Psychiatric Illness (psychiatric + illness)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Relationship of Stigma to HIV Risk Among Women with Mental Illness

Pamela Y. Collins MD
Urban women with severe mental illness (SMI) are vulnerable to stigma and discrimination related to mental illness and other stigmatized labels. Stigma experiences may increase their risk for negative health outcomes, such as HIV infection. This study tests the relationship between perceived stigma and HIV risk behaviors among women with SMI. The authors interviewed 92 women attending community mental health programs using the Stigma of Psychiatric Illness and Sexuality Among Women Questionnaire. There were significant relationships between personal experiences of mental illness and substance use accompanying sexual intercourse; perceived ethnic stigma and having a riskier partner type; and experiences of discrimination and having a casual or sex-exchange partner. Higher scores on relationship stigma were associated with a greater number of sexual risk behaviors. The findings underscore the importance of exploring how stigma attached to mental illness intersects with other stigmatized labels to produce unique configurations of HIV risk. HIV risk reduction interventions and prevention research should integrate attention to stigmatized identities in the lives of women with SMI. [source]

Gender-Related Influences of Parental Alcoholism on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Illnesses: Analysis of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
Peter T. Morgan
Background:, Offspring of individuals with alcoholism are at increased risk for psychiatric illness, but the effects of gender on this risk are not well known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the gender of the parent with alcoholism and the gender of offspring affect the association between parental alcoholism and offspring psychiatric illness. Method:, We analyzed the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data to examine the gender-specific prevalence of axis I and axis II disorders in 23,006 male and 17,368 female respondents with and without a history of paternal or maternal alcoholism. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated for the disorders based on gender and presence of maternal or paternal alcoholism. Results:, Maternal or paternal alcoholism was associated with a higher prevalence of every disorder examined, regardless of the gender of offspring. Gender-related differences in prevalences were present in nearly all examined disorders, and the association between parental alcoholism and offspring psychiatric disorders was significantly different in men and women. These differences included stronger associations in female offspring of men with alcoholism (alcohol abuse without dependence); in female offspring of women with alcoholism (mania, nicotine dependence, alcohol abuse, and schizoid personality disorder); in male offspring of men with alcoholism (mania); and in male offspring of women with alcoholism (panic disorder). Conclusions:, Interactions between gender and parental alcoholism were specific to certain disorders but varied in their effects, and in general female children of women with alcoholism appear at greatest risk for adult psychopathology. [source]

A UK survey of psychiatric services for older people in general hospitals

John Holmes
Abstract Background Psychiatric illness is common in older people in general hospitals, but little is known of the service models operating in the UK, or of the views of old age psychiatrists regarding service provision in this area. We set out to determine the range of UK old age psychiatry service models for older people in general hospital wards, and the opinions of clinicians on future service priorities and development. Method A postal questionnaire survey of old age psychiatrists providing psychiatric services to older people in general hospital wards. Results 73% of services were provided through a generic, sector-based, consultation psychiatry model. The remaining 27% employed a range of general hospital-based liaison psychiatry services for older people, involved in proactively seeking referrals and educating general hospital staff. Those providing a generic sector-based model were significantly slower at responding to referrals. 89% of respondents were unhappy with their service to older people in general hospital wards, with only 11% preferring the generic sector-based model. Organisational barriers to change identified included the management of mental health care and physical care by different organisations. Training, both of psychiatric staff in this specialist area, and of general hospital staff in the detection and basic management of common psychiatric conditions in the general hospital setting, was felt to be necessary. Conclusions The management of co-morbid psychiatric and physical illness in older people is an important issue for health services. Old age psychiatrists are unhappy with the prevalent, reactive, consultation-based model, preferring a range of liaison psychiatry models based in the general hospital. The most important barriers to service development in this area were the separate managerial arrangements for psychiatric and physical care services, and a lack of evidence for effective old age psychiatry services in this setting. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prevalence and Comorbidity of Insomnia and Effect on Functioning in Elderly Populations

Sonia Ancoli-Israel PhD
A good night's sleep is often more elusive as we age, because the prevalence of insomnia in older people is high. Insufficient sleep can have important effects on daytime function by increasing the need to nap, reducing cognitive ability including attention and memory, slowing response time, adversely affecting relationships with friends and family, and contributing to a general sense of being unwell. However, rather than aging per se, circadian rhythm shifts, primary sleep disorders, comorbid medical/psychiatric illnesses, and medication use cause sleep difficulties in older people, which psychosocial factors may also affect. Clinicians should ask elderly patients about satisfaction with sleep. Any sleep complaints warrant careful evaluation of contributing factors and appropriate treatment. [source]

Understanding sexual offending in schizophrenia

Christopher R. Drake M Clin Psych MAPS
Background Studies have found an elevated incidence of violent sexual offences in males with schizophrenia. The relationship between sexual offending and psychiatric illness is, however, complex and poorly defined. Aims The aim of the present article is to delineate possible mechanisms that underlie offensive sexual behaviour in schizophrenia that can be used as a framework for assessing and treating these behaviours. A review of research pertaining to the aetiology of sexual deviance in schizophrenia was conducted, focusing in particular on the role of early childhood experiences, deviant sexual preferences, antisocial personality traits, psychiatric symptomatology and associated treatment effects, the impact of mental illness on sexual and social functioning, and other potential contributory factors. Towards a typology It is proposed that schizophrenic patients who engage in sexually offensive activities fall into four broad groups: (1) those with a pre-existing paraphilia; (2) those whose deviant sexuality arises in the context of illness and/or its treatment; (3) those whose deviant sexuality is one manifestation of more generalized antisocial behaviour, and (4) factors other than the above. This classification provides a useful framework for evaluating and treating sexually offensive behaviours in schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Reversal of trichotillomania with aripiprazole

B.Ed., Don Jefferys A.M., F.A.A.E.T.S, M.A.C.E., M.A.P.S., Ph.D.
Abstract Trichotillomania (TTM) is a common psychiatric illness with marked chronicity and comorbidity that significantly impacts on psychosocial functioning and physical features of the sufferer. Treatment studies, to date, using behavioral and pharmacological interventions alone or simultaneously, are equivocal with few showing a sustained cessation of hair-plucking. In this report of a single patient with treatment resistant TTM, the sole use of the atypical neuroleptic Aripiprazole resulted in a cessation of hair-plucking maintained, at the time of reporting, for a period of 24 months. This finding, a first with Aripiprazole, warrants further investigation of this drug in the treatment of TTM. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,4, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Risk factors and outcome in ambulatory assault victims presenting to the acute emergency department setting: Implications for secondary prevention studies in PTSD

Peter P. Roy-Byrne M.D.
Abstract Prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in trauma victims is an important public health goal. Planning for the studies required to validate prevention strategies requires identification of subjects at high risk and recruitment of unbiased samples that represent the larger high-risk population (difficult because of the avoidance of many trauma victims). This study recruited high-risk victims of interpersonal violence (sexual or physical assault) presenting to an urban emergency department for prospective 1- and 3-month follow-up. Of 546 victims who were approached about participating, only 56 agreed to be contacted and only 46 participated in either the 1- or 3-month interviews. Of the 46, 43 had been previously victimized with a mean of over six traumas in the group; 21% had prior PTSD, 85% had prior psychiatric illness, and 37% had prior substance abuse. Sixty-seven percent had positive urine for alcohol or drugs on presentation. Fifty-six percent developed PTSD at 1 or 3 months with the rate declining between 1 and 3 months. There was high use of medical and psychiatric services. These findings document both the difficulty of recruiting large samples of high-risk assault victims to participate in research, and the high rate of prior traumatization, PTSD, substance use, and psychiatric morbidity in these subjects which, if still active at the time of victimization, may complicate efforts to document preventive treatment effects. Depression and Anxiety 19:77,84, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Schizophrenia; from structure to function with special focus on the mediodorsal thalamic prefrontal loop

B. Pakkenberg
Objective:, To describe structural and biochemical evidence from postmortem brains that implicates the reciprocal connections between the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and the prefrontal cortex in cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Method:, The estimation of the regional volumes and cell numbers was obtained using stereological methods. The biochemical analyses of molecular expression in postmortem brain involve quantitative measurement of transcripts and proteins by in-situ (RNA) or Western blot/autoradiography in brains from patients with schizophrenia and comparison subjects. Results:, Stereological studies in postmortem brain from patients with schizophrenia have reported divergent and often opposing findings in the total number of neurons and volume of the mediodorsal (MD) thalamic nucleus, and to a lesser degree in its reciprocally associated areas of the prefrontal cortex. Similarly, quantitative molecular postmortem studies have found large inter-subject and between-study variance at both the transcript and protein levels for receptors and their interacting molecules of several neurotransmitter systems in these interconnected anatomical regions. Combined, large variation in stereological and molecular studies indicates a complex and heterogeneous involvement of the MD thalamic-prefrontal loop in schizophrenia. Conclusion:, Based on a considerable heterogeneity in patients suffering from schizophrenia, large variation in postmortem studies, including stereological and molecular postmortem studies of the MD thalamus and frontal cortex, might be expected and may in fact partly help to explain the variable endophenotypic traits associated with this severe psychiatric illness. [source]

Prenatal predictors of infant temperament

Elizabeth A. Werner
Abstract Emerging data suggest that prenatal factors influence children's temperament. In 50 dyads, we examined fetal heart rate (FHR) activity and women's antenatal psychiatric illness as predictors of infant temperament at 4 months (response to novelty and the Infant Behavior Checklist). FHR change during maternal challenge was positively associated with observed infant motor reactivity to novelty (p,=,.02). The odds of being classified as high versus low motor among fetuses who had an increase in FHR during maternal stress was 11 times those who had a decrease in FHR (p,=,.0006). Antenatal psychiatric diagnosis was associated with an almost fourfold greater odds of having a high cry reactivity classification (p,=,.03). There also were modest associations between baseline FHR and maternal reports of infant temperament and between observed temperament and that based on mothers' reports. All of the infant results were found independent of the influence of women's postnatal anxiety. These data indicate that physiological markers of individual differences in infant temperament are identifiable in the fetal period, and possibly shaped by the prenatal environment. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 49: 474-484, 2007. [source]

Long-term outcome of pediatric obsessive,compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis and qualitative review of the literature

S. E. Stewart
Objective:, To review the extant literature on the long-term outcome of child/adolescent-onset obsessive,compulsive disorder (OCD). Method:, Medline and Psychlit databases were systematically searched for articles regarding long-term outcomes of child/adolescent-onset OCD. Meta-analysis regression was applied to evaluate predictors and persistence of OCD. Results:, Sixteen study samples (n = 6,132; total = 521 participants) in 22 studies had follow-up periods ranging between 1 and 15.6 years. Pooled mean persistence rates were 41% for full OCD and 60% for full or subthreshold OCD. Earlier age of OCD onset (z = ,3.26, P = 0.001), increased OCD duration (z = 2.22, P = 0.027) and in-patient vs. out-patient status (z = 2.94, P = 0.003) predicted greater persistence. Comorbid psychiatric illness and poor initial treatment response were poor prognostic factors. Although psychosocial function was frequently compromised, most studies lacked comprehensive outcome measures. Conclusion:, Long-term persistence of pediatric OCD may be lower than believed. Future studies should include broader measures of outcome including symptomatic persistence and functional impairment in multiple domains. [source]

Psychological effects of the November 1999 earthquake in Turkey: an epidemiological study


Objective: This study assessed the traumatic stress symptoms and related factors in two towns affected by two earthquakes, which killed 20 000 people in 1999 in Turkey. Method: A total of 430 people in selected households were seen 18 months after the earthquake. They were given a self-report questionnaire assessing post-traumatic stress (PTSD) and depressive symptoms, demographics and trauma exposure. Results: The rates of PTSD and depression were higher in the site closer to the epicenter. The traumatic stress symptom checklist scores were predicted by fear during earthquake, loss of friends and neighbours, female gender, lower education and living in rented accomodation. Depression was predicted by study site, death of relatives and past psychiatric illness. Conclusion: These results show that severe earthquakes can cause long-lasting morbidity. Our previous findings that showed a differential prediction for depressive and traumatic stress symptoms after earthquakes are also supported. [source]

Mad scenes in early 19th-century opera

A. Erfurth
Objective: It is our objective to examine the phenomenon of mad scenes in bel canto opera from a modern perspective. Method: The development of psychiatry and music at the beginning of the 19th century is described. Common elements of romantic music and mental disorders are discussed. It is shown how bel canto composers represent psychiatric illness by musical means. The psychopathology depicted in a prototypical mad scene is evaluated. Results: Early romantic music is characterized by imagination, illusion and loss of structure; characteristics which can be well expressed in mad scenes. While madness (withdrawal into a utopian world) gained a certain attraction in society, clinical psychiatry increasingly focused on emotional causes of illness and on drug-induction of mental disorders. Conclusion: Mad scenes in bel canto opera can be understood as expression of an increasing interest in emotional aspects in music and society as well as in clinical psychiatry. [source]

Are fish oils an effective therapy in mental illness , an analysis of the data

Ian D. Maidment
Objective: To review the literature regarding the use of fish oils in the treatment of psychiatric illness. Method: A Medline search was conducted in September 1999. Results: Five papers have investigated omega-3 fatty acids levels in depression. One study used omega-3 fatty acids as an adjunctive therapy in bipolar disorder. Four studies used fatty acids as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenia. Conclusion: There is a great deal of current research in this field. While omega-3 fatty acids levels may be lowered in depression, there are no data suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids are effective. One paper indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are effective in bipolar disorders. The data on schizophrenia are conflicting. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have proved effective. Most of the evidence suggests that the main effect is an improvement in negative symptoms. One recent study showed that omega-3 fatty acids had no effect on negative symptoms. [source]

The First-Episode Psychosis Outcome Study: premorbid and baseline characteristics of an epidemiological cohort of 661 first-episode psychosis patients

Philippe Conus
Abstract Aims:, Studies conducted in first-episode psychosis (FEP) samples avoid many biases. However, very few studies are based on epidemiological cohorts treated in specialized FEP services. The aim of this file audit study was to examine premorbid and baseline characteristics of a large epidemiological sample of FEP. Methods:, File audit study of all patients admitted to the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre between 1998 and 2000 using a specialized questionnaire. Results:, There were 661 patient files included in the study. Premorbid evaluation revealed high rates of substance use disorder (74.1%), history of psychiatric disorder (47.5%), past traumatic events (82.7%) suicide attempts (14.3%) and family history of psychiatric illness (55.6%). Baseline characteristics revealed high intensity of illness (mean CGI 5.5), high prevalence of lack of insight (62%) and high rate of comorbidity (70%). Conclusion:, High rates of traumatic events or episodes of mental illness before treatment for FEP must be considered when designing treatment approaches because a too narrow focus on positive psychotic symptoms will inevitably lead to incomplete treatment. Additionally, early intervention programmes need sufficient range of resources to address the multiple challenges presented by FEP patients such as high severity of illness, comorbidities and functional impairment. Finally, observation of an important degree of functional impairment despite short duration of untreated psychosis suggests that while early detection of FEP is a necessary step in early intervention, it may not be sufficient to improve functional recovery in psychosis and that efforts aimed at identifying people during the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders should be pursued. [source]

Psychiatric endophenotypes and the development of valid animal models

T. D. Gould
Endophenotypes are quantifiable components in the genes-to-behaviors pathways, distinct from psychiatric symptoms, which make genetic and biological studies of etiologies for disease categories more manageable. The endophenotype concept has emerged as a strategic tool in neuropsychiatric research. This emergence is due to many factors, including the modest reproducibility of results from studies directed toward etiologies and appreciation for the complex relationships between genes and behavior. Disease heterogeneity is often guaranteed, rather than simplified, through the current diagnostic system; inherent benefits of endophenotypes include more specific disease concepts and process definitions. Endophenotypes can be neurophysiological, biochemical, endocrine, neuroanatomical, cognitive or neuropsychological. Heritability and stability (state independence) represent key components of any useful endophenotype. Importantly, they characterize an approach that reduces the complexity of symptoms and multifaceted behaviors, resulting in units of analysis that are more amenable to being modeled in animals. We discuss the benefits of more direct interpretation of clinical endophenotypes by basic behavioral scientists. With the advent of important findings regarding the genes that predispose to psychiatric illness, we are at an important crossroads where, without anthropomorphizing, animal models may provide homologous components of psychiatric illness, rather than simply equating to similar (loosely analogized) behaviors, validators of the efficacy of current medications or models of symptoms. We conclude that there exists a need for increased collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists, the result of which should be to improve diagnosis, classification and treatment on one end and to increase the construct relevance of model organisms on the other. [source]

A single application of MK801 causes symptoms of acute psychosis, deficits in spatial memory, and impairment of synaptic plasticity in rats

HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 2 2008
Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Abstract Schizophrenia is mostly a progressive psychiatric illness. Although cognitive changes in chronic schizophrenia have been investigated, little is known about the consequences of a single psychotic episode on memory mechanisms and formation. We investigated changes in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory in a rat model of an acute psychotic episode. Application of NMDA receptor antagonists, such as MK801 (dizolcilpine) in rats, have been shown to give rise to an acute and short-lasting behavioral state, which mirrors many symptoms of schizophrenia. Furthermore, NMDA antagonist-intake in humans elicits symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, delusions, and affective blunting. We therefore treated animals with a single systemic injection of MK801 (5 mg/kg). Increased stereotypy, locomotion, and ataxia were evident immediately after MK801-treatment, with effects disappearing within 24 h. MK801-treatment caused a disruption of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex, 1 day but not 7 or 28 days after treatment. These effects were consistent with the occurrence of an acute psychotic episode. LTP was profoundly impaired in freely moving rats 7 days after MK801 application. Four weeks after treatment, a slight recovery of LTP was seen, however marked deficits in long-term spatial memory were evident. These data suggest that treatment with MK801 to generate an acute psychotic episode in rats, gives rise to grave disturbances in synaptic plasticity and is associated with lasting impairments with the ability to form spatial memory. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Melatonin as a potential therapeutic agent in psychiatric illness

Maria D. Maldonado
Abstract The aim of this review was to summarize the potential use of melatonin in the treatment of mental disorders, specifically bipolar disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. To date, melatonin has been most commonly used in psychiatry because of its hypnotic, rhythm resynchronizing, and antioxidant actions. Here, we examine other properties of the melatonin including its anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, and drug detoxification actions as well as its protective effects against neural loss. The brain is an intricate sensory and motor organ which receives information from both the external and internal environments. It transduces information into complex chemical and electrical signals which are transmitted throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and the organism. The pathogenesis of mental disorders remains ambiguous and neuroinflammation has been proposed as a causative agent. We consider the potential contributions of melatonin as therapeutic agent in CNS and during neuroinflammation in mental disorders. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Possible predictors of response to clonazepam augmentation therapy in patients with protracted depression

Shigeru Morishita
Abstract Introduction Clonazepam has been shown to be an effective supplementary treatment for depression. Thus, it would be useful to determine which patient characteristics are associated with response to clonazepam. Aims The purpose of this study was to examine the possible predictors of response to clonazepam in the treatment of depression. Method A retrospective cohort analysis was carried out in 120 patients with protracted depression who were being treated with clonazepam. Results A variety of clinical factors, including age, gender, type of depression, frequency of episodes, family history; and daily dose of clonazepam, were analyzed as possible predictors of response to clonazepam. A Weibull regression analysis showed that the factors that best predicted improvement with clonazepam augmentation were negative family history of psychiatric illness (ecoef,=,0.378), daily clonazepam dose of 2.5,4.0,mg (ecoef,=,0.160), and unipolar depression (ecoef,=,0.147). Conclusions These factors should be considered when clonazepam augmentation therapy is selected for protracted depression. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The platelet as a peripheral marker in psychiatric illness

Helein Plein
Abstract The identification of peripheral markers of psychiatric illness is important if an improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases with overlapping symptomatology is desired. There are many disorders that not only have overlapping symptomatology, but also have similar biological disturbances. The functional capability of the neurons involved in the disease processes may be at the crux of the underlying pathology. The platelet intracellular calcium response to neurotransmitter stimulation has previously been used as a peripheral marker of psychiatric illness. This review discusses evidence in support of the extended use of the platelet as a peripheral marker. The use of the platelet intracellular calcium response to neurotransmitter stimulation as a state or trait marker in major depression, the specificity and selectivity of this response, and the possible use of the platelet as a peripheral marker in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, mania and psychotic depression are shown. Finally, a proposed mechanism for the association between certain psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular disease is discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Glutamate and its role in psychiatric illness

Brendan Belsham
Abstract Glutamate, a dicarboxylic amino acid, is the most abundantly active neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain; it is also the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex. As our knowledge of this neurotransmitter deepens, it is increasingly being implicated in the pathophysiology of mental illness. This review begins by examining the physiology of glutamate and its receptors. Its role in memory, movement, perception and neuronal development is discussed. The development of the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia is traced, and the emerging lines of evidence for attenuated function of the N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor in schizophrenia are examined. For ease of discussion, these are divided into pharmacological, post-mortem, imaging, platelet and genetic studies. Interactions between glutamate and other neurotransmitters are discussed, as are possible mechanisms by which such altered receptor activity might result in the clinical expression of schizophrenia. The possible role of glutamate in major depression and bipolar disorder is explored. The review concludes by highlighting the importance of avoiding a reductionist approach to the pathophysiology of any mental illness. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis presenting with recurrent oral mucosal ulcers and multiple skin lesions responding to olanzapine treatment

Ulviye Atilgano, lu MD
Monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis (MHP) is a form of psychosis characterized by the delusional idea that there is a serious problem in the skin or other body parts. Because MHP patients believe that their complaint is dermatological, not psychiatric, they often admit to several other medical disciplines before coming to a psychiatry clinic. This leads to a series of time-consuming examinations and treatment interventions. In this case report, we emphasize the importance of diagnosing the illness correctly and referring the patient to a psychiatrist. The patient presented in this report has been treated with a new generation neuroleptic, olanzapine. This treatment has led to complete resolution of delusional symptoms. Therefore, we conclude that knowing that MHP is a psychiatric illness allows early establishment of diagnosis and successful treatment. [source]

Next of kin's conceptions of the quality of care in the psychiatric setting: A phenomenographic study

Agneta Schröder
ABSTRACT:, The next of kin play a decisive role in the care provided for patients. This and their unique experience of psychiatric care make it important to include them when defining quality of care. The aim of the present study was to describe how next of kin perceive the concept of quality of care in the case of psychiatric care. Twelve next of kin were included in a qualitative interview study and a phenomenographic approach was used for the analysis of the interviews. The next of kin described quality of care mainly from their own perspective but also to a large extent from the patient's perspective as well. Five descriptive categories resulted: dignity, security, participation, recovery, and health-promoting surroundings. Good relations and communication between staff, patients, and next of kin emerged as the central factors regarding the quality of psychiatric care. The next of kin asked for information about psychiatric illnesses and wanted to cooperate in the care. They avoid telling others about their family member's psychiatric illness because of a feeling of shame and guilt. Staff education regarding such feelings and stigmatization could be useful in furthering the understanding of the next of kin's distress and developing interventions to alleviate it. Clinical practice can be improved by guidelines and instruments developed on the basis of this study. [source]

Validity and reliability of an inpatient severity of psychiatric illness measure

Bentson H. McFarland
Abstract Inpatient psychiatric severity measures are often used but few psychometric data are available. This study evaluated the psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of a measure used to assess severity of psychiatric illness among inpatients. Using the severity measure, minimally trained raters conducted retrospective patient record reviews to assess medical necessity for psychiatric hospitalization. The data analysis compared 135 civilly committed psychiatric inpatients with a heterogeneous group of 248 psychiatric inpatients at a general hospital. The severity measure showed acceptable inter-rater reliability in both populations. Two-way analysis of variance showed that the intra-class correlation coefficient for the total score was 0.65 for general hospital subjects and 0.63 for civilly committed subjects. Differences in mean scores were substantial (15 out of a possible 75 points for general hospital subjects versus 42 for civilly committed subjects, Mann-Whitney U = 562, p < 0.001). As expected, all civilly committed subjects were well above admission cut-off score of 12, versus only 64% of the general hospital patients. The measure is appropriate for retrospective severity assessment and may also be useful for pre-admission screening. Copyright © 2005 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Behavioral Symptoms in Residential Care/Assisted Living Facilities: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Medication Management

Ann L. Gruber-Baldini PhD
Objectives: To examine the prevalence, correlates, and medication management of behavioral symptoms in elderly people living in residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) facilities. Design: Cross-sectional study. Settings: A stratified random sample of 193 RC/AL facilities in four states (Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina). Participants: A total of 2,078 RC/AL residents aged 65 and older. Measurement: Behavioral symptoms were classified using a modified version of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Additional items on resistance to care were also examined. Results: Approximately one-third (34%) of RC/AL residents exhibited one or more behavioral symptoms at least once a week. Thirteen percent exhibited aggressive behavioral symptoms, 20% demonstrated physically nonaggressive behavioral symptoms, 22% expressed verbal behavioral symptoms, and 13% resisted taking medications or activities of daily living care. Behavioral symptoms were associated with the presence of depression, psychosis, dementia, cognitive impairment, and functional dependency, and these relationships persisted across subtypes of behavioral symptoms. Overall, behavioral symptoms were more prevalent in smaller facilities. More than 50% of RC/AL residents were taking a psychotropic medication, and two-thirds had some mental health problem indicator (dementia, depression, psychosis, or other psychiatric illness). Conclusion: Integrating mental health services within the process of care in RC/AL is needed to manage and accommodate the high prevalence of behavioral symptoms in this evolving long-term setting. [source]

Refining diagnoses: applying the DC-LD to an Irish population with intellectual disability

A. Felstrom
Abstract Background The diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders for use with adults with learning disabilities/mental retardation (DC-LD) is a diagnostic tool developed in 2001 to improve upon existing classification systems for adults with learning disability. The aim of this study was to apply the classification system described by the DC-LD to a residential intellectual disability (ID) population to examine whether it improved our diagnostic understanding of residents. Methods Chart reviews of 113 of 178 people in a residential ID service were conducted. For each resident, information was recorded according to the DC-LD multi-axial system. Each resident's case was then discussed with a member of nursing staff familiar with the resident. If diagnosis was unclear, the case was discussed with a senior clinical psychiatrist. Results The percentage of residents with a moderate to profound ID was 87.6%. In total, 94 diagnoses of psychiatric illness (Axis III, Level B, DC-LD) were made. Of those 94 diagnoses, seven new diagnoses were found because of DC-LD criteria. Of the total number of psychiatric diagnoses made, 72.3% were non-specific, residual category diagnoses. A total of 79 residents (69.9%) had at least one behaviour problem diagnosed on Axis III, Level D, Problem behaviours. Fifty-six (49.6%) of residents in this sample had co-morbid epilepsy. Conclusions In people with moderate to profound learning disabilities, diagnosis continues to be challenging. The DC-LD is a useful tool in helping to clarify diagnoses in this population by providing revised criteria and a system to classify problem behaviours. The DC-LD would be more helpful if specific axes were included to document medical and psychosocial problems independently from other diagnoses. Further research is warranted to determine whether the DC-LD hierarchical approach to diagnosis improves diagnostic validity. [source]

Gender-Related Influences of Parental Alcoholism on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Illnesses: Analysis of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
Peter T. Morgan
Background:, Offspring of individuals with alcoholism are at increased risk for psychiatric illness, but the effects of gender on this risk are not well known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the gender of the parent with alcoholism and the gender of offspring affect the association between parental alcoholism and offspring psychiatric illness. Method:, We analyzed the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data to examine the gender-specific prevalence of axis I and axis II disorders in 23,006 male and 17,368 female respondents with and without a history of paternal or maternal alcoholism. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated for the disorders based on gender and presence of maternal or paternal alcoholism. Results:, Maternal or paternal alcoholism was associated with a higher prevalence of every disorder examined, regardless of the gender of offspring. Gender-related differences in prevalences were present in nearly all examined disorders, and the association between parental alcoholism and offspring psychiatric disorders was significantly different in men and women. These differences included stronger associations in female offspring of men with alcoholism (alcohol abuse without dependence); in female offspring of women with alcoholism (mania, nicotine dependence, alcohol abuse, and schizoid personality disorder); in male offspring of men with alcoholism (mania); and in male offspring of women with alcoholism (panic disorder). Conclusions:, Interactions between gender and parental alcoholism were specific to certain disorders but varied in their effects, and in general female children of women with alcoholism appear at greatest risk for adult psychopathology. [source]

Relatives of persons with recently discovered serious mental illness: in need of support to become resource persons in treatment and recovery

K. NORDBY cand. polit. rpn
Accessible summary ,,Relatives want the health workers to regard the patient not only as sick but also regard him/her as a person. Parents want to get involved at an early stage and find it important that their opinions and experiences are heard. The staff also express that relatives possess knowledge that should be important for them to receive. ,,The relatives underline the importance of an opening for hope to be present at all time, else you do not have the strength to cope with the situation. No matter how pessimistic the staff are, hope must be expressed. ,,The relatives want to know what happens after discharge. They do not always know what questions to ask before discharge as challenges are discovered gradually. They want to know how to behave and what to say to their family member with a psychiatric illness. When parents can impart their concerns and receive adjusted counselling their level of stress is reduced. ,,It is important to consider relatives as resource persons. The staff consider themselves as experts on psychosis and the parents as experts on their own children. Abstract A considerable amount of research on the treatment of young people suffering from serious mental illnesses states that good collaboration with relatives is essential for reducing relapse, improving recovery and enhancing quality of life for patients and relatives. The aim of this study was to explore and describe what facilitates active involvement for relatives in the treatment and rehabilitation of their family member. The present study is a part of a larger cooperative inquiry project carried out in a mental hospital in southern Norway focusing on improving practices for collaboration with relatives. This sub-study presents results from eight focus group interviews with relatives and staff members. Data were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. The results showed that the relatives had mostly positive experiences from their encounters with the staff, although some negative experiences were articulated. Both relatives and staff underlined the importance of developing a good encounter characterized by sharing information, giving guidance and support according to the relatives' needs as well as addressing existential issues. This was perceived as a necessary basis for the relatives to become active participants in the treatment and rehabilitation process. To activate this basis, the relatives are dependent on the staff members' ability to convey and nurture hope related to the patient's recovery and quality of life. [source]

Newspaper coverage of a violent assault by a mentally ill person

C. STARK mbchb mph msc mrcpsych ffph
The media is an important source of public information on mental ill-health. A man with a serious psychiatric illness attacked a minister with a knife at a Remembrance Sunday service in a remote, rural part of the Highlands, inflicting a severe facial wound. We aimed to identify lessons for the National Health Service (NHS) from the media coverage of the incident and of a subsequent court case and NHS Highland inquiry and in addition to explore how newspaper reporters approached reporting such incidents. We searched local and regional, national Scottish, and the Scottish editions of three UK newspapers for relevant coverage. We also conducted structured telephone interviews with eight reporters who had attended the inquiry press conference. Most of the media coverage was associated with the assault and the court case, rather than the inquiry results. Only three of 10 inquiry recommendations were mentioned in any reports. Coverage largely dealt with identified shortfalls, rather than proposed solutions. The NHS had made little comment in advance of the announcement of the inquiry results. Most of the newspaper coverage had already occurred. The NHS therefore limited its opportunity to influence newspaper coverage. The interpretation of the results is limited by the size of the study, but the coverage of such events forms part of the discourse on mental health in the media episodes and may have some affect on public perception of mental health issues. We conclude that, without providing confidential information, the NHS should take a more active stance in providing information on the nature and treatment of mental illness in such instances, even in advance of court cases. [source]

Brief Intervention for Problem Drinkers in a Chinese Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Hospital Setting

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2009
Yun-Fang Tsai
Background:, Alcohol is a legal and accessible substance in Taiwan. As excessive alcohol has been linked to health and social problems, it is necessary to develop a brief, rapid, and low-cost tool to help health care providers deal with persons in Taiwan whose alcohol consumption has become hazardous or harmful to their health. Methods:, A randomized controlled clinical trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups was designed. Eighteen medical/surgical units at a medical center in northern Taiwan were randomly assigned to 2 groups: experimental (n = 9) and control (n = 9). Inpatients on the units were enrolled if they met the following criteria: were older than 18 years, had no severe psychiatric illness, and were not pregnant. The experimental group (n = 138) received the intervention, a 15-minute counseling visit in which nurses screened participants using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), provided a health promotion booklet for adults, and individually discussed the booklet contents with patients based on their drinking level (AUDIT score). The control group (n = 137) received no treatment. Patterns of alcohol consumption were determined by AUDIT scores at baseline, 6, and 12 months later. Results:, Alcohol use disorders identification test scores decreased significantly in both groups at 6 months after the intervention, but did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. However, 12 months after the brief alcohol intervention, experimental subjects' AUDIT scores were significantly better than those of the control group. Conclusions:, Our brief alcohol intervention provided a 12-month benefit for problem drinkers in Taiwan. [source]

The impact of personality disorders on treatment outcome in bipolar disorder: A review

Peter J. Bieling
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric illness for which there are a number of efficacious and effective treatments. However, for many sufferers recovery is incomplete or tenuous. Factors associated with poor outcomes in the disorder are of special interest, and comorbidity of BD with personality disorder (PD) has been proposed as a possible predictor of poor outcome. We reviewed available studies (n = 12) in the literature that specifically assessed the impact of personality psychopathology on illness outcomes in BD including functioning, response to treatment and suicidality. Quality of methodology, assessment methods and number of participants in studies were highly variable. Despite these variations in study quality, the presence of a PD was robustly associated (usually medium size effects) with a worse outcome in BD. Patients with BD and a diagnosis of PD are more likely to be hospitalized, require more time to achieve symptom stabilization, have more chronic impairments in occupational and social functioning, are less compliant to medication, have greater levels of suicidality and utilize more psychiatric services than patients with BD alone. The implications of these findings for further research and clinical care in BD are discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]