/MS) was explored in this work. Multi-protein affinity surfaces were constructed by utilizing antibodies to beta-2-microglobulin, cystatin C, retinol binding protein, transthyretin, serum amyloid P and C-reactive protein. In the initial experiments, all six antibodies were immobilized on a single site (flow cell) on the sensor chip surface, followed by verification of the surface activity via separate injections of purified proteins. After an injection of diluted human plasma aliquot over the antibodies-derivatized surfaces, and subsequent MALDI-TOF MS analysis, signals representing five out of the six targeted proteins were observed in the mass spectra. Further, to avoid the complexity of the spectra, the six proteins were divided into two groups (according to their molecular weight) and immobilized on two separate surfaces on a single sensor chip, followed by an injection of human plasma aliquot. The resulting mass spectra showed signals from all proteins. Also, the convolution resulting from the multiply charged ion species was eliminated. The ability to create such multi-affinity surfaces indicates that smaller-size ligand areas/spots can be employed in the BIA/MS protein interaction screening experiments, and opens up the possibilities for construction of novel multi-arrayed SPR-MS platforms and methods for high-throughput parallel protein interaction investigations. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Inhibition of A, aggregation and neurotoxicity by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein

    Megan L. Kerr
    J. Neurochem. (2010) 112, 1199,1209. Abstract Aggregation of ,-amyloid protein (A,) to form oligomers is considered to be a key step in generating neurotoxicity in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Agents that bind to A, and inhibit oligomerization have been proposed as Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. In this study, we investigated the binding of fluorescein-labeled A,1,42 (FluoA,1,42) to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and examined the effect of the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP), on the A, cell interaction. FluoA,1,42 bound to the cells in a punctate pattern. Surprisingly, when RAP was added to the incubations, FluoA,1,42 and RAP were found to be co-localized on the cell surface, suggesting that RAP and A, may bind to each other. Experiments using the purified proteins confirmed that a RAP,A, complex was stable and resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate. RAP also inhibited A, oligomerization. We next examined whether RAP could inhibit the neurotoxic effects of A,. Addition of A,1,42 to SH-SY5Y cells caused an increase in intracellular Ca2+ that was inhibited by treatment of the A, peptide with RAP. RAP also blocked an A,-induced inhibition of long-term memory consolidation in 1-day-old chicks. This study demonstrates that RAP binds to A, and is an inhibitor of the neurotoxic effects of A,. [source]