Psychiatric

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Psychiatric

  • psychiatric admission
  • psychiatric assessment
  • psychiatric association
  • psychiatric bed
  • psychiatric care
  • psychiatric clinic
  • psychiatric clinical practice
  • psychiatric co-morbidity
  • psychiatric comorbidity
  • psychiatric complications
  • psychiatric condition
  • psychiatric department
  • psychiatric diagnosis
  • psychiatric difficulty
  • psychiatric disabilities
  • psychiatric disease
  • psychiatric disorder
  • psychiatric disorders
  • psychiatric disturbance
  • psychiatric drug
  • psychiatric dysfunction
  • psychiatric effects
  • psychiatric epidemiology
  • psychiatric evaluation
  • psychiatric examination
  • psychiatric facility
  • psychiatric feature
  • psychiatric genetics
  • psychiatric history
  • psychiatric hospital
  • psychiatric hospitalization
  • psychiatric illness
  • psychiatric in-patient
  • psychiatric inpatient
  • psychiatric inpatient care
  • psychiatric inpatient unit
  • psychiatric institution
  • psychiatric intensive care unit
  • psychiatric intervention
  • psychiatric interview
  • psychiatric journal
  • psychiatric literature
  • psychiatric medication
  • psychiatric morbidity
  • psychiatric nurse
  • psychiatric nursing
  • psychiatric nursing practice
  • psychiatric outcome
  • psychiatric outpatient
  • psychiatric outpatient clinic
  • psychiatric patient
  • psychiatric perspective
  • psychiatric population
  • psychiatric practice
  • psychiatric problem
  • psychiatric rating scale
  • psychiatric referral
  • psychiatric research
  • psychiatric research interview
  • psychiatric service
  • psychiatric services
  • psychiatric setting
  • psychiatric side effects
  • psychiatric status
  • psychiatric symptom
  • psychiatric symptomatology
  • psychiatric treatment
  • psychiatric unit
  • psychiatric ward

  • Selected Abstracts


    Serious psychiatric and neurological adverse effects of herbal medicines , a systematic review

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2003
    E. Ernst
    Objective: Psychiatric and neurological patients frequently try herbal medicines often under the assumption that they are safe. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a summary of recent data on severe psychiatric and neurological adverse effects of herbal remedies. Method: Computerized literature searches were carried out to identify all reports of psychiatric and neurological adverse effects associated with herbal medicines. These data were subsequently extracted, validated and summarized in narrative and tabular form. Results: Numerous case reports comprise a diverse array of adverse events including cerebral arteritis, cerebral oedema, delirium, coma, confusion, encephalopathy, hallucinations, intracerebral haemorrhage, and other types of cerebrovascular accidents, movement disorders, mood disturbances, muscle weakness, paresthesiae and seizures. Several fatalities are on record. They are caused by improper use, toxicity of herbal ingredients, contamination and adulteration of preparations and herb/drug interactions. Conclusion: Herbal medicines can cause serious psychiatric and neurological adverse effects. [source]


    The European perspective of psychiatric reform

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2001
    T. Becker
    Objective:,To provide a framework of mental health care reform across Europe. Method:,On the basis of summary quantitative indices and expert ratings of broad aspects of mental health care structure, the process and outcome of psychiatric reform common trends and differences are outlined. Results:,There has been a broad trend away from an institutional model of care with the mental hospital as the dominant institution, and community- and general hospital-based mental health services of varying comprehensiveness are in place in most countries. The social and broad community aspects of psychiatric reform have generally been somewhat less successful than changes in service set-up. Assessment of reform outcomes proves particularly difficult. Conclusion:,Psychiatric reform processes have achieved some of their aims, and there are broadly similar trends. Regional variation is substantial and may be as important as cross-national differences. Mental health care reform is ongoing across the European region. [source]


    Bridging Psychiatric and Anthropological Approaches: The Case of "Nerves" in the United States

    ETHOS, Issue 3 2009
    Britt Dahlberg
    Psychiatrists and anthropologists have taken distinct analytic approaches when confronted with differences between emic and etic models for distress: psychiatrists have translated folk models into diagnostic categories whereas anthropologists have emphasized culture-specific meanings of illness. The rift between psychiatric and anthropological research keeps "individual disease" and "culture" disconnected and thus hinders the study of interrelationships between mental health and culture. In this article we bridge psychiatric and anthropological approaches by using cultural models to explore the experience of nerves among 27 older primary care patients from Baltimore, Maryland. We suggest that cultural models of distress arise in response to personal experiences, and in turn, shape those experiences. Shifting research from a focus on comparing content of emic and etic concepts, to examining how these social realities and concepts are coconstructed, may resolve epistemological and ontological debates surrounding differences between emic and etic concepts, and improve understanding of the interrelationships between culture and health. ["nerves," cultural models, metaphor, psychiatry, embodiment] [source]


    The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and behavioural disturbances and the use of psychotropic drugs in Norwegian nursing homes,

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 9 2007
    Geir Selbk
    Abstract Background Psychiatric and behavioural symptoms in dementia are associated with a range of negative outcomes, including institutional placement and the widespread use of psychotropic drugs in spite of limited evidence for their efficacy. Aims To determine the prevalence of psychiatric and behavioural symptoms and the pattern of psychotropic drug prescription in patients with various degrees of dementia. Methods A sample of 1,163 non-selected nursing home patients were assessed by means of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Clinical Dementia Rating scale and Lawton's activities of daily living scale. In addition, information was collected from the patients' records. Results Dementia was found in 81% of the patients and 72% of them had clinically significant psychiatric and behavioural symptoms. The frequencies of symptoms increased with the severity of the dementia. Psychotropic medication was being prescribed to 75% of patients with dementia. There was a significant relationship between the type of drug and the symptom for which it had been dispensed. Conclusion Psychiatric and behavioural symptoms are frequent in nursing homes and the rate increases with the progression of the dementia. Systematic programmes are needed for disseminating skills and providing guidance regarding the evaluation and treatment of these symptoms in nursing homes. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Effect of Psychiatric and Other Nonmotor Symptoms on Disability in Parkinson's Disease

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 5 2004
    Daniel Weintraub MD
    Objectives: To examine the effect of depression and other nonmotor symptoms on functional ability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Design: A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of PD patients receiving specialty care. Setting: The Parkinson's Disease Research, Education and Clinical Center at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants: One hundred fourteen community-dwelling patients with idiopathic PD. Measurements: The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS); Hoehn and Yahr Stage; Mini-Mental State Examination; Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, depression module; probes for psychotic symptoms; Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; Geriatric Depression Scale,Short Form; Apathy Scale; and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Disability was rated using the UPDRS activity of daily living (ADL) score and the Schwab and England ADL score. Multivariate analysis determined effect of depression and other nonmotor symptoms on disability. Results: The presence of psychosis, depressive disorder, increasing depression severity, age, duration of PD, cognitive impairment, apathy, sleepiness, motor impairment, and percentage of time with dyskinesias were related to greater disability in bivariate analyses. Entering these factors into two multiple regression analyses, only the increasing severity of depression and worsening cognition were associated with greater disability using the UPDRS ADL score, accounting for 37% of the variance in disability (P<.001). These two factors plus increasing severity of PD accounted for 54% of the variance in disability using the Schwab and England ADL score (P<.001). Conclusion: Results support and extend previous findings that psychiatric and other nonmotor symptoms contribute significantly to disability in PD. Screening for nonmotor symptoms in PD is necessary to more fully explain functional limitations. Further study is required to determine whether identifying and treating these symptoms will improve function and quality of life. [source]


    Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The Field of Knowledge

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 8 2006
    Declan Patton
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Health characteristics and health services utilization in older adults with intellectual disability living in community residences

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 4 2002
    M. P. Janicki
    Abstract Background The health status and health needs of adults with intellectual disability (ID) change with advancing age, and are often accompanied by difficulties with vision, hearing, mobility, stamina and some mental processes. Aim The present study collected health status information on a large cohort of adults with ID aged , 40 years living in small group, community-based residences in two representative areas of New York State, USA. Method Adult group home residents with ID aged between 40 and 79 years (n = 1371) were surveyed to determine their health status and patterns of morbidity. Results Most subjects were characterized as being in good health. The frequency of cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and respiratory conditions, and sensory impairments increased with age, while neurological, endocrine and dermatological diseases did not. Psychiatric and behavioural disorders declined with increasing age, at least through 70 years of age. Although most conditions increased with age, their frequency varied by sex and level of ID. Frequencies of age-related organ system morbidity were compared to data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey III. It was found that adults with ID had a lower overall reported frequency of cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, and adult-onset diabetes. Inconsistencies with mortality data among older adults with ID were observed (which showed equal if not greater prevalence of deaths as a result of cardiovascular disease and cancer). Conclusion These results suggest that either a cohort effect is operating (i.e. contemporary populations are healthier than previous populations), or that there may be under-recognition of select risk factors and diseases. [source]


    Psychiatric and Behavioural Disorders in Developmental Disabilities and Mental Retardation

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 2 2000
    Nick Bouras (ed.)
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Mood-Related Drinking Motives Mediate the Familial Association Between Major Depression and Alcohol Dependence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2009
    Kelly C. Young-Wolff
    Background:, Major depression and alcohol dependence co-occur within individuals and families to a higher than expected degree. This study investigated whether mood-related drinking motives mediate the association between major depression and alcohol dependence, and what the genetic and environmental bases are for this relationship. Methods:, The sample included 5,181 individuals from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders, aged 30 and older. Participants completed a clinical interview which assessed lifetime major depression, alcohol dependence, and mood-related drinking motives. Results:, Mood-related drinking motives significantly explained the depression-alcohol dependence relationship at both the phenotypic and familial levels. Results from twin analyses indicated that for both males and females, the familial factors underlying mood-related drinking motives accounted for virtually all of the familial variance that overlaps between depression and alcohol dependence. Conclusions:, The results are consistent with an indirect role for mood-related drinking motives in the etiology of depression and alcohol dependence, and suggest that mood-related drinking motives may be a useful index of vulnerability for these conditions. [source]


    Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing , The Craft of Caring, Second Edition

    JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC & MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 6 2010
    SUE BARKER rmn bsc msc pg dip (prof. dev.)
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Association Between Sweet Preference and Paternal History of Alcoholism in Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Patients

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2003
    A. B. Kampov-Polevoy
    Background: The relationship between preference for stronger sweet solutions and propensity to excessive alcohol drinking is supported by both animal and human studies. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that sweet preference is associated with the genetic risk of alcoholism as measured by a paternal history of alcoholism. Methods: Participants were 180 patients admitted to a residential treatment program for the treatment of alcoholism, drug dependence, or psychiatric conditions. In addition to a routine medical examination, patients completed the standard sweet preference test twice (on the 9th and 24th days after admission), and the family history of alcoholism was evaluated. Results: Sweet preference was shown to be stable over time. It was strongly associated with a paternal history of alcoholism, with family history,positive patients approximately 5 times more likely to prefer stronger sweet solutions than family history,negative subjects. Such factors as dependence on alcohol, cocaine, opiates, cannabis, other drugs (including prescription drugs), and tobacco smoking, as well as demographics (gender and age), did not significantly interfere with association between sweet preference and paternal history of alcoholism. Conclusions: These findings provide some support for the hypothesis that preference for stronger sweet solutions is associated with a genetic predisposition to alcoholism as measured by a paternal history of alcoholism. [source]


    Impact on adherence and sustained virological response of psychiatric side effects during peginterferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 8 2006
    L. CASTERA
    Summary Background The psychiatric side effects of interferon, often responsible for dose reduction or treatment discontinuation, represent a major limitation in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Aim To prospectively assess the impact on adherence and sustained virological response (SVR) of the occurrence of psychiatric side effects during peginterferon and ribavirin therapy for CHC. Methods Ninety-eight consecutive treatment-nave CHC patients receiving a standard course of peginterferon plus ribavirin were systematically screened for psychiatric side effects, using DSM-IV, at baseline and both during and after treatment. Results Psychiatric side effects occurred in 38 patients (39%), mostly within the first 12 weeks (87%), and always consisted of mood disorders. Overall, 68% of patients achieved an SVR (71% of patients with mood disorders and 68% of those without; P = N.S.). Peginterferon and ribavirin dose reductions did not differ between patients with mood disorders and those without (46% vs. 37%, respectively; P = N.S. and 13% vs. 22%, respectively; P = N.S.). Anti-viral therapy had to be discontinued in four patients (nonresponse: two, hyperthyroidism: one, psychiatric event: one). Conclusion Early detection and appropriate management of psychiatric side effects during peginterferon and ribavirin therapy for CHC allow optimizing adherence and virological efficacy. [source]


    Psychiatric and psychological outcomes of Japanese living donors following liver transplantation

    PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 4 2009
    Nobuto Shibata md
    This study indexed the mental status in six living donor liver transplantations (LDLT) performed at the Juntendo University Hospital between 2005 and 2007. The donors' preoperative and postoperative psychiatric and psychological status was assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the State,Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The present study found that the donors' POMS anger/hostile score decreased significantly following transplantation. In addition, the STAI score suggested that donors had little anxiety or depression following the operation. Although the present study was limited due to the small number of donors, the findings suggest that a successful operation stabilizes donor mentality. The studied donors will be reassessed for their mental and physical condition in the future. [source]


    Co-Morbidity of Smoking in Patients with Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders

    THE AMERICAN JOURNAL ON ADDICTIONS, Issue 2 2005
    David Kalman Ph.D.
    This article reviews cigarette smoking in patients with psychiatric disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD). Rates of smoking are approximately 23% in the U.S. population but approximately twoto four-fold higher in patients with PD and SUD. Many remaining smokers have had repeated smoking cessation failures, possibly due to the presence of co-morbid PD and SUDs. There is modest, evidence-based support for effective treatment interventions for nicotine addiction in PD and SUD. Further research is needed to increase our understanding of nicotine addiction in PD and SUD and develop more effective treatment interventions. [source]


    Maternal Transmission of Nicotine Dependence: Psychiatric, Neurocognitive and Prenatal Factors

    THE AMERICAN JOURNAL ON ADDICTIONS, Issue 1 2001
    Raymond Niaura Ph.D.
    This paper reviews the literature on maternal influences on smoking behaviors of offspring from the perspective of neuropsychiatric deficits that may be transmitted from mother to child. In particular, we review what is known regarding associations between: (1) in-utero exposure to smoking, (2) adolescent neurocognitive functioning and psychiatric comorbidity, and (3) the patterns of smoking and progression of nicotine dependence. Furthering our knowledge of these differences in susceptibility to nicotine dependence among youth will provide additional avenues for prevention and intervention efforts targeted toward those at high risk for dependence. [source]


    Dyskinesias and associated psychiatric disorders following streptococcal infections

    CHILD: CARE, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2004
    Richard Reading
    Dyskinesias and associated psychiatric disorders following streptococcal infections . DaleRC, HeymanI, SurteesRAH, ChurchAJ, GiovannoniG, GoodmanR & NevilleBGR . ( 2004 ) Archives of Disease in Childhood , 89 , 604 , 610 . Background The classical extrapyramidal movement disorder following , haemolytic streptococcus (BHS) infection is Sydenham's chorea (SC). Recently, other post-streptococcal movement disorders have been described, including motor tics and dystonia. Associated emotional and behavioural alteration is characteristic. Aims To describe experience of post-streptococcal dyskinesias and associated comorbid psychiatric features presenting to a tertiary referral centre 1999,2002. Methods In all patients, dyskinetic movement disorders followed BHS pharyngeal infection. BHS infection was defined by pharyngeal culture of the organism, or paired streptococcal serology. Movement disorders were classified according to international criteria, and validated by experienced child neurologists. Psychiatric complications were defined using ICD-10 criteria using a validated psychiatric interview. Results In the 40 patients, the following dyskinetic movement disorders were present: chorea (n = 20), motor tics (n = 16), dystonia (n = 5), tremor (n = 3), stereotypies (n = 2), opsoclonus (n = 2) and myoclonus (n = 1). Sixty-five per cent of, the, chorea, patients, were, female,, whereas, 69% of the tic patients were male. ICD-10 psychiatric diagnoses were made in 62.5%. Using the same psychiatric instrument, only 8.9% of UK children would be expected to have an ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis. Emotional disorders occurred in 47.5%, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (27.5%), generalized anxiety (25%) and depressive episode (17.5%). Additional psychiatric morbidity included conduct disorders (27.5%) and hyperkinetic disorders (15%). Psychiatric, movement and post-streptococcal autoimmune disorders were commonly observed in family members. At a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, 72.5% had continuing movement and psychiatric disorders. Conclusion Post-streptococcal dyskinesias occur with significant and disabling psychiatric comorbidity and are potential autoimmune models of common ,idiopathic' movement and psychiatric disorders in children. Multiple factors may be involved in disease expression including genetic predisposition, developmental status and the patient's sex. [source]


    Psychiatric and psychosomatic symptoms are increasing problems among Swedish schoolchildren

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 8 2006
    se Victorin CederquistArticle first published online: 29 MAR 200
    Abstract Paediatricians and other professionals in Sweden note that the amount of children with psychiatric and psychosomatic symptoms is growing in number. Suicide attempts among the young (15,24 y) increased by more than 30% from 1998,2003. The Swedish National Board for Health and Welfare's 2004 guidelines for school healthcare shed light on this increasing problem among schoolchildren. An article in this issue of Acta Paediatrica, "Living conditions and psychosomatic complaints in Swedish schoolchildren", analyses economic stress as a causative factor leading to psychosomatic symptoms such as headache, abdominal pain and difficulty in falling asleep. Living conditions, however, most likely include other factors related to our modern and ever-changing society that also have an impact on the growing child. Conclusion: Psychiatric health is changing for the worse among Swedish schoolchildren. The cause is multifactorial. Economic stress is one factor, but there are also other possible causes related to modern society that correlate to the increase of psychosomatic problems among schoolchildren. Three major problems are among those suspected: impaired education and deficient working environment in Swedish schools, a general lack of adult contact and guidance, and excessive computer and TV use. [source]


    Factors predicting arrest for homeless persons receiving integrated residential treatment for co-occurring disorders

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 5 2009
    Blake Barrett
    Background,Homeless individuals are at increased risk for health and criminal justice problems. Aims,The aim of this study was to examine risk factors affecting arrest rates in a cohort of homeless people with co-occurring psychiatric and substance-abuse disorders. Methods,Baseline data were collected from 96 homeless individuals residing in a residential treatment facility for people with co-occurring disorders. Arrest data were obtained for 2 years following treatment intake. Regression analyses were employed to examine interactions between study variables. Results,One third of the sample was arrested during the 2-year follow-up period, principally for drug offences. People referred to treatment directly from the criminal justice system were four times more likely to re-offend than those referred from other sources. Participants' perceived need for mental-health services reduced risk of arrest while their perception of medical needs increased this risk. Conclusions,The relationship between referral from a criminal justice source and re-arrest after admission to the treatment facility is unsurprising, and consistent with previous literature, but the suggestion of an independently increased risk in the presence of perceived physical health-care needs is worthy of further study. The lower risk of arrest for people who perceive that they have psychological needs is encouraging. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Some benefits of dichotomization in psychiatric and criminological research

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2000
    Professor David P. Farrington PhD FBA
    Background The product-moment correlation r is widely used in criminology and psychiatry to measure strength of association. However, most criminological and psychiatric variables contravene its underlying assumptions. Aim To compare statistical measures of association based on dichotomous variables with the use of r. Method Explanatory variables for delinquency are investigated in the Pittsburgh Youth Study using a sample of 506 boys aged 13,14. Results Dichotomization does not necessarily cause a decrease in measured strength of associations. Conclusions about the most important explanatory variables for delinquency were not greatly affected by using dichotomous as opposed to continuous variables, by different dichotomization splits, or by using logistic versus OLS multiple regression. Non-linear relationships, interaction effects and multiple risk factor individuals were easily studied using dichotomous data. Conclusions Dichotomization produces meaningful findings that are easily understandable to a wide audience. Measures of association for dichotomous variables, such as the odds ratio, have many advantages and are often more realistic and meaningful measures of strength of relationship than the product-moment correlation r. Copyright 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Gender differences in bipolar disorder type I and II

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2009
    K. Suominen
    Objective:, We investigated gender differences in bipolar disorder (BD) type I and II in a representative cohort of secondary care psychiatric in- and out-patients. Method:, In the prospective, naturalistic Jorvi Bipolar Study of 191 secondary care psychiatric in- and out-patients, 160 patients (85.1%) could be followed up for 18 months with a life chart. Results:, After adjusting for confounders, no marked differences in illness-related characteristics were found. However, female patients with BD had more lifetime comorbid eating disorders (P < 0.001, OR = 5.99, 95% CI 2.12,16.93) but less substance use disorders (P < 0.001, OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.16,0.56) than males. Median time to recurrence after remission was 3.1 months longer among men than women, female gender carrying a higher hazard of recurrence (P = 0.006, HR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.22,3.27). Conclusion:, Men and women with type I and II BD have fairly similar illness-related clinical characteristics, but their profile of comorbid disorders may differ significantly, particularly regarding substance use and eating disorders. In medium-term follow-up, females appear to have a higher hazard of recurrence than males. [source]


    The neuroanatomy and neuroendocrinology of fragile X syndrome

    DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEW, Issue 1 2004
    David Hessl
    Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by a single gene mutation on the X chromosome, offers a unique opportunity for investigation of gene,brain,behavior relationships. Recent advances in molecular genetics, human brain imaging, and behavioral studies have started to unravel the complex pathways leading to the cognitive, psychiatric, and physical features that are unique to this syndrome. In this article, we summarize studies focused on the neuroanatomy and neuroendocrinology of FXS. A review of structural imaging studies of individuals with the full mutation shows that several brain regions are enlarged, including the hippocampus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, and thalamus, even after controlling for overall brain volume. These regions mediate several cognitive and behavioral functions known to be aberrant in FXS such as memory and learning, information and sensory processing, and social and emotional behavior. Two regions, the cerebellar vermis, important for a variety of cognitive tasks and regulation of motor behavior, and the superior temporal gyrus, involved in processing complex auditory stimuli, are reported to be reduced in size relative to controls. Functional imaging, typically limited to females, has emphasized that individuals with FXS do not adequately recruit brain regions that are normally utilized by unaffected individuals to carry out various cognitive tasks, such as arithmetic processing or visual memory tasks. Finally, we review a number of neuroendocrine studies implicating hypothalamic dysfunction in FXS, including abnormal activation of the hypothalamic,pituitary,adrenal (HPA) axis. These studies may help to explain the abnormal stress responses, sleep abnormalities, and physical growth patterns commonly seen in affected individuals. In the future, innovative longitudinal studies to investigate development of neurobiologic and behavioral features over time, and ultimately empirical testing of pharmacological, behavioral, and even molecular genetic interventions using MRI are likely to yield significant positive changes in the lives of persons with FXS, as well as increase our understanding of the development of psychiatric and learning problems in the general population. MRDD Research Reviews 2004;10:17,24. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Prediction of mortality at age 40 in Danish males at high and low risk for alcoholism

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2004
    J. Knop
    Objective:, This prospective high-risk study examined the influence of father's alcoholism and other archival-generated measures on premature death. Method:, Sons of alcoholic fathers (n = 223) and sons of non-alcoholic fathers (n = 106) have been studied from birth to age 40. Archival predictors of premature death included father's alcoholism, childhood developmental data, and diagnostic information obtained from the Psychiatric Register and alcoholism clinics. Results:, By age 40, 21 of the 329 subjects had died (6.4%), a rate that is more than two times greater than expected. Sons of alcoholic fathers were not more likely to die by age 40. Premature death was associated with physical immaturity at 1-year of age and psychiatric/alcoholism treatment. No significant interactions were found between risk and archival measures. Conclusion:, Genetic vulnerability did not independently predict death at age 40. Death was associated with developmental immaturities and treatment for a psychiatric and/or substance abuse problem. [source]


    Screening for Adolescent Depression in a Pediatric Emergency Department

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 5 2006
    Emily Gale Scott MD
    Abstract Objectives: To describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents presenting to the emergency department (ED) and to describe their demographics and outcomes compared with adolescents endorsing low levels of depressive symptoms. Methods: The Beck Depression Inventory,2nd edition (BDI-II) was used to screen all patients 13,19 years of age who presented to the ED during the period of study. The BDI-II is a 21-item self-report instrument used to measure the presence and severity of depressive symptoms in adolescents and adults. Demographics and clinical outcomes of screening-program participants were abstracted by chart review. Patients were categorized into one of four severity categories (minimal, mild, moderate, or severe) and one of three presenting complaint categories (medical, trauma, mental health). Results: Four hundred eighty-seven patients were approached, and 351(72%) completed the screening protocol. Participants endorsed minimal (n= 192, 55%), mild (n= 52, 15%), moderate (n= 41, 11%), or severe depressive symptoms (n= 66, 19%). Those with moderate or severe depressive symptoms were more likely to be hospitalized. Of patients completing the BDI-II, 72% with psychiatric, 12% with traumatic, and 19% with medical chief complaints endorsed either moderate or severe depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are prevalent in this screening sample, regardless of presenting complaint. A substantial proportion of patients with nonpsychiatric chief complaints endorsed moderate or severe depressive symptoms. A screening program might allow earlier identification and referral of patients at risk for depression. [source]


    Serious psychiatric and neurological adverse effects of herbal medicines , a systematic review

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2003
    E. Ernst
    Objective: Psychiatric and neurological patients frequently try herbal medicines often under the assumption that they are safe. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a summary of recent data on severe psychiatric and neurological adverse effects of herbal remedies. Method: Computerized literature searches were carried out to identify all reports of psychiatric and neurological adverse effects associated with herbal medicines. These data were subsequently extracted, validated and summarized in narrative and tabular form. Results: Numerous case reports comprise a diverse array of adverse events including cerebral arteritis, cerebral oedema, delirium, coma, confusion, encephalopathy, hallucinations, intracerebral haemorrhage, and other types of cerebrovascular accidents, movement disorders, mood disturbances, muscle weakness, paresthesiae and seizures. Several fatalities are on record. They are caused by improper use, toxicity of herbal ingredients, contamination and adulteration of preparations and herb/drug interactions. Conclusion: Herbal medicines can cause serious psychiatric and neurological adverse effects. [source]


    A comparison of risk factors for habitual violence in pre-trial subjects

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2002
    S. Z. Kaliski
    Objective: Pre-trial referrals to the Valkenberg Hospital forensic unit over a 6-month period were studied. Habitually violent offenders were compared with those with no history of violence. Methods:, Risk factors known to be associated with violent behaviour were elicited, i.e. demographics, behaviour during index offence (such as impulsivity, identity of victim, use of weapon, accomplices, intoxication, psychotic symptoms), psychiatric and family histories, history of suicide attempts, past child abuse, head injury, criminal record, psychiatric diagnosis and presence of medical disorders. EEG's, Barratt's Impulsivity, Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking and Mini-Mental Scales were administered. Behaviour in the ward during the 30 days was also appraised. Logistic regression models were used to determine relative risks. Results:, There were 155 subjects; 89.7% were male, 71.6% were single and 58.7% were unemployed. For 44.5% the index offence was violent, and 9.7% had committed sexual offences; 61.9% had histories of habitual violence. A psychotic disorder was diagnosed in 32.3% and a personality disorder in 48.4%. Habitually violent subjects were distin- guished by a history of issuing threats (OR=3.68; CI=3.19,4.16; P= 0.000), delusions of persecution (OR=3.43; CI=2.67,4.17; P=0.001), history of conduct disorder (OR=1.95; CI=1.70,2.19; P=0.006), alcohol/substance abuse (OR=2.08; CI=1.53,2.61; P=0.008) and violent index offence (OR=1.66; CI=1.54,2.61; P=0.035). Conclusion: This seems to confirm the relationship between threats, feeling threatened, psychosis, a history of antisocial behaviour and alcohol abuse. [source]


    The European perspective of psychiatric reform

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2001
    T. Becker
    Objective:,To provide a framework of mental health care reform across Europe. Method:,On the basis of summary quantitative indices and expert ratings of broad aspects of mental health care structure, the process and outcome of psychiatric reform common trends and differences are outlined. Results:,There has been a broad trend away from an institutional model of care with the mental hospital as the dominant institution, and community- and general hospital-based mental health services of varying comprehensiveness are in place in most countries. The social and broad community aspects of psychiatric reform have generally been somewhat less successful than changes in service set-up. Assessment of reform outcomes proves particularly difficult. Conclusion:,Psychiatric reform processes have achieved some of their aims, and there are broadly similar trends. Regional variation is substantial and may be as important as cross-national differences. Mental health care reform is ongoing across the European region. [source]


    Mental health in Europe: problems, advances and challenges

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2001
    W. Rutz
    Objective:,To describe mental health care needs and challenges across the WHO European region of 51 nations. Method:,Based on morbidity and mortality data from HFA Statistical Database and Health21, the policy framework of WHO Europe, major trends in mental health care needs, psychiatric reform and mental health promotion are discussed. Results:,There is a mortality crisis related to mental ill health in Eastern European populations of transition. Destigmatization is required to improve early intervention and humanization of services, and national mental health audits are needed to create the basis for national mental health planning, implementation and monitoring. There are both problems and advances in service restructuring, and comprehensive mental health promotion programmes, preventive and monitoring strategies are required. Conclusion:,Partnerships between national and international organizations, especially WHO and the European Union, have to be strengthened to make progress on the way to integrated community mental health services. [source]


    Spanish psychiatric reform: what can be learned from two decades of experience?

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2001
    Jos Luis Vzquez-Barquero
    Objective:,The objective of the paper is to describe the impact of Spanish psychiatric reform on the organization and functioning of mental health services. Method:,This paper is based on official administrative reports and on relevant related publications. Results:,The most significant achievements of Spanish psychiatric reform have been: (i),the development of a new organization of mental health care, decentralized in character and territorially based; (ii),the integration of psychiatric patients in general health care; (iii),the creation of an extensive community network of health centres; and (iv),the development of more positive attitudes towards mental illness. However, our analysis also reveals the existence of significant deficiencies. Conclusion:,Analysis of the Spanish experience shows that the process of psychiatric reform depends basically on long-term commitments, which in a system such as Spain's must come from central administration and also from the autonomous communities. [source]


    Individuals receiving addiction treatment: are medical costs of their family members reduced?

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2010
    Constance Weisner
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine whether alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment is related to reduced medical costs of family members. Design Using the administrative databases of a private, integrated health plan, we matched AOD treatment patients with health plan members without AOD disorders on age, gender and utilization, identifying family members of each group. Setting Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Participants Family members of abstinent and non-abstinent AOD treatment patients and control family members. Measurements We measured abstinence at 1 year post-intake and examined health care costs per member-month of family members of AOD patients and of controls through 5 years. We used generalized estimating equation methods to examine differences in average medical cost per member-month for each year, between family members of abstinent and non-abstinent AOD patients and controls. We used multilevel models to examine 4-year cost trajectories, controlling for pre-intake cost, age, gender and family size. Results AOD patients' family members had significantly higher costs and more psychiatric and medical conditions than controls in the pre-treatment year. At 2,5 years, each year family members of AOD patients abstinent at 1 year had similar average per member-month medical costs to controls (e.g. difference at year 5 = $2.63; P > 0.82), whereas costs for family members of non-abstinent patients were higher (e.g. difference at year 5 = $35.59; P = 0.06). Family members of AOD patients not abstinent at 1 year, had a trajectory of increasing medical cost (slope = $10.32; P = 0.03) relative to controls. Conclusions Successful AOD treatment is related to medical cost reductions for family members, which may be considered a proxy for their improved health. [source]


    Anabolic,androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
    Gen Kanayama
    ABSTRACT Aims Anabolic,androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely used illicitly to gain muscle and lose body fat. Here we review the accumulating human and animal evidence showing that AAS may cause a distinct dependence syndrome, often associated with adverse psychiatric and medical effects. Method We present an illustrative case of AAS dependence, followed by a summary of the human and animal literature on this topic, based on publications known to us or obtained by searching the PubMed database. Results About 30% of AAS users appear to develop a dependence syndrome, characterized by chronic AAS use despite adverse effects on physical, psychosocial or occupational functioning. AAS dependence shares many features with classical drug dependence. For example, hamsters will self-administer AAS, even to the point of death, and both humans and animals exhibit a well-documented AAS withdrawal syndrome, mediated by neuroendocrine and cortical neurotransmitter systems. AAS dependence may particularly involve opioidergic mechanisms. However, AAS differ from classical drugs in that they produce little immediate reward of acute intoxication, but instead a delayed effect of muscle gains. Thus standard diagnostic criteria for substance dependence, usually crafted for acutely intoxicating drugs, must be adapted slightly for cumulatively acting drugs such as AAS. Conclusions AAS dependence is a valid diagnostic entity, and probably a growing public health problem. AAS dependence may share brain mechanisms with other forms of substance dependence, especially opioid dependence. Future studies are needed to characterize AAS dependence more clearly, identify risk factors for this syndrome and develop treatment strategies. [source]