Punishment

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Law and Criminology

Kinds of Punishment

  • capital punishment
  • corporal punishment
  • physical punishment


  • Selected Abstracts


    IMAGES OF GOD AND PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR CAPITAL PUNISHMENT: DOES A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH A LOVING GOD MATTER?,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    JAMES D. UNNEVER
    This study argues that the nature and intensity of a person's relationship with God creates a transposable cognitive schema that shapes people's views toward public policies such as executing convicted murderers. In this context, we investigate whether Americans who report having a close personal relationship with a loving God are less likely to support the death penalty. We hypothesize that such a relationship tempers the tendency to see punitiveness as an appropriate response to human failings. Individuals who hold a loving God image are more likely to believe that God responds to those who have "failed" or "sinned" by demonstrating unconditional love, forgiveness, and mercy. Accordingly, support for capital punishment is problematic because it contradicts the image of a merciful, forgiving deity; God's purpose,and admonition to believers,is to demonstrate compassion toward those who have trespassed against others. We test these possibilities using the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS). Controlling for a range of religious factors and other known predictors of death penalty attitudes, the results show that Americans with a personal relationship with a loving God are less likely to support capital punishment for convicted murderers. [source]


    A CROSS-CULTURAL EXAMINATION OF THE LINK BETWEEN CORPORAL PUNISHMENT AND ADOLESCENT ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    RONALD L. SIMONS
    Several studies with older children have reported a positive relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and child conduct problems. This has lead some social scientists to conclude that physical discipline fosters antisocial behavior. In an attempt to avoid the methodological difficulties that have plagued past research on this issue, the present study used a proportional measure of corporal punishment, controlled for earlier behavior problems and other dimensions of parenting, and tested for interaction and curvilinear effects. The analyses were performed using a sample of Iowa families that displayed moderate use of corporal punishment and a Taiwanese sample that demonstrated more frequent and severe use of physical discipline, especially by fathers. For both samples, level of parental warmth/control (i.e., support, monitoring, and inductive reasoning) was the strongest predictor of adolescent conduct problems. There was little evidence of a relationship between corporal punishment and conduct problems for the Iowa sample. For the Taiwanese families, corporal punishment was unrelated to conduct problems when mothers were high on warmth/control, but positively associated with conduct problems when they were low on warmtwcontrol, An interaction between corporal punishment and warmth/Wcontro1 was found for Taiwanese fathers as well. For these fathers, there was also evidence of a curvilinear relationship, with the association between corporal punishment and conduct problems becoming much stronger at extreme levels of corporal punishment. Overall, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that it is when parents engage in severe forms of corporal punishment, or administer physical discipline in the absence of parental warmth and involvement, that children feel angry and unjustly treated, defy parental authority, and engage in antisocial behavior. [source]


    DELIBERATING CRIME AND PUNISHMENT: A WAY OUT OF GET TOUGH JUSTICE?

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2006
    VANESSA BARKER
    First page of article [source]


    EXECUTING THE INNOCENT AND SUPPORT FOR CAPITAL PUNISHMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC POLICY

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2005
    JAMES D. UNNEVER
    Research Summary: The issue of whether innocent people have been executed is now at the center of the debate concerning the legitimacy of capital punishment. The purpose of this research was to use data collected by the Gallup Organization in 2003 to investigate whether Americans who believed that an innocent person had been executed were less likely to support capital punishment. We also explored whether the association varied by race, given that African Americans are disproportionately affected by the death penalty. Our results indicated that three-quarters of Americans believed that an innocent person had been executed for a crime they did not commit within the last five years and that this belief was associated with lower levels of support for capital punishment, especially among those who thought this sanction was applied unfairly. In addition, our analyses revealed that believing an innocent person had been executed had a stronger association with altering African American than white support for the death penalty. Policy Implications: A key claim of death penalty advocates is that a high proportion of the public supports capital punishment. In this context, scholars opposing this sanction have understood the importance of showing that the public's support for executing offenders is contingent and shallower than portrayed by typical opinion polls. The current research joins this effort by arguing that the prospect of executing innocents potentially impacts public support for the death penalty and, in the least, creates ideological space for a reconsideration of the legitimacy of capital punishment. [source]


    FATHERS, SONS, AND THE STATE: Discipline and Punishment in a Wolof Hinterland

    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    DONNA L. PERRY
    ABSTRACT This essay builds on fieldwork in rural Senegal to examine three cases in which elder household heads called on gendarmes to physically discipline rebellious youths. These cases, which revolved around harsh acts of corporal punishment, invite inquiry into common assumptions about African families and states. The first assumption is the common dichotomy drawn between African youths, portrayed as modern and menacing, and African elders, portrayed as "traditional" and hence benign. The second assumption is the dichotomy drawn between the African family, conceived as solidary and nurturing, and the African state, conceived as alien and predatory. In examining these cases of discipline and punishment, this essay reveals the ever-shifting power relations that link Wolof household heads, dependent junior males, and state agents, and simultaneously introduces new questions about the morality of farmer,state relations and generational conflict. My analysis reveals the spatial geography of Senegal's youth crisis, which takes different forms in rural and urban locales. The anxiety of rural patriarchs is fed by a fear-mongering media obsessed with youthful anarchy in the cities, and a long-standing political rhetoric about the threat of rural out-migration. Elder men in the countryside, who experience diminishing household authority under neoliberalism, make proactive efforts to keep the urban youth crisis at bay. They seek to augment their domestic power by reestablishing links with a state that has long bolstered patriarchy but whose power is currently in decline. By lending patriarchs their coercive force, gendarmes attempt to accomplish through private, indirect means, what the postcolonial state is unable to do: maintain social order by reining in disruptive youths. The harsh disciplinary measures that gendarmes employ are not alien to Wolof culture, but integral to Wolof conceptions of child rearing. [source]


    Default and Punishment in General Equilibrium,

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 1 2005
    Pradeep Dubey
    We extend the standard model of general equilibrium with incomplete markets to allow for default and punishment by thinking of assets as pools. The equilibrating variables include expected delivery rates, along with the usual prices of assets and commodities. By reinterpreting the variables, our model encompasses a broad range of adverse selection and signalling phenomena in a perfectly competitive, general equilibrium framework. Perfect competition eliminates the need for lenders to compute how the size of their loan or the price they quote might affect default rates. It also makes for a simple equilibrium refinement, which we propose in order to rule out irrational pessimism about deliveries of untraded assets. We show that refined equilibrium always exists in our model, and that default, in conjunction with refinement, opens the door to a theory of endogenous assets. The market chooses the promises, default penalties, and quantity constraints of actively traded assets. [source]


    Personality, expectations, and response strategies in multiple-choice question examinations, in university students: a test of Gray's hypotheses

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 1 2004
    César Ávila
    The relation between personality and type of error made in multiple-choice examinations when correction for guessing is applied was investigated across two studies. Our general hypothesis was that disinhibited subjects (those scoring high on the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scale and/or low on the Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) scale) would make more incorrect responses and fewer omission errors (blanks) than inhibited subjects (those with high SP and/or low SR scores). The meta-analyses of 19 examinations in study 1 confirmed our hypotheses for SP, SR, and extraversion. Regression analyses on effect sizes revealed that SP differences were obtained in examinations with low marks, whereas SR differences were obtained in examinations with more responses and fewer questions. Study 2 showed that a low-mark expectation increased omissions in high-SP subjects, whereas a high-mark expectation increased incorrect responses in high-SR subjects. These results suggest two different mechanisms mediating inhibition/disinhibition: one associated with aversive motivation, and the other with appetitive motivation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Facing guilt: Role of negative affectivity, need for reparation, and fear of punishment in leading to prosocial behaviour and aggression

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 3 2001
    Gian Vittorio Caprara
    The present study aims to further corroborate and to extend the scope of previous findings regarding the path of influence between negative affectivity, need for reparation and fear of punishment when examining the determinants and the motivational components of guilt. Data were collected from three different European countries (i.e. Italy, Hungary, and the Czech Republic). About 1100 young adolescents were involved in the research. The generalizability of a nomological network linking individual differences in Negative Affectivity to Need for Reparation, Fear of Punishment, Prosocial Behaviour, and Aggression has been investigated across countries and gender, by means of structural equation modelling. Need for Reparation turns out to be positively related to Prosocial Behaviour and negatively related to Aggression. Fear for Punishment turns out to be positively related to Aggression and negatively related to Prosocial Behaviour, with the exception of Hungary. Alternative paths of influence among considered variables have been examined. Practical implications for prevention and education are underlined. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Punishment as restoration of group and offender values following a transgression: value consensus through symbolic labelling and offender reform

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Tyler G. Okimoto
    Justice theory has suggested that transgressions pose a threat to the shared values that underlie broken rules or laws, suggesting that in order to address concerns over the values violated by an offence, perceived consensus regarding those values must be reaffirmed. However, little empirical research has been conducted examining how legal responses can address those value concerns. In the current research we argue that punishments, as a common response to injustice, can reaffirm perceived value consensus through two routes: (1) by symbolically labelling the offence as against group values, thus reinforcing values towards observers and (2) by attempting to reform the offender, thus reinforcing values towards the offender. Consistent with this argument, three empirical studies showed that the public and inclusive nature of punishment helps restore a perceived value consensus as such characteristics facilitate these two processes. Moreover, these characteristics had a positive effect on perceived punishment appropriateness particularly when value concerns were heightened. These findings implicate symbolic labelling and offender reform as two processes by which punishments can restore the perception of value consensus and suggest that these processes are integral to justice restoration through punishment when value consensus is a dominant concern. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Retributivist Arguments against Capital Punishment

    JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY, Issue 2 2004
    Thom Brooks
    First page of article [source]


    Economic Growth and Potential Punishment Under Dictatorship

    KYKLOS INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, Issue 2 2007
    Abel Escribà-Folch
    SUMMARY This paper explores whether the probability of being punished after losing power leads dictators to restrain their level of predation and, thus, increase economic growth. To do so, a simple model of predatory rule is developed, and the consequences of an increasing probability of punishment after loosing power explored. New data on dictators' post-exit fate have permitted to estimate the predicted probability of punishment taking place by using multinomial logit. Outgoing dictators' strength and the international context are shown to be the main determinants of post-exit scenarios. The probability of punishment is proven to have a positive and significant effect on the rate of growth of GDP under alternative specifications of growth regressions. [source]


    The Shifting Sands of Punishment in China in the Era of "Harmonious Society"

    LAW & POLICY, Issue 3 2010
    SUSAN TREVASKES
    This article about the politics of punishment in China today follows some of the political machinations involved in the development of a new policy called "Balancing Leniency and Severity." It treats this new policy as an exemplar of how politics works in the Hu Jintao era to change the way crimes are addressed in judicial decision making. This paper underscores the important ways in which political ideology informs criminal justice policy and practice in China. It examines a number of stages of development within the last decade during which Balancing Leniency and Severity has emerged as a foundational criminal justice policy. [source]


    Converging on the Poles: Contemporary Punishment and Democracy in Hemispheric Perspective

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 3 2005
    Angelina Snodgrass Godoy
    In this article I place U.S. punishment trends in comparative context, seeking to show that the contemporary penal regime in the United States resembles patterns of governance prevalent throughout Latin America, the world's most economically unequal region. In both the U.S. and Latin America, I argue, neoliberal reforms have produced societies characterized by ever greater divides between the haves and have-nots, and state criminal justice institutions increasingly position themselves to police this boundary rather than mitigate its effects. In this article, I examine these trends through the lens of wars on crime and terrorism, arguing that in societies polarized between a dwindling set of haves and an ever more numerous (and potentially unruly) group of have-nots, an inexorable pull makes criminal justice institutions more aggressive in their enforcement of class and racial boundaries. Hallmarks include a widening of the criminal justice net (by broadening definitions of criminal activity, for example) and a deepening of the deprivations visited on those ensnared within it. The article concludes with reflections on the need for reconfiguring conceptions of human rights and their relation to security. [source]


    Religion, Historical Contingencies, and Institutional Conditions of Criminal Punishment: The German Case and Beyond

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 2 2004
    Joachim J. Savelsberg
    Religion and historical contingencies help explain cross-national and historic variation of criminal law and punishment. Case studies from German history suggest: First, the Calvinist affiliation of early Prussian monarchs advanced the centralization of power, rationalization of government bureaucracy, and elements of the welfare state, factors that are likely to affect punishment. Second, the dominant position of Lutheranism in the German population advanced the institutionalization of a separation of forgiveness in the private sphere versus punishment of "outer behavior" by the state. Third, these principles became secularized in philosophy, jurisprudence, and nineteenth-century criminal codes. Fourth, partly due to historical contingencies, these codes remained in effect into post,World War II Germany. Fifth, the experience of the Nazi regime motivated major changes in criminal law, legal thought, public opinion, and religious ideas about punishment in the Federal Republic of Germany. Religion thus directly and indirectly affects criminal law and punishment, in interaction with historical contingencies, institutional conditions of the state, and other structural factors. [source]


    Status Disparities in the Capital of Capital Punishment

    LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 4 2009
    Scott Phillips
    Numerous studies have examined the influence of victim race on capital punishment, with a smaller number focused on victim gender. But death penalty scholars have largely ignored victim social status. Drawing on Black's (1976) multidimensional theoretical concept, the current research examines the impact of victim social status on the district attorney's decision to seek the death penalty and the jury's decision to impose a death sentence. The data include the population of cases indicted for capital murder in Harris County (Houston), Texas, from 1992 to 1999 (n=504). The findings suggest that victim social status has a robust influence on the ultimate state sanction: Death was more likely to be sought and imposed on behalf of high-status victims who were integrated, sophisticated, conventional, and respectable. The research also has implications beyond capital punishment. Because victim social status has rarely been investigated in the broader sentencing literature, Black's concept provides a theoretical tool that could be used to address such an important omission. [source]


    Prisoners' Adjustment, Correctional Officers, and Context: The Foreground and Background of Punishment in Late Modernity

    LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 2 2008
    Mike Vuolo
    Past research indicates that front-line criminal justice workers are the critical players in determining whether innovations in penal policy are realized. Recent attempts to understand the diversity in the application of the penal harm movement have, however, sidestepped the primary audience of these policies, the population of convicted offenders. This article uses data from two prisons to examine the effects of correctional officers on women prisoners' adjustment to prison life. Using regression models and interview data, we find that correctional officer behavior has a profound impact on women's ability to adjust to prison, and this effect is largely independent of the prisoners' characteristics and the institutions in which they are housed. On a theoretical level, the findings speak to recent calls to examine the background and foreground of penal culture. On a practical level, they highlight the need to understand the environments from which women are emerging, not just the communities into which they are released. [source]


    Lethal Punishment: Lynchings and Legal Executions in the South by Margaret Vandiver

    LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 1 2007
    Timothy W. Clark
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Crime and Punishment: Rehabilitating Retribution as a Justification for Organizational Criminal Liability

    AMERICAN BUSINESS LAW JOURNAL, Issue 1 2010
    Regina A. Robson
    First page of article [source]


    Criminal Justice and Legal Reparations as an Alternative to Punishment

    NOUS, Issue 2001
    Geoffrey Sayre-McCord
    First page of article [source]


    The Cultural Lives of Capital Punishment: Comparative Perspectives by Austin Sarat and Christian Boulanger

    POLAR: POLITICAL AND LEGAL ANTHROPOLOGY REVIEW, Issue 2 2008
    Mateo Taussig-Rubbo
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law , By Mark A. Drumbl

    POLITICS & POLICY, Issue 6 2008
    Jose Jorge Eufracio
    First page of article [source]


    Punishment and Forgiveness in Israel's Migratory Campaign , By Won W. Lee

    RELIGIOUS STUDIES REVIEW, Issue 2 2007
    Tyler Mayfield
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    "Some Punishment Should Be Devised": Parents, Children, and the State in Victorian London

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 4 2009
    Sascha Auerbach
    First page of article [source]


    Criminal Punishment and Restorative Justice: Past, Present and Future Perspectives by D.J. Cornwell and Doing Justice Better: The Politics of Restorative Justice by D.J. Cornwell

    THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 4 2008
    MARTIN WRIGHT
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Probation and the Tragedy of Punishment

    THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 3 2007
    ROB CANTON
    Values should be expressed in action; reciprocally, experiences of trying to realise aims and values should contribute to their progressive refinement. These considerations and awareness of diversity imply wide discretion and other characteristics that sit uncomfortably with contemporary managerialism. Probation is a morally significant activity and not reducible to techniques of effectiveness. [source]


    Women and Community Punishment: The Probation Hostel as a Semi-Penal Institution for Female Offenders

    THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 2 2004
    Alana Barton
    This article will argue that many of the significant features of the early semi-penal institutions can be found in contemporary institutions for women, specifically probation hostels. This article will identify three defining characteristics of the original semi-penal institutions and, by drawing on original empirical research conducted in the early 1990s, apply them to a women's probation hostel. Through this analysis the article will highlight some themes of continuity in the history of ,community' punishment for women. [source]


    Crime and Punishment on the Margins of the Postapartheid State

    ANTHROPOLOGY & HUMANISM, Issue 1 2003
    Lars Buur
    This article examines how communities on the margin of the new postapartheid state reclaim "stolen goods" and deal with "criminals" in ways that inflict physical punishment and are often profoundly brutal or violent. It explores how the use of corporal punishment in the form of beatings and other forms of inflicting pain comes to be seen as both necessary and legitimate by the affected communities. Crime is often articulated by township communities as their biggest obstacle to accessing development funding, investments, and employment initiatives. By drawing on past forms of organization from the struggle against apartheid, township residents, believing that the police are unable to preserve law and order, take the law into their own hands. These residents have created a range of local security structures to deal with crime,some well organized, others working on a more ad hoc basis. The kind of "justice" these emerging structures stand for is often the only kind of justice that large numbers of citizens in the South African townships can afford. The particular manner in which criminals are dealt with in the township is intimately related to the socioeconomic marginalization that most township residents encounter on a daily basis. [source]


    DEFECTING FROM R&D COOPERATION

    AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC PAPERS, Issue 3 2006
    GAMAL ATALLAH
    This paper introduces defection into the strategic R&D model. In defecting, a firm cheats by choosing its R&D expenditures to maximise its own profits, instead of maximising the joint profits of the cooperating firms. Two cooperative environments are considered: R&D cartelisation, where firms coordinate R&D activities; and RJV cartelisation, where firms coordinate R&D activities and share information. Under R&D cartelisation, defection entails an increase (decrease) in R&D and effective spillovers for low (high) spillovers; whereas under RJV cartelisation, defection always entails a decrease in R&D and effective spillovers. Under R&D cartelisation, consumer surplus and total welfare increase (decrease) with defection when spillovers are low (high). Whereas consumer surplus and welfare always decrease with defection under RJV cartelisation. Under R&D cartelisation, the incentives for defection first decrease then increase with spillovers; they also increase with the size of the market, but decline with production costs and R&D costs. Moreover, the incentives for defection are higher under RJV cartelisation. With low spillovers under RJV cartelisation, a firm prefers to be subject to defection by the other firm, to not cooperating at all. Punishment for defection is considered, under the form of abstaining from information sharing. [source]


    Some Australian Children's Perceptions of Physical Punishment in Childhood

    CHILDREN & SOCIETY, Issue 6 2008
    Bernadette J. Saunders
    Despite ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, children remain the only people in Australia against whom violence may be justified as discipline. This article presents findings from qualitative research conducted in the State of Victoria, in which children were invited to contextualise incidents of physical punishment by describing the experience from different standpoints and reflecting on the feelings and motivations of victims and perpetrators. The research provides new insights into children's experiences of childhood ,discipline', as children reveal the physical and emotional impact of being hit by a parent, the futility of ,physical punishment', parents' confusing reactions and children's awareness of double standards. Children suggest more positive ways to communicate and to resolve conflict, and provide insightful comments that have the potential to enlighten adults' thinking about the issue. [source]


    Women and punishment: the struggle for justice.

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 1 2004
    Edited by Pat Carlen.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]