Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Pupils

  • dilated pupil
  • school pupil
  • secondary school pupil

  • Terms modified by Pupils

  • pupil diameter
  • pupil dilation
  • pupil response
  • pupil size

  • Selected Abstracts

    J.G. Granö and Edgar Kant: Teacher and Pupil, Colleagues and Friends

    Olavi Granö
    Abstract This paper is adapted from an address given at the plenary session of the conference 'From Native and Landscape Research to Urban and Regional Studies, held in Tartu on 23 August, 2002, to mark the birthdays of J.G. Granö (120 years.) and Edgar Kant (100 years). The Finnish geographer J.G. Granö was Professor of Geography at the University of Tartu from 1919 to 1923, a period during which that university became the birthplace of many original geographical ideas. Edgar Kant was beginning his studies at that time, and a link was forged between the two scholars which lasted until Granö's death in 1956. The nature of this interaction and its significance for the history of geographical studies are discussed. [source]

    Does the Model of Language in the National Literacy Strategy Create Failure for Pupils from Differing Language Backgrounds?

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 2 2002
    Pamela King
    Abstract The National Literacy Strategy (NLS) was introduced by the government in the wake of the hotly debated issue of falling educational standards in the UK. All schools were required to adopt the NLS Literacy Hour unless they could show their preferred programme would result in raised levels of achievement. My experience of delivering the Literacy Hour has been a process of adaptation to the needs of my pupils, who are drawn mainly from groups whose language backgrounds differ from that which is dominant in school. I have found that the requirements of NLS, together with many of the commercial resources used to teach it, are not appropriate for pupils from these groups and a question arose: is it the pupils who are in some way deficient or is it the approach and the resources being used? This article takes a case study of the use of a commercially produced resource to explore the model of language implicit in NLS, the kinds of resources it generates and the ways in which this creates failure in pupils from different language backgrounds. It then considers the New Literacy Studies and their implications for an alteration in our approach. [source]

    Progression of oral snuff use among Finnish 13,16-year-old students and its relation to smoking behaviour

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2006
    Ari Haukkala
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine the progression of oral moist snuff use among adolescents and its relation to smoking behaviour and nicotine addiction. Design and setting A 3-year smoking prevention study in 27 schools of Helsinki, Finland, starting with the seventh grade to the ninth grade., Participants and measurements Pupils (n = 2816) completed questionnaires four times, which included information on smoking behaviour, snuff experiments, nicotine addiction (Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire) and other activities. Findings The prevalence of snuff experimentation rose among boys from 7% in the seventh grade to 43% 3 years later in the ninth grade, and among girls from 2% to 13% for the corresponding period. Among boys, smoking predicted later snuff use in all assessments and snuff experimentation predicted later weekly smoking. The impact of snuff experimentation upon later smoking experimentation was smaller than vice versa. Among boys active in sports, smoking was less common but snuff use was more common. Combined use was common; by the end of the follow-up only 10% of weekly smokers had not tried oral snuff. Nicotine dependence scores increased linearly with snuff use among weekly smokers., Conclusions Despite the European Union sales ban on oral snuff products since 1995, in Finland snuff use is common among boys. Although combined use of snuff and cigarettes is associated with higher levels of nicotine dependence among adolescent boys, the direction of causality is not known. Unlike cigarette smoking, oral snuff use was tried among boys who spent their free time with sports-related activities. [source]

    Tutors and Pupils: International Organizations, Central European Elites, and Western Models

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 2 2001
    Wade Jacoby
    In the past decade, political elites in Central and Eastern Europe have often sought to imitate Western organizational and institutional models, while organizations like the EU and NATO have often acted as "institutional tutors" in the region. Using evidence from Hungary and the Czech Republic, this paper demonstrates why imitating Western structures has been both administratively expedient and useful in building political coalitions. It also stresses that the short-term benefits of doing so are followed by longer-term costs. The paper answers four questions: How have certain models been held up to CEE elites? Why might some such models be targets for elites to imitate? How does such imitation occur? And what results from imitation? Contrary to expectations that institutional modeling would be merely technocratic and used only yearly in the transformation, the paper's threefold heuristic of templates, thresholds, and adjustments shows that the process is both politically contentious and sustained. [source]

    Supporting Pupils with Dyspraxia in the Visual Arts Does Drawing from Observation Function as an Official and Discriminatory Discourse?

    Claire Penketh
    This article examines the demands that pupils with dyspraxia may face when engaging with the secondary art and design curriculum in a mainstream secondary school. It explores the possibility that there is an exclusive approach to art and design, prioritising a formalist approach to the teaching of specific skills and mastery of techniques, and considers the implications that this may have for such pupils. Specific attention is paid to the role of observational drawing and the demands that this may make for pupils with dyspraxia. The article will explore existing guidance offered for subject-based practitioners and aims to contextualise this within the current debates on art and design education and the recollections of individual experiences of art and design. It will outline the hypothesis that pupils with dyspraxia may be one group of pupils amongst many for whom their art and design experience does not offer an inclusive experience, and it seeks to question the existence of a hierarchy of practice and its subsequent relevance. [source]

    Young adolescents' use of medicine for headache: sources of supply, availability and accessibility at home,

    Bjørn E. Holstein Mag.
    Abstract Objective Use of medicines for headache is common among young adolescents but little is known about their sources of supply and access to medicines. The purpose was to describe sources of supply, availability and accessibility at home and to examine if supply, availability and accessibility were associated with medicine use. Methods Cross-sectional study in eight schools where all fifth and seventh grade students (11- and 13-year-olds) answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic factors, health and medicine use. Response rate: 84.0%, n,=,595. Results The reported prevalence of headache at least monthly was 45.0%, and 42.5% had used medicines for headache during the past month. 68.2% reported that medicines for headache were always available at home, and 22.2% were allowed to use these without asking for permission. Most pupils received medicine from their parents (73.1%) and physicians (25.4%). Smaller proportions had received medicine from school nurses, teachers, friends and others; 11.6% mentioned at least three sources of supply. Pupils with frequent episodes of headache reported more sources of supply and higher availability and accessibility at home. OR for medicine use among children who mentioned three or more sources of supply was 4.53 (95% CI 2.63,7.83) in a multivariate model controlled for sex, age and prevalence of headache. Use of medicine was also associated with availability at home (OR,=,1.51, 1.01,2.27) and accessibility (OR,=,2.49, 1.57,3.93). Conclusion Medicine use for headache among children and young adolescents is common and control of access may be the key issue for safe medicine use. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cyberbullying: its nature and impact in secondary school pupils

    Peter K. Smith
    Background:, Cyberbullying describes bullying using mobile phones and the internet. Most previous studies have focused on the prevalence of text message and email bullying. Methods:, Two surveys with pupils aged 11,16 years: (1) 92 pupils from 14 schools, supplemented by focus groups; (2) 533 pupils from 5 schools, to assess the generalisability of findings from the first study, and investigate relationships of cyberbullying to general internet use. Both studies differentiated cyberbullying inside and outside of school, and 7 media of cyberbullying. Results:, Both studies found cyberbullying less frequent than traditional bullying, but appreciable, and reported more outside of school than inside. Phone call and text message bullying were most prevalent, with instant messaging bullying in the second study; their impact was perceived as comparable to traditional bullying. Mobile phone/video clip bullying, while rarer, was perceived to have more negative impact. Age and gender differences varied between the two studies. Study 1 found that most cyberbullying was done by one or a few students, usually from the same year group. It often just lasted about a week, but sometimes much longer. The second study found that being a cybervictim, but not a cyberbully, correlated with internet use; many cybervictims were traditional ,bully-victims'. Pupils recommended blocking/avoiding messages, and telling someone, as the best coping strategies; but many cybervictims had told nobody about it. Conclusions:, Cyberbullying is an important new kind of bullying, with some different characteristics from traditional bullying. Much happens outside school. Implications for research and practical action are discussed. [source]

    The Long-term Stability of Sociometric Status Classification: A Longitudinal Study of Included Pupils Who Have Moderate Learning Difficulties and Their Mainstream Peers

    Norah L. Frederickson
    This study investigated the longitudinal stability of sociometric classification in two groups of children aged 8 to 10 years over a 2-year period. Two simple, but sensitive and valid forced-choice sociometric measures were completed by 41 children with moderate learning difficulties (MLD) and 375 mainstream children. On both occasions and on both measures (one using a "work with" and one a "play with" sociometric criterion) MLD pupils were significantly less likely to be classified as popular and more likely to be classified as rejected. Over the 2-year period just over half of the children, whether MLD or mainstream, were classified in the same sociometric category. However, the stability coefficients for the rejected and popular sociometric status groups were found to be higher in the included sample than in the mainstream sample. The results of this study are compared with previous longitudinal studies in the area that have focused on mainstream pupils, and implications for the use of sociometric measures in evaluating the outcomes of inclusion are discussed. [source]

    Investigating the efficacy of concept mapping with pupils with autistic spectrum disorder

    Veronica Roberts
    Pupils with autism often present significant challenges to teachers. They seem to have real strengths in visual processing but a cognitive style that encourages them to focus on detail rather than the overarching connections between concepts. Veronica Roberts, currently undertaking doctoral training at the Institute of Education, University of London, in order to become an educational psychologist, and Richard Joiner, senior lecturer in the Department of Psychology at the University of Bath, set out to explore these issues. In this article, they report the outcomes of a naturalistic experiment in which they investigated the utility of concept mapping as an educational strategy with pupils diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Theoretical arguments supporting the use of concept mapping with an autistic population are outlined in the paper. A tutor group of ten pupils with ASD, aged between 11 and 14 years, took part in the study. Concept mapping tasks were integrated within National Curriculum science lessons in collaboration with the school's science teacher. The study found that the increase in pupil performance in subject-specific questionnaires was nearly four times greater in the concept mapping condition than after a more conventional teaching intervention. Veronica Roberts and Richard Joiner tentatively draw out the implications of their work for staff who work with pupils with ASD and make recommendations for further research into the use of these learning strategies. [source]

    Borderline intellectual functioning in children and adolescents , insufficiently recognized difficulties

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2010
    Elisabeth Fernell
    Abstract Aim:, To draw attention to groups of children and adolescents with borderline intellectual functioning, especially with respect to their school-situation. Methods:, In one study, population-based, children with borderline intellectual functioning at age 10 years were followed until they finished compulsory school when their final certificates could be analysed. In a second study parents of 20 individuals in the upper secondary school for pupils with mild mental retardation were interviewed according to the Vineland adaptive scales and school health records were reviewed. In a third study pupils attending an individual programme in upper secondary school were assessed and we report one representative case. Results:, (1) Pupils with borderline intellectual functioning, assessed in grade 4, received significantly lower grades when finishing the compulsory school. (2) In the group of pupils in the upper secondary school for the mildly mentally retarded, compiled data indicated that a considerable number did not fulfil the combined IQ and adaptive criteria for mild mental retardation. (3) The subtle nature of borderline intellectual functioning may delay appropriate measures at school, which our case illustrates. Conclusion:, Borderline intellectual functioning seldom attracts attention. Our studies indicate that school and also society at large must be prepared to adapt educational and working conditions for the large minority of individuals with borderline intellectual functioning. [source]

    A randomised controlled trial of clinics in secondary schools for adolescents with asthma

    Cliona Ni Bhrolchain
    Aim To test the hypothesis that delivery of a programme of asthma care in nurse-led clinics in school would improve access to care and health outcomes compared with care in general practice. Methods Pupils at four secondary schools in Bristol, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, UK, were included in the randomized controlled trial. Another two schools were included to control for any cross-contamination between school clinic attenders and general practice attenders in the trial schools. Pupils in trial schools were randomly assigned to receive an invitation for an asthma review at school or in general practice. Schools were stratified for deprivation and covered rural, urban and suburban populations. Pupils with asthma were identified using a screening questionnaire and then cross-referenced with practice prescribing records. Four school nurses with additional specialist asthma training ran the school clinics weekly. Consultations concentrated on the needs and interests of adolescents and followed national guidelines for treatment changes. Reviews were arranged at 1 and 6 months, with an additional 3-month review if needed. The pupil's GP was kept informed. General practice care was according to the practice's usual treatment protocols. Primary outcomes were the proportion of pupils who had had an asthma review in 6 months, health-related quality of life and level of symptoms. Secondary outcomes were pupil knowledge and attitude to asthma, inhaler technique, the proportion taking inhaled steroids daily, school absence due to asthma, PEFR and pupil preference for the setting of care. Sample size was calculated to have an 80% chance of showing an increase from 40% to 60% having a review in 6 months and half a standard deviation improvement on the quality of life measure. Analysis was on an intention to treat basis. Results School clinic pupils were more likely to attend (91% vs. 51%). However, symptom control or quality of life were no better. School clinic pupils knew more about asthma, had a more positive attitude and better inhaler technique. Absence and PEFR showed no difference. 63% who attended school clinics preferred this model but, taking both groups together, just over half would prefer to attend their GP for follow-up. Cost of care (including practice, school clinic, hospital and medication) was £32.10 at school, £19.80 at the trial practices and £18.00 at control practices. Conclusions Previous evaluations of nurse-led asthma clinics in practice have also failed to show improvements in outcomes, though process measures do improve. This may be due to the need for nurses to refer patients to doctors for changes in medication, rather than doing this themselves. Some weaknesses in study design that may have affected outcome, but the essential conclusion is that nurse-led asthma clinics in school are not cost effective. The study does suggest that such clinics can reach a high proportion of adolescents, but for asthma at least this does not result in any measurable improvement in outcome. [source]

    Learner error, affectual stimulation, and conceptual change

    Michael Allen
    Abstract Pupils' expectation-related errors oppose the development of an appropriate scientific attitude towards empirical evidence and the learning of accepted science content, representing a hitherto neglected area of research in science education. In spite of these apparent drawbacks, a pedagogy is described that encourages pupils to allow their biases to improperly influence data collection and interpretation during practical work, in order to provoke emotional responses and subsequent engagement with the science. The usefulness of this approach is borne out quantitatively by findings from a series of three randomized experiments (n,=,158) which show superior gains using this pedagogy that are still significant 2 and 3 years after the initial treatment. In addition, pupils who experienced more intense emotions during treatment demonstrated the most gains after 6 weeks. This research is one element of a large-scale study of expectation-related observation in school science whose findings impact generally on the proper consideration of empirical evidence and the learning of science content. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 47:151,173, 2010 [source]

    The ,vigorous rule' of Bishop Lull: between Bonifatian mission and Carolingian church control

    James Palmer
    This paper argues that the reputation of St Boniface, one of the ,founders of Christian Europe', needs to be understood in relation to the career of Lull of Mainz, the saint's pupil and successor. It analyses Lull's literary, pastoral and missionary interests, as well as his political networks, to illustrate how he helped give form to the legends of Boniface and, in particular, Willibald's Vita Bonifatii and the Bonifatian letter collections. Study of the commemoration of Lull, principally in Mainz, Fulda, Hersfeld and Malmesbury, also reveals much about the ways Lull used the cult of Boniface to pursue a ,vigorous rule' over his flock in Mainz and in the process alienate many contemporaries. [source]

    Robust International Comparisons of Distributions of Disposable Income and Regional Public Goods

    ECONOMICA, Issue 303 2009
    The paper provides robust normative comparisons of 12 OECD countries based on their distributions of disposable income and access to two regional public goods: infant mortality and pupil,teacher ratios at public schools. Comparisons are performed using two and three-dimensional dominance criteria that coincide with the unanimity of utilitarian judgments taken over specific classes of utility functions. The criteria succeed in ranking conclusively about 30% of all possible comparisons in the two-dimensional case, compared with 67% for one-dimensional income-based comparisons and 6% for three-dimensional ones. Introducing local public goods seems to worsen the relative standing of Anglo-Saxon countries. [source]

    Friedrich Friese's Dialect Comedy of 1687: A Taste of Altenburg School Theatre

    Anna Carrdus
    The little-known work of Friedrich Friese, pupil and then teacher at the school in Altenburg during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, displays an interest in the popular culture of his day which he united with pedagogic responsibilities. His interest in the customs of the peasant and artisan classes is reflected in his preference for the comic genre, which traditionally focuses on behaviour and misbehaviour among the lower social levels. Friese's work offers insights into school thratre in Altenburg, which flourished in the seventeenth century but has as yet attracted little scholarly attention. The school not only put on hitherto unrecorded performances of plays by the well-known Christian Weise and Andreas Gryphius; between 1660 and 1703 it also presented independent dramas to mark the annual 'Gregoriusfest'. This civic school festival originated in ancient Rome and had many popular elements. Although it was widely celebrated in early modern Germany, celebration in Altenburg was particularly highly developed. Friese prepared several comedies for performance in 'Gregoriusfeste' as 'Nachspiele' to the main, more elevated dramatic pieces by the current Rector of the school. The text of his dialect comedy of 1687 is reprinted at the end of this article as a sample of his work and of Altenburg school theatre. [source]

    Electrically Active Artificial Pupil Showing Amoeba-Like Pseudopodial Deformation

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 28 2009
    Toshihiro Hirai
    A PVC gel pupil that can elongate and change its curvature in response to an applied voltage of 400,V, with a deformation time of about 6 s, is demosntrated. The displacement in the radial direction was about 470,,m, which corresponded to approximately 100% of the thickness of the pupil, with a leak current at the nanoampere level. [source]

    Attitudes to Making Art in the Primary School

    Robert Watts
    Recent research suggests that the majority of primary school teachers in the UK believe that the purpose of teaching art and design is to develop skills associated with creativity, communication and expression. This article is based on research into the attitudes held by primary school pupils towards making art. The reflective nature of many of the responses to the survey provides persuasive evidence of young children's capacity for absorbing relatively complex ideas, which in turn has implications for teacher expectations of pupil learning in art and design. [source]

    Group-based evaluations for pupil-on-teacher violence: The impact of teacher intervention strategy

    Claire Lawrence
    Abstract Although extreme violence to teachers is rare, the fact remains that in the UK, 29% of teachers report having been physically assaulted by a pupil (ATL, 2008a). The ways in which responsibility for such assaults are attributed can have legal, educational and managerial implications. In the current study, teachers (N,=,66), pupils (N,=,68) and parents (N,=,64) from a large secondary school in the UK read an incident report form outlining an incident depicting a pupil physically assaulting a teacher. The incident report was manipulated such that, prior to being assaulted, the teacher had either separated the assailant pupil from another pupil using a physical or non-physical intervention. Results revealed that participating parents' and teachers' evaluations of the assailant's parents and the teacher differed from those of pupils in several ways. The results are discussed in terms of group-based responsibility for deviant behaviour and implications for teacher behaviour in response to pupil on teacher violence. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Teacher-child interaction in the teaching of reading: a review of research perspectives over twenty-five years

    Ros Fisher
    Taking as a starting point a paper published in 1981, this paper considers the importance of interaction between teacher and pupil in learning to read. Twenty-five years ago, the study of classroom language was relatively new. Research perspectives have moved from describing the process of interaction between teacher and child to considering the outcomes. At the same time a greater awareness of the sociocultural nature of language and classrooms has developed. An enduring theme in research from a variety of perspectives has been the call for more extended opportunities for exchanges about texts and more reciprocity in teacher-child dialogue. Studies of classroom practice, however, evidence persistence in the use of triadic dialogue in which the teacher controls the interaction and effectively closes down discussion. Despite initiatives calling for high-quality interaction, it is argued here that there is still no agreement about what high-quality interaction should look like. [source]

    A Seven-Year Follow-Up Comparing Attendees and Nonattendees at a Statewide, School Employee Wellness Conference

    Gay James PhD Associate Professor
    ABSTRACT: This study involved a follow-up assessment of the status of school employee wellness programs in the same matched comparison groups examined in 1992. In spring 1999, surveys were mailed to the 98 Texas school districts that sent employees to the statewide health promotion conference at least once during 1988,1991, and to the matched comparison group of 98 nonattendees during 1988,1991. Groups were matched on geographical regions, enrollment, and expenditure per pupil. Follow-up survey response rates were 59% for the attendee group and 54% for the nonattendee group. Although the follow-up survey results indicated no significant differences between groups, attendee group respondents reported offering more active employee wellness programs. [source]

    Abstracts of the 8th Meeting of the Italian Peripheral Nerve Study Group: 84

    V Donadio
    The aim of the study is to determine the site of autonomic lesion in a patient with Holmes-Adie Syndrome (HAS) who subsequently developed generalized anhydrosis. We describe a 38-year-old woman who from age 33 showed a right pupil larger than the left and from age 34 complained of focal and, a year later, generalized anhydrosis. Neurological examination showed absent tendon reflexes and right mydriatic pupil. Brain MRI, EEG, motor and sensory conduction studies were normal. Serologic screening for autoimmune disease was negative. To determine the site of the autonomic lesion the patient underwent the following investigations: pupillary tests with a diluted solution of pilocarpine (0.062%) and adrenaline (0.1%); cardiovascular reflexes; thermoregulatory sweat test (TST); circadian rhythm of body core temperature (CRT°); sympathetic skin response (SSR); microneurography recording of skin sympathetic activity (SSA) from median and peroneal nerves, and muscle sympathetic activity (MSA) from peroneal nerve; skin biopsy to evaluated the eccrine glands. Pupillary tests showed postganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic denervation only of the right pupil. TST showed complete anhydrosis, SSR and SSA were absent and skin biopsy revealed normal morphology of the eccrine glands with hypotrophy of their structures. These results indicated a lesion of the postganglionic skin sympathetic fibers. Mechanisms for heat loss and conservation, cardiovascular reflexes and MSA were normal excluding a hypothalamic dysfunction or a more diffuse involvement of the autonomic nervous system. In conclusion, our patient showed a HAS associated with generalized anhydrosis and the autonomic investigations suggested underlying postganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic lesions. [source]


    G. De Joanna
    We describe two males, aged 41 and 55, come to our observation complaining of heat intolerance, abnormal increase in body temperature with minimal exercising, reduced sweating and, generalized fatigability; one of them had distal paresthesias. Neurologic evaluation showed bilateral Adie's tonic pupil and an absence of deep-tendon jerks. A diagnosis of Ross' Syndrome was advanced. Autonomic tests, nerve conduction study, H-reflex, computerized termoregulatory and pain thresholds, laser CO2 cortical evoked potentials, and skin biopsy were performed. One of them performed a histamine test and hand photopletismography resulted positive for sympathetic impairment, and pilocarpine pupil test that showed a parasympathetic denervation hypersensitivity. The following tests gave the same results in both patients: parasympathetic and most sympathetic tests were normal. Sympathetic skin response was absent and Minor test showed an almost complete absence of sweating. Sweating was possible only in two or three small areas. Positive pilocarpine test suggested a postganglionic involvement of sympathetic nervous system. Sensitive and motor nerve conduction velocities were normal, while H-reflex was not detectable. Termoregulatory and pain thresholds were abnormal. Laser CO2 cortical evoked potentials showed the absence of C fibre potentials, whereas A-, fibres response was abnormal in one of them. Hairy skin biopsy showed a definite reduction of sweat glands and of small vessel innervation; glabrous skin biopsy performed in one of them showed a reduced number of Meissner corpuscles. These findings suggest that in Ross' Syndrome the degenerative process can involve, besides the autonomic fibres, myelinated somatosensory fibres also. [source]

    The complexity of school and neighbourhood effects and movements of pupils on school differences in models of educational achievement

    George Leckie
    Summary., Traditional studies of school differences in educational achievement use multilevel modelling techniques to take into account the nesting of pupils within schools. However, educational data are known to have more complex non-hierarchical structures. The potential importance of such structures is apparent when considering the effect of pupil mobility during secondary schooling on educational achievement. Movements of pupils between schools suggest that we should model pupils as belonging to the series of schools that are attended and not just their final school. Since these school moves are strongly linked to residential moves, it is important to explore additionally whether achievement is also affected by the history of neighbourhoods that are lived in. Using the national pupil database, this paper combines multiple membership and cross-classified multilevel models to explore simultaneously the relationships between secondary school, primary school, neighbourhood and educational achievement. The results show a negative relationship between pupil mobility and achievement, the strength of which depends greatly on the nature and timing of these moves. Accounting for pupil mobility also reveals that schools and neighbourhoods are more important than shown by previous analysis. A strong primary school effect appears to last long after a child has left that phase of schooling. The additional effect of neighbourhoods, in contrast, is small. Crucially, the rank order of school effects across all types of pupil is sensitive to whether we account for the complexity of the multilevel data structure. [source]

    Agency conflicts between board and manager

    A discrete choice experiment in Flemish nonprofit schools
    Detecting agency problems is an important task when assessing the effectiveness of a nonprofit organization's governance. A first step is to examine the objectives of principals and agents and determine whether there is a systematic difference between them. Using a discrete choice experiment, we identify the objectives of board chairpersons (principals) and headmasters (agents) of Flemish nonprofit schools. We find systematic differences between the two groups. Of the seven possible objectives set out in the experiment, six are relevant for both headmasters and board chairpersons. For four of these, the preferences of both groups differ significantly. Whereas ideological values play an important role for both the board and the headmaster, they are significantly more important for the board. Both parties dislike having a large number of pupils, and the disutility is larger for the board. With respect to job satisfaction and pupil satisfaction, we find the opposite: while the board is prepared to give up pupil and job satisfaction in favor of the other objectives, these two objectives score very high on the priority list of the headmasters. [source]

    Migration and the Tiebout-Tullock Hypothesis Revisited

    Richard J. Cebula
    This study investigates, using state-level data for the period 2000,2005, the Tiebout hypothesis (as extended by Tullock) of "voting with one's feet." This analysis differs from previous related studies not only in its adoption of more current migration and other data but also in other ways. First, unlike most earlier related studies, it includes a separate measure of the overall cost of living; second, it examines per pupil (rather than per capita) outlays on public primary and secondary education; and third, in addition to property taxes, it also focuses on per capita state income tax burdens. Inclusion of the last of these variables in the analysis is based on studies that have found the existence of a state income tax to have influenced migration patterns and other studies that have found higher state income tax levels to have resulted in reduced per capita income growth over time. Moreover, including both property tax burdens and income tax burdens broadens the scope of the hypothesis. Strong empirical support for the Tiebout-Tullock hypothesis (as interpreted here) is obtained for the study period. [source]

    Extended wearing trial of Trifield lens device for ,tunnel vision'

    Russell L. Woods
    Abstract Severe visual field constriction (tunnel vision) impairs the ability to navigate and walk safely. We evaluated Trifield glasses as a mobility rehabilitation device for tunnel vision in an extended wearing trial. Twelve patients with tunnel vision (5,22° wide) due to retinitis pigmentosa or choroideremia participated in the 5-visit wearing trial. To expand the horizontal visual field, one spectacle lens was fitted with two apex-to-apex prisms that vertically bisected the pupil on primary gaze. This provides visual field expansion at the expense of visual confusion (two objects with the same visual direction). Patients were asked to wear these spectacles as much as possible for the duration of the wearing trial (median 8, range 6,60 weeks). Clinical success (continued wear, indicating perceived overall benefit), visual field expansion, perceived direction and perceived visual ability were measured. Of 12 patients, nine chose to continue wearing the Trifield glasses at the end of the wearing trial. Of those nine patients, at long-term follow-up (35,78 weeks), three reported still wearing the Trifield glasses. Visual field expansion (median 18, range 9,38°) was demonstrated for all patients. No patient demonstrated adaptation to the change in visual direction produced by the Trifield glasses (prisms). For reported difficulty with obstacles, some differences between successful and non-successful wearers were found. Trifield glasses provided reported benefits in obstacle avoidance to 7 of the 12 patients completing the wearing trial. Crowded environments were particularly difficult for most wearers. Possible reasons for long-term discontinuation and lack of adaptation to perceived direction are discussed. [source]

    Evaluation of the performance of accommodating IOLs using a paraxial optics analysis

    Jit Ale
    Abstract Purpose:, We employed an analytical approach to evaluate the key parameters for the potential design optimisation of accommodating intra-ocular lenses (AIOL) and to use these parameters to predict their accommodative performance. Methods:, Paraxial thin-lens equations to predict the accommodative performances of single-element (1E) and two-element (2E) AIOLs were developed. 2E-AIOLs with either mobile front or back lens elements were analysed as well as 1E-AIOL for their accommodative performance. A paraxial model including key ocular components (corneal surfaces, pupil and retina) as well as AIOL was used to evaluate the key control parameters and optimal design configurations. A range of variants of the model, representing varying powers of front and back optical elements and with either front or back optical element mobile was tested. Results:, Optimal accommodative performance of 2E-AIOL is governed by the power combinations of its optical elements; design variants with higher positive front element power produced greater accommodative efficacy, while mobility of the front element contributed more to the accommodative performance than the back element. The performance of 1E-AIOL is primarily governed by the power of the AIOL; the higher the AIOL power, the better the accommodative performance. Conclusions:, From an accommodative performance standpoint, the optimal design of 2E-AIOL should comprise a high plus power front element. Considering the maximum potential amounts of element translation available clinically, 2E-AIOLs are predicted to offer higher accommodative performance compared to 1E-AIOL. [source]

    The statistics of refractive error maps: managing wavefront aberration analysis without Zernike polynomials

    D. Robert Iskander
    Abstract The refractive error of a human eye varies across the pupil and therefore may be treated as a random variable. The probability distribution of this random variable provides a means for assessing the main refractive properties of the eye without the necessity of traditional functional representation of wavefront aberrations. To demonstrate this approach, the statistical properties of refractive error maps are investigated. Closed-form expressions are derived for the probability density function (PDF) and its statistical moments for the general case of rotationally-symmetric aberrations. A closed-form expression for a PDF for a general non-rotationally symmetric wavefront aberration is difficult to derive. However, for specific cases, such as astigmatism, a closed-form expression of the PDF can be obtained. Further, interpretation of the distribution of the refractive error map as well as its moments is provided for a range of wavefront aberrations measured in real eyes. These are evaluated using a kernel density and sample moments estimators. It is concluded that the refractive error domain allows non-functional analysis of wavefront aberrations based on simple statistics in the form of its sample moments. Clinicians may find this approach to wavefront analysis easier to interpret due to the clinical familiarity and intuitive appeal of refractive error maps. [source]

    The prospects for super-acuity: limits to visual performance after correction of monochromatic ocular aberration

    W. N. Charman
    Abstract It has recently been suggested that correction of the monochromatic aberration of the eye could lead to substantial improvements in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function. After consideration of the best-corrected visual acuity of normal eyes, the optical and neural limits to visual performance are reviewed. It is concluded that, even if current problems with the accuracy of the suggested techniques of aberration correction, through corneal excimer laser ablation or customised contact lenses, can be overcome, changes in monochromatic ocular aberration over time, the continuing presence of chromatic aberration, errors of focus associated with lags and leads in accommodation, and other factors, are likely to result in only minor improvements in the high-contrast acuity performance of most normal eyes being produced by attempted aberration control. Significant gains in contrast sensitivity might, however, be achievable, particularly under mesopic and scotopic conditions when the pupil is large, provided that correct focus can be maintained. In the immediate future, reduction of the high levels of aberration that are currently found in eyes that have undergone refractive surgery and in some abnormal eyes should bring useful benefits. [source]

    Normal values and standard deviations for pupil diameter and interpupillary distance in subjects aged 1 month to 19 years

    Colleen MacLachlan
    Normal values of pupil diameters and interpupillary distances (PDs) were measured in a population of 1311 subjects (in 4294 visits) ranging from 1 month of age to slightly over 19 years of age. Subjects in this study were recruited from birth announcements in a local newspaper for a developmental vision project. Pupil sizes were measured photographically when the corneas were illuminated by 15.9 ± 0.5 lux ambient illumination (i.e. under mesopic conditions). Interpupillary distance was measured with an interocular distance rule while the subject fixated an object at 0.66 m distance. These PD measurements were corrected for systematic measurement errors and to an infinite viewing distance using radii of ocular rotation based on age-dependent axial lengths. Means and S.D. were calculated for age, pupil diameter and PD for each 1-year group of male and female subjects. The second order regression equation for average pupil size as a function of age was determined: [males pupil diameter (in mm)=5.83 + 0.181*age in years , 0053*age in years2, r2=0.897; female pupil diameter=5.40 + 0.285*age in years , 0.0109*age in years2, r2=0.945]. The difference between male and female pupil sizes (mean male , female=0.13 mm) was marginally not significant (p < 0.054). The average corrected PDs as a function of age were found to approximate another second-order regression equation: (males PD=43.36 + 1.663*age in years , 0.034*age in years2, r2=0.986; females PD=41.76 + 1.891*age in years , 0.052*age in years2, r2=0.986). Male PD was wider than female PD by an average of 1.58 mm (p < 0.0003). As expected, the results of this study were similar to a preliminary investigation conducted by Thunyalukul et al. [Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.37 (1996) S731] on a portion of the present data set, and also very similar to data from another study of comparable racial composition using a different measurement method [Pryor, Pediatrics44 (1969) 973]. It was concluded that pupil diameter and PD increase more gradually than axial length of the eye in the first few years of life. The normal values and S.D. for both pupil size and PD determined in this study have important clinical implications as well as applications in the optical industry. [source]