Psychopathic Traits (psychopathic + trait)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Influence of Antisocial and Psychopathic Traits on Decision-Making Biases in Alcoholics

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2009
Robert Miranda Jr
Background:, Although decision-making processes have become a principal target of study among addiction researchers, few studies have specifically examined decision-making among individuals with alcohol dependence (AD) and findings to date are mixed. The present study examined the relationship between AD and decision-making, and tested whether different facets of antisocial and psychopathic traits explain this association. Methods:, Participants were men with AD (n = 22), AD and comorbid antisocial personality disorder (AD + ASPD; n = 17), or a history of recreational alcohol use, but no current or lifetime symptoms of a substance use disorder, conduct disorder, or ASPD (n = 21). Decision-making was tested using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results:, Across groups, participants reported similar levels of awareness of the contingencies of the task, but the AD groups with and without ASPD had poorer IGT performance compared with controls (p < 0.05). A block-by-block analysis revealed that while AD had slow but steady improvement across the task, AD + ASPD exhibited initial improvement followed by a significant decrease in advantageous decision-making during the last 20 trials (p < 0.05). This was further confirmed via evidence that impulsive/antisocial personality traits but not psychopathic traits mediated poor IGT performance beyond ASPD diagnosis. Conclusions:, Alcohol-dependent males favored risky choices regardless of whether they met criteria for ASPD. However, decision-making deficits were more pronounced among those with ASPD, and personality traits characterized by impulsive and antisocial tendencies mediated the relationship between AD and decision-making. [source]


Psychopathic traits in adolescent offenders: an evaluation of criminal history, clinical, and psychosocial correlates,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 1 2004
Mary Ann Campbell Ph.D.
Although a large body of research has established the relevance of psychopathy to adult offenders, its relevance to adolescent offenders is far less clear. The current study evaluated the clinical, psychosocial and criminal correlates of psychopathic traits in a sample of 226 male and female incarcerated adolescent offenders. According to an 18-item version of the Psychopathy Checklist,Youth Version (PCL-YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003), only 9.4% exhibited a high level of psychopathic traits (PCL-YV,25). Consistent with past research, higher PCL-YV scores were positively associated with self-reported delinquency and aggressive behavior and were unrelated to emotional difficulties. Although higher PCL-YV scores were associated with the experience of physical abuse, the only psychosocial factor to predict PCL-YV scores was a history of non-parental living arrangements (e.g. foster care). In terms of criminality, a violent/versatile criminal history was positively associated with psychopathic traits. However, PCL-YV scores were unrelated to participants' official criminal records for total, non-violent, violent, and technical violation convictions. In conclusion, the data partially support the construct validity of psychopathy with adolescent offenders, but some inconsistencies with prior adult and adolescent psychopathy research were evident. These issues are discussed. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Psychopathy and offence severity in sexually aggressive and violent youth

CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2009
Amber Fougere
Background,A large proportion of violent crimes are committed by youths. Youths with psychopathic traits may have a higher risk for recidivism and violence. Aims/hypotheses,Our aim was to compare sexually aggressive with violent young men on offence severity and psychopathy. Three hypotheses were proposed: first, young men with previous offences would display a progressive increase in seriousness of offence during their criminal career; secondly, the sexually aggressive and violent young men would not differ in scores on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV); but, thirdly, PCL:YV scores would be positively correlated with the severity of the index crime, as measured by the Cormier,Lang System for Quantifying Criminal History. Methods,Information was collected from the files of 40 young men in conflict with the law, and the PCL:Youth Version (YV) rated from this by trained raters. Results,The offences of these young men became more serious over time, but we found no association between PCL:YV scores and offence type or seriousness. Conclusions and implications,This exploratory research suggests the importance of understanding the progression in offending careers, but a limited role for the PCL:YV in doing so. Given the small sample size, however, and the limit on access to information about details of age, the findings need replication. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Social and emotional detachment: A cross-cultural comparison of the non-disruptive behavioural psychopathic traits in children

CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2009
Eirini Manti
Background,Questions about the international reliability and validity of aspects of psychopathy have been raised for adults, but hardly considered when applying the constructs to children. Aims/objectives,Our aim was to compare the psychometrics of a new instrument to measure psychopathic traits in children between two countries , the Netherlands and Greece. We also tested the hypothesis that, in both countries, both narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional dimensions would be related to observed behavioural disorders. Methods,The Social and Emotional Detachment Questionnaire was used to assess narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional dimensions of personality in representative national and community samples of 4,12-year-old children in the Netherlands and Greece, respectively. Parents filled in the questionnaires anonymously and also provided ratings of conduct disorders. Results,A two-dimensional construct of the psychopathic syndrome depicting, respectively, narcissistic and unemotional traits was reliable and valid in both countries, although there was considerable correlation between these two dimensions, which we designated ,social detachment' and ,emotional detachment', respectively. In both countries, the composite of social and emotional detachment was associated with aggressive and antisocial conduct disorders. Conclusions/implications,The reliability, validity and predictive value of this questionnaire must be tested further, for example, through multiple informants and longitudinally, but our findings that the tool performs robustly in two very different European countries is encouraging in terms of its potential value as a clinical screening tool and a tool for furthering the understanding of serious behavioural disorders in children. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The usefulness of self-reported psychopathy-like traits in the study of antisocial behaviour among non-referred adolescents

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 5 2002
Henrik Andershed
The present study addresses the question of whether it is possible to use a self-report measure of psychopathic traits on non-referred youth samples to identify a subgroup of problematic youths who are particularly problematic and different from other problem youths. A large sample of eighth-grade, non-referred adolescents, and their parents were assessed. Results showed that the adolescents exhibiting a low-socialized psychopathy-like personality constellation had a more frequent, violent, and versatile conduct-problem profile than other low-socialized and well socialized adolescents. The psychopathy-like adolescents also differed from other poorly socialized adolescents in ways that suggested that their etiological background was different from adolescents with non-psychopathy-like conduct problems. We conclude that self-report measures can indeed be useful for research purposes in subtyping youths with conduct problems. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Relationship between psychopathy and indirect aggression use in a noncriminal population

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 5 2009
Gemma C. Warren
Abstract Psychopathy has long been associated with increased use of direct aggression and violence, especially among male inmates. Little research has, of yet, considered the relation between psychopathy and indirect forms of aggression. The current research sought to investigate the relationship between psychopathy and indirect aggression in a noncriminal sample. The results indicated that there was a strong relationship between psychopathic traits and indirect aggression, with strong correlations between indirect aggression and both factor 1 (coldheartedness) and factor 3 (impulsive antisociality). This association remained significant even after the effects of direct aggression had been controlled for. Path analysis indicated that both direct and indirect aggression was underpinned by the same psychopathy factors. This suggests that high psychopathy scorers will utilize direct and indirect aggression equally and, as such, the choice of one type of aggression over the other may be dependant on either situational factors or external moderators. Aggr. Behav. 35:408,421, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Personality and psychopathology in an impulsive aggressive college sample

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2006
Laura E. Helfritz
Abstract Certain personality traits have been associated with impulsive aggression in both college and community samples, primarily irritability, anger/hostility, and impulsivity. The literature regarding the psychopathology associated with impulsive aggression is relatively sparse and strongly emphasizes DSM-IV-TR [APA, 2000] Axis II personality disorders, although some comorbidity with Axis I clinical disorders has been reported. The current study compares impulsive aggressive (IA) college students with their non-aggressive peers on several self-report measures of personality and psychopathology. Personality results were as predicted, with IAs scoring higher than controls on measures of impulsivity and aggression. Additionally, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), which was given for exploratory purposes, revealed a unique pattern of psychopathic traits in impulsive aggression that contained key differences from the callous-unemotional profile seen in premeditated aggression. Contrary to our hypothesis that a specific pattern of psychopathology (personality disorders, bipolar disorder, and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) would emerge for impulsive aggression, IAs scored significantly higher than controls on nearly every clinical scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Somatic Complaints, Anxiety, Anxiety-Related Disorders, Depression, Mania, Schizophrenia, Borderline Features, Antisocial Features, Alcohol Problems, and Drug Problems), indicating a global elevation of psychopathology. In conclusion, while the personality traits and behaviors that characterize impulsive aggression are relatively consistent across individuals, its associated psychopathology is unexpectedly variable. Aggr. Behav. 00:1,10, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Influence of Antisocial and Psychopathic Traits on Decision-Making Biases in Alcoholics

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2009
Robert Miranda Jr
Background:, Although decision-making processes have become a principal target of study among addiction researchers, few studies have specifically examined decision-making among individuals with alcohol dependence (AD) and findings to date are mixed. The present study examined the relationship between AD and decision-making, and tested whether different facets of antisocial and psychopathic traits explain this association. Methods:, Participants were men with AD (n = 22), AD and comorbid antisocial personality disorder (AD + ASPD; n = 17), or a history of recreational alcohol use, but no current or lifetime symptoms of a substance use disorder, conduct disorder, or ASPD (n = 21). Decision-making was tested using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results:, Across groups, participants reported similar levels of awareness of the contingencies of the task, but the AD groups with and without ASPD had poorer IGT performance compared with controls (p < 0.05). A block-by-block analysis revealed that while AD had slow but steady improvement across the task, AD + ASPD exhibited initial improvement followed by a significant decrease in advantageous decision-making during the last 20 trials (p < 0.05). This was further confirmed via evidence that impulsive/antisocial personality traits but not psychopathic traits mediated poor IGT performance beyond ASPD diagnosis. Conclusions:, Alcohol-dependent males favored risky choices regardless of whether they met criteria for ASPD. However, decision-making deficits were more pronounced among those with ASPD, and personality traits characterized by impulsive and antisocial tendencies mediated the relationship between AD and decision-making. [source]


Deficits in facial expression recognition in male adolescents with early-onset or adolescence-onset conduct disorder

THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 5 2009
Graeme Fairchild
Background:, We examined whether conduct disorder (CD) is associated with deficits in facial expression recognition and, if so, whether these deficits are specific to the early-onset form of CD, which emerges in childhood. The findings could potentially inform the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour, which suggests that early-onset and adolescence-limited forms of CD are subject to different aetiological processes. Method:, Male adolescents with either early-onset CD (n = 42) or adolescence-onset CD (n = 39), and controls with no history of serious antisocial behaviour and no current psychiatric disorder (n = 40) completed tests of facial expression and facial identity recognition. Dependent measures were: (a) correct recognition of facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, and (b) the number of correct matches of unfamiliar faces. Results:, Relative to controls, recognition of anger, disgust, and happiness in facial expressions was disproportionately impaired in participants with early-onset CD, whereas recognition of fear was impaired in participants with adolescence-onset CD. Participants with CD who were high in psychopathic traits showed impaired fear, sadness, and surprise recognition relative to those low in psychopathic traits. There were no group differences in facial identity recognition. Conclusions:, Both CD subtypes were associated with impairments in facial recognition, although these were more marked in the early-onset subgroup. Variation in psychopathic traits appeared to exert an additional influence on the recognition of fear, sadness and surprise. Implications of these data for the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour are discussed. [source]


Corporate psychopathy: Talking the walk,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 2 2010
Paul Babiak Ph.D.
There is a very large literature on the important role of psychopathy in the criminal justice system. We know much less about corporate psychopathy and its implications, in large part because of the difficulty in obtaining the active cooperation of business organizations. This has left us with only a few small-sample studies, anecdotes, and speculation. In this study, we had a unique opportunity to examine psychopathy and its correlates in a sample of 203 corporate professionals selected by their companies to participate in management development programs. The correlates included demographic and status variables, as well as in-house 360 assessments and performance ratings. The prevalence of psychopathic traits,as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist,Revised (PCL-R) and a Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) "equivalent",was higher than that found in community samples. The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that the underlying latent structure of psychopathy in our corporate sample was consistent with that model found in community and offender studies. Psychopathy was positively associated with in-house ratings of charisma/presentation style (creativity, good strategic thinking and communication skills) but negatively associated with ratings of responsibility/performance (being a team player, management skills, and overall accomplishments). Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and psychopathy in adolescent male and female detainees

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 4 2009
Kathrin Sevecke M.D.
Although ADHD and CD are apparent risk factors for adult psychopathy, there are three distinct perspectives regarding their relationships to psychopathy: (1) ADHD may contribute uniquely to the development of psychopathy or (2) its contribution may reflect its high comorbidity with CD. Alternatively, (3) the comorbid presence of ADHD and CD may confer unique risk for the development of psychopathy. Although prior adult studies have yielded conflicting findings, no prior studies of adolescents address this issue. We examined these three hypotheses and the possibility of sex differences using cross-sectional analyses in 90 male and 123 female incarcerated adolescents. Among males the influence of ADHD was largely attributable to the overlap between ADHD and CD, whereas among females ADHD contributed independently to psychopathy scores and to scores on several dimensions of psychopathy. In addition, among females, the ADHD,,CD interaction was significant for the total score and the antisocial component of psychopathy and in a direction opposite to that predicted by the comorbid subtype hypothesis. These findings indicate that there may be sex-specific pathways to elevations in psychopathic traits and suggest that the comorbid subtype hypothesis is probably not correct for either boys or girls. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Comparison of impulsive and premeditated perpetrators of intimate partner violence

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 6 2008
Matthew S. Stanford Ph.D.
Violence occurs in four to five million intimate relationships each year in the United States. Past research has investigated the concept of batterer subtypes based on the nature of the violent behavior. To extend this research, the present study used the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS) along with a battery of relevant self-report measures in a sample of men (N,=,113) convicted of domestic violence and court ordered into an intervention program. Batterers whose violence was classified as premeditated scored higher on psychopathic traits and a measure of treatment rejection. Batterers whose violence was classified as impulsive in nature reported a wider range of serious psychopathology. It is suggested that the use of a bimodal classification (Impulsive/Premeditated) in batterers may have significant clinical and legal policy implications. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Facets of psychopathy, Axis II traits, and behavioral dysregulation among jail detainees

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 4 2007
Richard Rogers Ph.D.
Forensic evaluations of offender populations often consider psychopathy as an integral component of these consultations. Vexing issues remain of whether psychopathic traits should be evaluated consistently irrespective of demographic characteristics (e.g. gender), comorbidity (e.g. other Axis II pathology), or setting (e.g. jail or community). The current study examined gender differences for psychopathy and Axis II traits in a nonreferred jail sample of predominantly nonviolent offenders. Participants with moderate to high levels of psychopathy evidenced substantial comorbidity, especially with Cluster B personality disorders. Facets of psychopathy and Axis II traits varied substantially across both genders. In addition, the research evaluated Lynam's Hyperactivity, Impulsivity, and Attention difficulties (HIA) model of psychopathy. These initial data found little support for the HIA model in this jail sample. In testing competing hypotheses, the HIA model was substantially better at predicting Cluster B traits than psychopathy per se. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Predictors of treatment outcome in dually-diagnosed antisocial youth: an initial study of forensic inpatients

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 2 2004
Richard Rogers Ph.D.
The safe and effective management of adolescent offenders is a top priority for inpatient forensic programs. Treatment successes were examined for adolescent offenders on four parameters, specifically hospital course, level of improvement, time to discharge, and rapidity of improvement. Hospital course was predicted primarily by the breadth of polysubstance abuse with modest but independent contributions by psychopathic characteristics, and aggressive conduct-disorder symptoms. An important finding for treatment was that level of improvement at discharge was only marginally affected by psychopathic traits. In addition, rapidity of improvement was predicted only by decreased polysubstance abuse. Approximately one-fourth of the adolescent offenders experienced a substantial decrease in psychopathic characteristics. This finding was unexpected because the generic treatment program did not target the core elements of psychopathy. Even in the absence of nontreatment controls, this diminution of psychopathic traits in 25% of adolescent offenders raises important questions about the temporal stability of these traits and their potential amenability to generic interventions. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Psychopathic traits in adolescent offenders: an evaluation of criminal history, clinical, and psychosocial correlates,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 1 2004
Mary Ann Campbell Ph.D.
Although a large body of research has established the relevance of psychopathy to adult offenders, its relevance to adolescent offenders is far less clear. The current study evaluated the clinical, psychosocial and criminal correlates of psychopathic traits in a sample of 226 male and female incarcerated adolescent offenders. According to an 18-item version of the Psychopathy Checklist,Youth Version (PCL-YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003), only 9.4% exhibited a high level of psychopathic traits (PCL-YV,25). Consistent with past research, higher PCL-YV scores were positively associated with self-reported delinquency and aggressive behavior and were unrelated to emotional difficulties. Although higher PCL-YV scores were associated with the experience of physical abuse, the only psychosocial factor to predict PCL-YV scores was a history of non-parental living arrangements (e.g. foster care). In terms of criminality, a violent/versatile criminal history was positively associated with psychopathic traits. However, PCL-YV scores were unrelated to participants' official criminal records for total, non-violent, violent, and technical violation convictions. In conclusion, the data partially support the construct validity of psychopathy with adolescent offenders, but some inconsistencies with prior adult and adolescent psychopathy research were evident. These issues are discussed. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The 4 year stability of psychopathic traits in non-referred youth,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 6 2003
Paul J. Frick Ph.D.
One significant limitation in research extending the construct of psychopathy to youth has been the absence of longitudinal studies testing the stability of psychopathic traits prior to adulthood. To begin to address this limitation, the current study estimated the stability of psychopathic traits over a 4 year period in a sample of non-referred children in the third, fourth, sixth, and seventh grades at the first assessment. For parent ratings of psychopathic traits, stability estimates using intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.80 to 0.88 across 2,4 years, with a stability estimate of 0.93 across all four assessments. There were also distinct trends in the patterns of stability found in the sample. Specifically, children rated as being initially high on these traits were more likely to be rated lower at later assessments than was the case for children rated initially low on these traits. Finally, the child's level of conduct problems, the socioeconomic status of the child's family, and the quality of parenting the child received were the most consistent predictors of stability of psychopathic traits. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The validity of the Antisocial Process Screening Device as a self-report measure of psychopathy in adolescent offenders,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 6 2003
Zina Lee Ph.D.
There is a growing interest in the assessment of adolescent psychopathy to enable early treatment and intervention. Recently, a self-report measure has been developed to assess psychopathic traits in adolescents. The Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD), a self-report measure of psychopathic traits, and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV), a clinical rating scale, were administered to a sample of 100 incarcerated male adolescent offenders to assess the concurrent validity of the APSD. Results indicated that the APSD had limited concurrent validity with respect to the PCL:YV and that there appears to be a method effect in the measurement of psychopathy. Thus, it appears the APSD did not assess psychopathy in a manner parallel to that of the PCL:YV. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Assessment of "juvenile psychopathy" and its association with violence: a critical review,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 1 2001
John F. Edens Ph.D.
Interest in the construct of psychopathy as it applies to children and adolescents has become an area of considerable research interest in the past 5,10 years, in part due to the clinical utility of psychopathy as a predictor of violence among adult offenders. Despite interest in "juvenile psychopathy" in general and its relationship to violence in particular, relatively few studies specifically have examined whether operationalizations of this construct among children and adolescents predict various forms of aggression. This article critically reviews this literature, as well as controversies regarding the assessment of adult psychopathic "traits" among juveniles. Existing evidence indicates a moderate association between measures of psychopathy and various forms of aggression, suggesting that this construct may be relevant for purposes of short-term risk appraisal and management among juveniles. However, due to the enormous developmental changes that occur during adolescence and the absence of longitudinal research on the stability of this construct (and its association with violence), we conclude that reliance on psychopathy measures to make decisions regarding long-term placements for juveniles is contraindicated at this time. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]