Psychopathy

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Terms modified by Psychopathy

  • psychopathy checklist
  • psychopathy score

  • Selected Abstracts


    EMOTIONAL PROCESSING IN PSYCHOPATHY

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2006
    Article first published online: 7 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Psychopathy and offence severity in sexually aggressive and violent youth

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2009
    Amber Fougere
    Background,A large proportion of violent crimes are committed by youths. Youths with psychopathic traits may have a higher risk for recidivism and violence. Aims/hypotheses,Our aim was to compare sexually aggressive with violent young men on offence severity and psychopathy. Three hypotheses were proposed: first, young men with previous offences would display a progressive increase in seriousness of offence during their criminal career; secondly, the sexually aggressive and violent young men would not differ in scores on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV); but, thirdly, PCL:YV scores would be positively correlated with the severity of the index crime, as measured by the Cormier,Lang System for Quantifying Criminal History. Methods,Information was collected from the files of 40 young men in conflict with the law, and the PCL:Youth Version (YV) rated from this by trained raters. Results,The offences of these young men became more serious over time, but we found no association between PCL:YV scores and offence type or seriousness. Conclusions and implications,This exploratory research suggests the importance of understanding the progression in offending careers, but a limited role for the PCL:YV in doing so. Given the small sample size, however, and the limit on access to information about details of age, the findings need replication. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Psychopathy and Axis I psychiatric disorders among criminal offenders: relationships to impulsive and proactive aggression

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2010
    Marc T. Swogger
    Abstract Both psychopathology and aggression are heterogeneous constructs. Determining which forms of psychopathology relate to risk for different classes of aggressive behavior has implications for risk recognition and management. This study examined the relationships of impulsive aggression (IA) and proactive aggression (PA) to psychopathy and symptoms of several Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Axis I disorders in a sample of criminal offenders. Results replicated prior findings from community samples of a broad relationship between psychopathology and IA. PA was related only to psychopathy. An interaction was found whereby IA was associated with impulsive,antisocial traits of psychopathy only for individuals with moderate to high levels of generalized anxiety. Results indicate that assessing and treating several Axis I disorders in offenders may decrease risk for IA. Moreover, current findings raise the possibility that generalized anxiety is a key, modifiable component of the relationship between IA and impulsive,antisocial traits. Aggr. Behav. 36:45,53, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Relationship between psychopathy and indirect aggression use in a noncriminal population

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 5 2009
    Gemma C. Warren
    Abstract Psychopathy has long been associated with increased use of direct aggression and violence, especially among male inmates. Little research has, of yet, considered the relation between psychopathy and indirect forms of aggression. The current research sought to investigate the relationship between psychopathy and indirect aggression in a noncriminal sample. The results indicated that there was a strong relationship between psychopathic traits and indirect aggression, with strong correlations between indirect aggression and both factor 1 (coldheartedness) and factor 3 (impulsive antisociality). This association remained significant even after the effects of direct aggression had been controlled for. Path analysis indicated that both direct and indirect aggression was underpinned by the same psychopathy factors. This suggests that high psychopathy scorers will utilize direct and indirect aggression equally and, as such, the choice of one type of aggression over the other may be dependant on either situational factors or external moderators. Aggr. Behav. 35:408,421, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Psychopathy: A confusing clinical construct

    JOURNAL OF FORENSIC NURSING, Issue 1 2008
    BSc. (Hons.) Psych., Christine A. Kirkman C. Psychol., R.M.N.
    Abstract Although psychopathy has traditionally been cited as a disorder of personality, confusion arises as the term is used interchangeably with the terms antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder, both of which are largely behaviorally based. This paper aims to provide an overview of the literature on the topic of psychopathy, which examines this conundrum. Included in the discussion are definitions of psychopathy, incidence, approaches to diagnosis, and the debates that surround causes, manifestations, and treatability. Experimental studies and theoretical papers have been included if considered to be informative and of relevance to forensic nursing practice. The review demonstrates that studies are fragmented and no clear consensus seems to emerge concerning any of the discussion areas or even the construct of psychopathy itself. It is concluded that further research is required in psychopathy as encountered in both institutional and community settings. Until complete clarification is provided by the research community, forensic nurses need to maintain positive views about their own role when working with people with this challenging condition and strive to maintain a therapeutic ward atmosphere. [source]


    The Intergenerational Cycle of Criminality,Association with Psychopathy,

    JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 1 2010
    Eila Repo-Tiihonen M.D., Ph.D.
    Abstract:, Preventive interventions early in life are likely to lower the risk of intergenerational transmission of criminal behavior. We investigated if psychopathy among homicidal offenders is associated with criminal offending among the offenders' offspring. The basic sample consisted of consecutive Finnish homicide offenders (during 1995,2004) who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and rated for a file-based PCL-R, and their offspring. Criminal behavior among both genders of the offspring was more common than in the general population. In general, the offspring's crimes against others (e.g., threat, intimidation, deprivation of freedom, breach of domicile) were associated with their parent's psychopathy. A grandfather's major mental disorder was associated with a high rate of crime committed by the offspring. Especially, the sons of male psychopathic homicidal offenders had the highest rate of committing crimes, which was often expressed as vandalism. However, both genders of offspring seem to require special preventive programs to ameliorate these problems. [source]


    Comparing Two Alternative Measures of General Personality in the Assessment of Psychopathy: A Test of the NEO PI-R and the MPQ

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 4 2009
    Eric T. Gaughan
    ABSTRACT This study examined the interrelations between two measures of personality, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen & Waller, 2008), and their relations with psychopathy in a sample of undergraduates. Results revealed good convergence between conceptually related personality traits; however, the NEO PI-R facets accounted for more variance in the MPQ subscales (mean R2=.49) than did MPQ subscales in NEO PI-R facets (mean R2=.35). Both accounted for substantial proportions of variance in psychopathy scores, although the NEO PI-R accounted for larger proportions and manifested greater incremental validity when using the broader domains of each measure; the differences decreased when the narrower facets/subscales were used. The results suggest that, although both measures assess psychopathy-related traits, the NEO PI-R provides a more complete description because of its assessment of interpersonal antagonism and the central role of this construct in psychopathy. [source]


    Is There a Cure for Corporate "Psychopathy"?

    AMERICAN BUSINESS LAW JOURNAL, Issue 1-6 2005
    Ian B. Lee
    [source]


    Violent crimes and their relationship to personality disorders,

    PERSONALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2007
    Michael H. Stone
    Persons committing murder and other forms of violent crime are likely to exhibit a personality disorder (PD) of one type or another. Essentially any personality disorder can be associated with violent crime, with the possible exception of avoidant PD. This includes those described in DSM as well as other disorders such as sadistic PD and psychopathy. The latter two, along with antisocial and paranoid PDs, are the most common personality accompaniments of violent crime. Narcissistic traits (if not narcissistic PD (NPD) itself) are almost universal in this domain, since violent offenders usually place their own desires and urges far above those of other persons. While admixtures of traits from several disorders are common among violent offenders, certain ones are likely to be the main disorder: antisocial PD, Psychopathy, Sadistic PD, Paranoid PD and NPD. Instrumental (as opposed to impulsive) spousal murders are strongly associated with NPD. Men committing serial sexual homicide usually show psychopathy and sadistic PD; half these men also show schizoid PD. Mass murderers usually show strong paranoid traits. With a focus on murder, clinical examples drawn from the crime literature and from the author's personal interviews reflect 14 varieties of personality disorder. Animal torture before adulthood is an important predictor of future violent (including sadistic) crime. Whereas many antisocial persons are eventually capable of rehabilitation, this is rarely the case with psychopathic or sadistic persons. Suggestions for future research are offered. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Visual P3 amplitude and self-reported psychopathic personality traits: Frontal reduction is associated with self-centered impulsivity

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Scott R. Carlson
    Abstract Past studies have examined P3 amplitude as an index of cognitive function related to psychopathy with mixed results. Psychopathy is a heterogeneous set of dissociable traits, and no previous study has examined relationships between P3 and specific traits. A Two Process Theory (TPT) of psychopathy has recently been advanced predicting that P3 reductions are related to only one dimension. We evaluated the relationship between P3 and the two factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) in 96 undergraduates who performed a visual task. One factor of the PPI, Self-Centered Impulsivity, is related to the dimension of the TPT predicted to underlie P3 reduction. Frontal amplitude reduction was uniquely and inversely related to this trait. The other PPI factor, Fearless Dominance, was associated with faster reaction times. Future work on psychopathic personality and P3 should evaluate whether relationships are unique to one personality dimension. [source]


    Corporate psychopathy: Talking the walk,

    BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 2 2010
    Paul Babiak Ph.D.
    There is a very large literature on the important role of psychopathy in the criminal justice system. We know much less about corporate psychopathy and its implications, in large part because of the difficulty in obtaining the active cooperation of business organizations. This has left us with only a few small-sample studies, anecdotes, and speculation. In this study, we had a unique opportunity to examine psychopathy and its correlates in a sample of 203 corporate professionals selected by their companies to participate in management development programs. The correlates included demographic and status variables, as well as in-house 360 assessments and performance ratings. The prevalence of psychopathic traits,as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist,Revised (PCL-R) and a Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) "equivalent",was higher than that found in community samples. The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that the underlying latent structure of psychopathy in our corporate sample was consistent with that model found in community and offender studies. Psychopathy was positively associated with in-house ratings of charisma/presentation style (creativity, good strategic thinking and communication skills) but negatively associated with ratings of responsibility/performance (being a team player, management skills, and overall accomplishments). Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Psychopathy in adolescent female offenders: an item response theory analysis of the psychopathy checklist: youth version

    BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 1 2006
    Crystal L. Schrum M.A.
    The present study examined the applicability of the PCL:YV items to a sample of detained adolescent girls. Item response theory (IRT) was used to analyze test and item functioning of the PCL:YV. Examination of IRT trace lines indicated that the items most discriminating of the underlying construct of psychopathy included "callousness and a lack of empathy", "conning and manipulation", and "a grandiose sense of self-worth". Results from the analyses also demonstrated that the items least discriminating in this sample, or least useful for identifying psychopathy, included "poor anger control", "shallow affect", or engaging in a "serious violation of conditional release". Consistent with previous research (Cooke & Michie, 1997; Hare, 2003), interpersonal and affective components of psychopathy provided more information than behavioral features. Moreover, although previous research has also found affective features to provide the most information in past studies, it was interpersonal features of psychopathy in this case, followed by affective features, that provided greater levels of information. Implications of these results are discussed. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Facets on the psychopathy checklist screening version and instrumental violence in forensic psychiatric patients

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2010
    Jenny Laurell
    Background,There is a recognised relationship between psychopathy and instrumental violence, but not all violence by people who meet the criteria for psychopathy is instrumental. Aims,Our aims were to compare offence types among forensic psychiatric patients with and without the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) criteria for psychopathy. Our specific questions were whether factor 1 , the interpersonal affective dimension , was related to instrumentality and on severity of the violent crime. Our hypothesis was that the relationship between psychopathy and instrumental violence would be dependent on the severity of the violent crime. Methods,Sixty-five male patients at the forensic psychiatric hospital in Sundsvall, all with a violent criminal history, were assessed for psychopathy through interview and records using the PCL: SV. Severity and the instrumentality of their previous violence were coded using the Cornell coding guide for violent incidents. Results,The interpersonal features of psychopathy (the interpersonal facet), and only the interpersonal features were significantly associated with instrumentality and severity of violence. Instrumentality was also significantly related to the severity of the violence, independent of psychopathy score. Conclusions,The results indicated that, at least among forensic psychiatric patients, planning is more likely than not with respect to serious crimes. The specific link between interpersonal features of psychopathy and instrumental and severe violence suggests potential clinical value in recognising subtypes of psychopathy. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    What imaging tells us about violence in anti-social men

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2010
    Mairead C. DolanArticle first published online: 8 JUN 2010
    This paper provides an overview of imaging studies in samples of men with personality disorder (PD) who have been violent. Mention is also made of the work of two groups that have looked at the neural correlates of violence across diagnostic categories, including schizophrenia and anti-social PD given their relevance in the field. The paper focuses on the notion that aggressive behaviour can be conceptualised in terms of at least two types, reactive and pro-active, and that few studies separate them. The neuro-anatomical basis of aggression and associated neurobehavioural theories are discussed in relation to clinical disorders (mainly anti-social personality pathology) associated with these different types of aggressive behaviour. Structural (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography, fMRI, single-photon emission tomography) studies with violent people variously characterised as anti-social or having psychopathy will be critically reviewed. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Do early therapeutic alliance, motivation, and stages of change predict therapy change for high-risk, psychopathic violent prisoners?

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2010
    Devon L. L. Polaschek
    Background,Examination of the extent of offenders' engagement in change, and in rehabilitation programmes, is important to understanding success or failure following rehabilitation. In treatment programmes, the alliance between therapist and offender, and the therapy process itself appear central to progress offenders make that may reduce their criminal risk. But research with offenders seldom has measured therapeutic alliance and clinical writing suggests that it is difficult to form an alliance with those not ready to change their behaviour; especially with higher risk and psychopathic offenders. Aims and Methods,This study outlines the course of the therapeutic alliance in an 8-month treatment programme for high-risk, PCL-psychopathic violent prisoners. It examines relationships between early-treatment therapeutic alliance, therapists' global ratings of motivation to change, and initial stage of change on dynamic risk factors. In addition, it investigates which factors best predict who will complete treatment and change behaviourally during treatment. Conclusion,In this challenging, high-needs client group, early-programme stage of change, therapists' perceptions of motivation, therapeutic alliance and psychopathy did not predict how much change prisoners made. Regardless of initial levels, prisoners whose alliance increased the most over the course of treatment made the most change. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Engagement in a medium secure personality disorder service: A comparative study of psychological functioning and offending outcomes

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2010
    Lucy McCarthy
    Background,Specialist treatment programmes for personality disordered offenders suffer from high rates of non-completion. This has important consequences for service providers and individual patients. Method,Data from hospital records and the Offenders Index were compared for groups of treatment completers (n = 22) and non-completers (n = 59) discharged from a specialist treatment programme. Results,Twenty-seven per cent of patients completed treatment, 37% were expelled for rule breaking and 35% disengaged early from treatment. Psychometric assessments of anger expression and anxiety showed no differences between the groups, however, treatment completers showed lower levels of impulsivity and psychopathy than either of the non-completer groups. Rates of post-discharge offending for grave and standard list offences were 56.8 and 10.8%, respectively. Conclusions,Despite careful selection methods, a large proportion of personality-disordered patients admitted to specialist units failed to complete treatment. Psychometric assessments of anger expression, anxiety and impulsivity showed limited utility in differentiating treatment completers and non-completers. Sample size limitations in this naturalistic follow-up impacted on the interpretation of differences observed between the groups on the primary outcome measure of re-offending after discharge. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Psychopathy and offence severity in sexually aggressive and violent youth

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2009
    Amber Fougere
    Background,A large proportion of violent crimes are committed by youths. Youths with psychopathic traits may have a higher risk for recidivism and violence. Aims/hypotheses,Our aim was to compare sexually aggressive with violent young men on offence severity and psychopathy. Three hypotheses were proposed: first, young men with previous offences would display a progressive increase in seriousness of offence during their criminal career; secondly, the sexually aggressive and violent young men would not differ in scores on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV); but, thirdly, PCL:YV scores would be positively correlated with the severity of the index crime, as measured by the Cormier,Lang System for Quantifying Criminal History. Methods,Information was collected from the files of 40 young men in conflict with the law, and the PCL:Youth Version (YV) rated from this by trained raters. Results,The offences of these young men became more serious over time, but we found no association between PCL:YV scores and offence type or seriousness. Conclusions and implications,This exploratory research suggests the importance of understanding the progression in offending careers, but a limited role for the PCL:YV in doing so. Given the small sample size, however, and the limit on access to information about details of age, the findings need replication. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Social and emotional detachment: A cross-cultural comparison of the non-disruptive behavioural psychopathic traits in children

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2009
    Eirini Manti
    Background,Questions about the international reliability and validity of aspects of psychopathy have been raised for adults, but hardly considered when applying the constructs to children. Aims/objectives,Our aim was to compare the psychometrics of a new instrument to measure psychopathic traits in children between two countries , the Netherlands and Greece. We also tested the hypothesis that, in both countries, both narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional dimensions would be related to observed behavioural disorders. Methods,The Social and Emotional Detachment Questionnaire was used to assess narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional dimensions of personality in representative national and community samples of 4,12-year-old children in the Netherlands and Greece, respectively. Parents filled in the questionnaires anonymously and also provided ratings of conduct disorders. Results,A two-dimensional construct of the psychopathic syndrome depicting, respectively, narcissistic and unemotional traits was reliable and valid in both countries, although there was considerable correlation between these two dimensions, which we designated ,social detachment' and ,emotional detachment', respectively. In both countries, the composite of social and emotional detachment was associated with aggressive and antisocial conduct disorders. Conclusions/implications,The reliability, validity and predictive value of this questionnaire must be tested further, for example, through multiple informants and longitudinally, but our findings that the tool performs robustly in two very different European countries is encouraging in terms of its potential value as a clinical screening tool and a tool for furthering the understanding of serious behavioural disorders in children. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Temporal reliability of psychological assessments for patients in a special hospital with severe personality disorder: a preliminary note

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2005
    Professor P. Tyrer
    Background The new programme for assessing those with dangerous and severe personality disorder relies heavily on psychological assessments of personality disorder and risk. Methods The temporal reliability of assessments of psychopathy (PCL-R), risk (HCR-20) and personality was assessed using the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) in 15 randomly selected male prisoners in a high secure hospital carried out at intervals varying between a mean of nine and 19 months after initial assessments by a variety of assessors. Results Using the intra-class correlation coefficient the agreement varied between0.57 (HCR-20), 0.58 (PCL-R) and 0.38-0.70 for IPDE personality disorders, with the best agreement for antisocial personality disorder (0.70). Comment These levels of agreement are consistent with other recent work on temporal reliability of personality instruments but are a little too low for confidence in these measures alone in the assessment process. Copyright 2005 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Characteristics of spousal homicide perpetrators: a study of all cases of spousal homicide in Sweden 1990,1999

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2004
    Professor Henrik Belfrage PhD
    Background In Sweden 20 000 cases of assault against women are reported to the police every year. Method All data on the perpetrators of spousal homicide in Sweden between 1990 and 1999 were investigated (n = 164). A control group of all other perpetrators of homicide in Sweden during the same period, i.e. cases of homicide not committed in the context of spouse violence (n = 690) was used. All verdicts, as well as all material in the police investigations, including interviews with all of the police investigators, were analysed. Copies of police examinations of the suspects, and forensic reports from the autopsies, were also examined. Data on all registered criminality were collected from the National Police Register, and in cases where the perpetrators had been subject to forensic psychiatric examinations, those reports were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. In addition, the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version scores were rated from the forensic psychiatric examinations. Results There was a four times higher suicide rate among the spousal homicide perpetrators (24%, n = 40) compared with the perpetrators in the control-group (6%, n = 39, chi-squared = 55,42df = 1 , p < 0.001). Consequently, suicidal ideation must be considered as an important risk factor for spousal homicide. In 79% of the cases the spousal homicide perpetrators were subject to forensic psychiatric examinations. All except 5% were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric diagnosis, and 34% were sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment. If it is assumed that the psychiatric morbidity was high in the 24% of the perpetrators who committed suicide, then 80% of all perpetrators of spouse homicide during the study period can be characterized as mentally disordered. ,Psychopathic' perpetrators, who generally are over-represented in most violent criminality, were comparatively uncommon. Only seven (4%) in the study group met the diagnostic criteria for psychopathy as measured with the PCL:SV. Discussion The group of spouse killers studied here fits the dysphoric/borderline group of spouse assaulters. This is a group that may benefit from treatment. Perhaps police officers could help identify this kind of spouse assaulter before a fatality occurs. Copyright 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Personality disorders in prisoners and their motivation for dangerous and disruptive behaviour

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2002
    Professor Jeremy W. Coid MD FRCPsych
    Objectives To examine the associations between DSM-III, axis II, personality disorder, motivation and disruptive behaviour in prisoners. Method Interviews were carried out with 81 prisoners in prison special units in England using research diagnostic instruments and an item sheet measuring disruptive behaviours and their motivations. Independent associations were established using logistic regression. Results Specific associations were established between psychopathy and axis II disorders with violent and disruptive behaviour and motivations for these behaviours. Conclusions The study supported a cognitive model explaining the functional association between personality disorder and antisocial behaviour. Personality disorders act as predisposing factors influencing the development of motivations and subsequently facilitate the enactment of disordered behaviour, in a linear progression. Assessment of personality disorder should be routine in disruptive and dangerous prisoners. Copyright 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Casenote assessment of psychopathy in a high security hospital

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 1 2001
    Dr David Reiss
    Introduction There is now a large amount of data demonstrating the internal reliability and construct validity of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL/PCL-R) when used in the assessment of psychopathy in male forensic populations. It has well-established psychometric properties when scored following a review of collateral information and a subsequent interview. However, its internal reliability and factor structure, when casenote information alone has been used, have not been examined outside North America. Method A sample of 89 patients from a British high security hospital, with the legal classification of psychopathic disorder, was scored retrospectively on the PCL-R from their medical files only. The psychometric properties of the PCL-R were analysed. Results The PCL-R ratings showed a high level of internal reliability. The factor structure was very similar to that found in Hare's North American sample of forensic psychiatric patients. Discussion The findings support the application of the PCL-R, when scored using existing file data alone, to a British high security hospital population. Copyright 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    The dark triad: Facilitating a short-term mating strategy in men

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 1 2009
    Peter K. Jonason
    Abstract This survey (N,=,224) found that characteristics collectively known as the Dark Triad (i.e. narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism) were correlated with various dimensions of short-term mating but not long-term mating. The link between the Dark Triad and short-term mating was stronger for men than for women. The Dark Triad partially mediated the sex difference in short-term mating behaviour. Findings are consistent with a view that the Dark Triad facilitates an exploitative, short-term mating strategy in men. Possible implications, including that Dark Triad traits represent a bundle of individual differences that promote a reproductively adaptive strategy are discussed. Findings are discussed in the broad context of how an evolutionary approach to personality psychology can enhance our understanding of individual differences. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Heterogeneity of violence in schizophrenia and implications for long-term treatment

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 8 2008
    J. Volavka
    Summary Aims:, Most patients with schizophrenia are not violent. However, persistent violent behaviour in a minority of patients presents a therapeutic challenge. Published treatment guidelines and most pharmacological and epidemiological literature on violence in schizophrenia treat overt physical aggression as a homogeneous phenomenon. The aim of this review is to address the subtyping of violent behaviour in schizophrenia, and to relate the subtypes to treatment. Method:, Literature describing subtypes of violence in schizophrenia and the treatment of this problem was reviewed. ,Schizophrenia', ,violence', ,aggression', ,hostility' and ,personality disorders' were the principal search terms describing behaviours. Generic names of individual atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilisers were used in treatment searches. Results:, There are at least three aetiological subtypes of violence in schizophrenia (i) that related directly to positive psychotic symptoms, (ii) impulsive violence and (iii) violence stemming from comorbidity with personality disorders, particularly psychopathy. Current treatment of violence in schizophrenia relies on antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. The evidence of effectiveness is relatively strong for clozapine, but inconsistent for other treatments. No systematic recommendations relating the treatment to aetiological subtypes of violence were found. Discussion:, The inconsistent effectiveness of the current treatments of violent behaviour in schizophrenia is due, at least in part, to the aetiological heterogeneity of that behaviour. We should not expect that any given pharmacological treatment will be equally effective in reducing violent behaviour caused by psychosis, impaired impulse control or personality disorder. Conclusion:, Violence in schizophrenia is aetiologically heterogeneous. This heterogeneity has therapeutic implications that impact clinical practice today and should be further explored in future studies. [source]


    The development of a rating scale to screen social and emotional detachment in children and adolescents

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODS IN PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, Issue 3 2007
    E. M. Scholte
    Abstract Rating scales to assess psychopathic characteristics in children and adolescents show a considerable item overlap with rating scales to assess attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. The aim of this study is to preliminary test a short questionnaire clinicians can use to screen the unique characteristics of psychopathy. Parental ratings of psychopathic characteristics and symptoms of ADHD, ODD and CD were gathered in a community sample of 2535 4,18-year-old Dutch children. The dimensionality of the ratings was determined by factor analysis and related to ADHD, ODD and CD. Two factors emerged covering egocentric-narcissistic and callous-unemotional characteristics. To avoid unnecessary stigmatization of youngsters the first factor is referred to as the "social detachment dimension" and the second as the "emotional detachment dimension". Parental ratings were reliable across all age and gender groups, and correlated moderately with ODD and CD, but not with ADHD. Preliminary findings support a two-dimensional syndrome depicting respectively narcissistic and unemotional characteristics. The syndrome is associated with ODD and CD symptoms and possibly depicts a subtype of the ODD/CD childhood disorder. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Psychopathy and Axis I psychiatric disorders among criminal offenders: relationships to impulsive and proactive aggression

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2010
    Marc T. Swogger
    Abstract Both psychopathology and aggression are heterogeneous constructs. Determining which forms of psychopathology relate to risk for different classes of aggressive behavior has implications for risk recognition and management. This study examined the relationships of impulsive aggression (IA) and proactive aggression (PA) to psychopathy and symptoms of several Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Axis I disorders in a sample of criminal offenders. Results replicated prior findings from community samples of a broad relationship between psychopathology and IA. PA was related only to psychopathy. An interaction was found whereby IA was associated with impulsive,antisocial traits of psychopathy only for individuals with moderate to high levels of generalized anxiety. Results indicate that assessing and treating several Axis I disorders in offenders may decrease risk for IA. Moreover, current findings raise the possibility that generalized anxiety is a key, modifiable component of the relationship between IA and impulsive,antisocial traits. Aggr. Behav. 36:45,53, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Examining psychopathic tendencies in adolescence from the perspective of personality theory

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 5 2009
    Naomi Sadeh
    Abstract This study sought to clarify the personality correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents using the Antisocial Process Screening Device [APSD; Frick and Hare, 2001] and a youth adapted version of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire [Patrick et al., 2009, unpublished]. A combination of self- and parent-reports on the APSD (n=229) revealed that the three-facet model of psychopathic tendencies in youth was characterized by a similar constellation of personality traits as the psychopathic construct in adulthood [e.g., Hall, Benning and Patrick, 2004]. Specifically, low anxiety and trait aggression characterized the APSD Callous/Unemotional dimension, social dominance and trait aggression characterized the APSD Narcissism dimension, and disinhibition and low harm avoidance characterized the APSD Impulsivity dimension. The results add credence to the hypothesis that personality relationships to psychopathic tendencies emerge from an early age [Lynam, 2002] and dimensions of psychopathy in youth are associated with distinct personality profiles. Aggr. Behav. 35:399,407, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Relationship between psychopathy and indirect aggression use in a noncriminal population

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 5 2009
    Gemma C. Warren
    Abstract Psychopathy has long been associated with increased use of direct aggression and violence, especially among male inmates. Little research has, of yet, considered the relation between psychopathy and indirect forms of aggression. The current research sought to investigate the relationship between psychopathy and indirect aggression in a noncriminal sample. The results indicated that there was a strong relationship between psychopathic traits and indirect aggression, with strong correlations between indirect aggression and both factor 1 (coldheartedness) and factor 3 (impulsive antisociality). This association remained significant even after the effects of direct aggression had been controlled for. Path analysis indicated that both direct and indirect aggression was underpinned by the same psychopathy factors. This suggests that high psychopathy scorers will utilize direct and indirect aggression equally and, as such, the choice of one type of aggression over the other may be dependant on either situational factors or external moderators. Aggr. Behav. 35:408,421, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    A preliminary examination of the intergenerational continuity of maternal psychopathic features

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2007
    Bryan R. Loney
    Abstract The study provided a preliminary test of the intergenerational continuity of maternal psychopathic features in a non-referred elementary aged sample of children. Consistent with dominant etiological models and recent behavioral genetics research, a direct association was expected between maternal and child affective features of psychopathy (i.e., callous,unemotional or CU traits). Potential mediators representative of alternative transmission mechanisms were assessed including parenting dysfunction, parental hostility/interpersonal insensitivity, and child impulsivity. Behavioral features of psychopathy were also assessed and were predicted to bear weaker and more indirect parent,child associations. A mixed sex sample of 83 children accompanied by a biological mother were administered a multi-informant rating-scale battery including separate parent (i.e., Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale) and child (i.e., Antisocial Process Screening Device) measures of psychopathy. Consistent with prediction, a significant association was documented between maternal and child CU traits (r=.22). Additionally, a slightly weaker association and statistical trend (r=.21) was observed in the relation between maternal and child interpersonal features of the psychopathy construct. Contrary to prediction, all documented associations were fully mediated by parental hostility and parenting dysfunction. Given the preliminary nature of study findings, implications for developmental modeling and future intergenerational continuity research are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 33:14,25, 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss; Inc. [source]


    Emotional processing in psychopathic personality

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 5 2002
    Ute Habel
    Abstract Emotional-processing deficits may be one of the characteristic features of impaired affect in individuals with psychopathy. These include shallowness and profound lack of remorse or empathy. Performances on standardized emotion discrimination tasks and mood induction tasks were compared between 17 patients with antisocial personality disorder (DSM-IV) and 17 nonpsychopaths. Subjects with psychopathic personality demonstrated poorer performance on emotion-discrimination tasks compared with controls. However, higher scores on factor "emotional detachment" of the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) were associated with better discrimination ability. Subjective ratings were comparable between groups during mood induction. Although the findings support the hypothesis of a significant association between impaired emotional processing and psychopathy, they also suggest a relationship between emotional discrimination and the core personality features of psychopathy. Aggr. Behav. 28:394,400, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]