Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (atom + transfer_radical_polymerization)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

  • reverse atom transfer radical polymerization
  • surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization


  • Selected Abstracts


    Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Study of Copper(I) and Copper(II) Complexes in Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 11 2003
    Tomislav Pintauer
    Abstract Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to investigate structural features of CuIBr and CuIIBr2 complexes with dNbpy, PMDETA, Me6TREN, tNtpy, and Me4CYCLAM in various solvents {dNbpy = 4,4,-bis(5-nonyl)-2,2,-bipyridine, PMDETA = N,N,N,,N,,,N,, -pentamethyldiethylenetriamine, Me6TREN = tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amine, tNtpy = 4,4,,4,,-tris(5-nonyl)-2,2,:6,,2,,-terpyridine, Me4CYCLAM = 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane}. The structures of the CuI and CuII complexes were found to depend on the solvent polarity and the number of nitrogen atoms in the ligand. Generally, in non-polar media and with monomers typically used in ATRP, CuI complexes preferred a tetracoordinate geometry, and were either ionic as observed in [CuI(dNbpy)2]+[CuIBr2], (CuI,NAV = 2.00 , CuI,BrAV = 2.25 ) and [CuI(Me4CYCLAM)]+[CuIBr2], (CuI,NAV = 2.06 , CuI,BrAV = 2.23 ), or neutral as in [CuI(PMDETA)Br] (CuI,NAV = 2.12 , CuI,BrAV = 2.33 ), and [CuI(tNtpy)Br] (CuI,NAV = 2.03 , CuI,BrAV = 2.29 ). The EXAFS analysis of CuIIBr2 complexes indicated a preference for a coordination number of five, such as in [CuII(dNbpy)2Br]+[Br], (CuII,NAV = 2.03 , CuII,BrAV = 2.43 ), [CuII(PMDETA)Br2] (CuII,NAV = 2.03 , CuII,Br1,AV = 2.44 , CuII,Br2,AV = 2.64 ) and [CuII(Me6TREN)Br]+[Br], (CuII,NAV = 2.09 , CuII -BrAV = 2.39 ), with the exception of the neutral tetracoordinate [CuII(dNbpy)Br2] (CuII,NAV = 2.02 , CuII,BrAV = 2.36 ), which has been observed in non-polar media. Additionally, polar media were found to favor bromide dissociation in [CuII(Me6TREN)Br]+[Br], and [CuII(PMDETA)Br2], as indicated by a decrease in the Br and Cu coordination numbers at the Cu- and Br- K -edges, respectively. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]


    Functionalization of Chitosan via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization for Gene Delivery

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 18 2010
    Yuan Ping
    Abstract It is of crucial importance to modify chitosan-based polysaccharides in the designing of biomedical materials. In this work, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was employed to functionalize chitosan in a well-controlled manner. A series of new degradable cationic polymers (termed as PDCS) composed of biocompatible chitosan backbones and poly((2-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate) (P(DMAEMA)) side chains of different length were designed as highly efficient gene vectors via ATRP. These vectors, termed as PDCS, exhibited good ability to condense plasmid DNA (pDNA) into nanoparticles with positive charge at nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios of 4 or higher. All PDCS vectors could well protect the condensed DNA from enzymatic degradation by DNase I and they displayed high level of transfectivity in both COS7, HEK293 and HepG2 cell lines. Most importantly, in comparison with high-molecular-weight P(DMAEMA) and ,gold-standard' PEI (25 kDa), the PDCS vectors showed considerable buffering capacity in the pH range of 7.4 to 5, and were capable of mediating much more efficient gene transfection at low N/P ratios. At their own optimal N/P ratios for trasnsfection, the PDCS/pDNA complexes showed much lower cytotoxicity. All the PDCS vectors were readily to be degradable in the presence of lysozyme at physiological conditions in vitro. These well-defined PDCS polymers have great potentials as efficient gene vectors in future gene therapy. [source]


    Organic Thin Film Transistors with Polymer Brush Gate Dielectrics Synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 1 2008
    C. Pinto
    Abstract Low operating voltage is an important requirement that must be met for industrial adoption of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We report here solution fabricated polymer brush gate insulators with good uniformity, low surface roughness and high capacitance. These ultra thin polymer films, synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), were used to fabricate low voltage OFETs with both evaporated pentacene and solution deposited poly(3-hexylthiophene). The semiconductor-dielectric interfaces in these systems were studied with a variety of methods including scanning force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and neutron reflectometry. These studies highlighted key differences between the surfaces of brush and spun cast polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) films. [source]


    A Bimetallic Ruthenium Complex as a Catalyst Precursor for the Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methacrylates at Ambient Temperature

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 4-5 2006
    Michel Haas
    Abstract The bimetallic ruthenium complex [(1,3,5- i -Pr3C6H3)Ru(,-Cl)3RuCl(C2H4)(PCy3)] has been synthesized by reaction of [(1,3,5- i -Pr3C6H3)RuCl2)]2 with one equivalent of PCy3 in the presence of ethylene. It can be used as a catalyst precursor for the controlled atom transfer radical polymerization of methacrylates at 35,C. The resulting polymers show low polydispersities. [source]


    Preparation of gradient copolymers via ATRP using a simultaneous reverse and normal initiation process.

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 16 2005

    Abstract Spontaneous gradient copolymers were prepared in both bulk and miniemulsion systems via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) utilizing a Simultaneous Reverse and Normal Initiation (SR & NI) process. Both instantaneous and cumulative compositions were used to characterize the gradient copolymers. The gradient copolymers were obtained with an array of gradient compositions ranging from a subtle to strong variation in monomer distribution along the polymer backbones, depending on the ratio of comonomers initially added to the copolymerization system. The compositions of the gradient copolymer produced in miniemulsion systems were similar to those generated in bulk. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 3616,3622, 2005 [source]


    Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization and Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of New Azobenzene-Containing Side-Chain Polymers

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 4 2007
    Najun Li
    Abstract The atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique has been successfully applied to synthesize a series of nonlinear optically (NLO) active homopolymers, 4-(4-nitrophenyl-diazenyl) phenyl acrylate (P - NPAPA) and 4-(4-methoxyphenyl-diazenyl) phenyl acrylate (P - MPAPA), containing azobenzene groups on the side chain. The third-order NLO properties of the polymer films were measured by the degenerated four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. A dependence of the ,(3) values and response times of polymers on their number-average molecular weight and the electronic effect of the substituent (nitro- or methoxy-) on the azobenzene group have been evidenced. The increasing ,(3) value of the polymer films at the magnitude of about 10,10 was displayed with increasing molecular weight and the presence of the push-pull electronic system contributes much in enhancing the third-order NLO susceptibility of polymers. [source]


    Synthesis and Characterization of Styrene/Butyl Acrylate Linear and Star Block Copolymers via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 9 2006
    Jinyu Huang
    Abstract Summary: Well-defined styrene (S) and butyl acrylate (BA) linear and star-like block copolymers are synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using di- and trifunctional alkyl halide initiators employing the Cu/PMDETA (N,N,N,,N,,N,-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) catalyst system. Initial addition of CuII deactivator and utilization of halogen exchange techniques suppresses the coupling of radicals and improves cross-propagation to a large extent, which results in better control over the polymerization. Two types of star-like PBA/PS block copolymers are prepared by using core-first techniques: a trifunctional PBA or PS macroinitiator extended with the other monomer. Block copolymers with a well-defined structure and low polydispersity (PDI,=,) are obtained in both cases. A trifunctional PBA3 macroinitiator with ,=,136,000 g,,mol,1 and PDI,=,1.15 is extended to (PBA-PS)3 star-like block copolymer with ,=,171,100 g,,mol,1 and PDI,=,1.15. A trifunctional PS3 macroinitiator with ,=,27,000 g,,mol,1 and PDI,=,1.16 g,,mol,1 is extended to (PS-PBA)3 with ,=,91,500 g,,mol,1 and PDI,=,1.40. The individual star-like macromolecules as well as their aggregates are visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) where the PS and PBA adopt the globular and extended conformation, respectively. For the PBA core star block copolymers, PS segments tend to aggregate either intramolecularly or intermolecularly. PS core star block copolymers form aggregates with a PS core and emanating PBA chains. Most aggregates have ,n,,3' arms but minor amounts of ,defective' stars with 4, 5, 8, or 11 arms are also observed. The AFM analysis shows that PS core star block copolymers contain about 92% three-arm block copolymers, and the efficiency of cross-propagation is 97.3%. Schematic representation of the synthesis of BA/S star-like block copolymers by ATRP, and their resultant AFM images. [source]


    Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Glycidyl Methacrylate: A Functional Monomer

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 16 2004
    Pedro Francisco Caamero
    Abstract Summary: A detailed investigation of the polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), an epoxy-functional monomer, by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was performed. Homopolymers were prepared at relatively low temperatures using ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBrIB) as the initiator and copper halide (CuX) with N,N,N,,N,,N,-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as the catalyst system. The high polymerization rate in the bulk did not permit polymerization control. However, homopolymerization in solution enabled us to explore the effects of different experimental parameters, such as temperature, solvent (toluene vs. diphenyl ether) and initiator concentration, on the controllability of the ATRP process. SEC analysis of the homopolymers synthesized confirmed the importance of solvent character on molecular weight control, the lowest polydispersity indices () and the highest efficiencies being found when the polymerizations were performed in diphenyl ether in combination with a mixed halide technique. A novel poly(glycidyl methacrylate)- block -poly(butyl acrylate) (PGMA- b -PBA) diblock copolymer was prepared through ATRP using PGMA-Cl as a macro-initiator. This chain growth experiment demonstrated a good living character under the conditions employed, while simultaneously indicating a facile synthetic route for this type of functional block copolymer. In addition, the isotacticity parameter for the PGMAs obtained was estimated using 1H NMR analysis which gave a value of ,GMA,=,0.26 in agreement with that estimated in conventional radical polymerization. SEC chromatograms of PGMA-Cl macroinitiator and PGMA- b -PBA diblock copolymer. [source]


    Physical Properties of PBMA- b -PBA- b -PBMA Triblock Copolymers Synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 16 2003
    Luis Martn-Gomis
    Abstract The physical properties of well-defined poly(butyl methacrylate)- block -poly(butyl acrylate)- block -poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA- b -PBA- b -PBMA) triblock copolymers synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are reported. The glass transition and the degradation temperature of copolymers were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). DSC measurements showed phase separation for all of the copolymers with the exception of the one with the shortest length of either inner or outer blocks. TGA demonstrated that the thermal stability of triblock copolymers increased with decreasing BMA content. Dynamic mechanical analysis was used for a preceding evaluation of adhesive properties. In these block copolymers, the deformation process under tension can take place either homogeneously or by a neck formation depending on the molecular weight of the outer BMA blocks and on the length of the inner soft BA segments. Microindentation measurements were also performed for determining the superficial mechanical response and its correlation with the bulk behavior. Stress-strain curves for the different PBMA- b -PBA- b -PBMA specimens at room temperature and at 10 mm/min. [source]


    Concurrent Initiation by Air in the Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 9 2003
    Ajaya Kumar Nanda
    Abstract The effect of air in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was studied. Air initiated polymerization was clearly noticed by the appearance of a low molecular weight peak in the synthesis of high molecular weight poly(isobutylene)- graft -poly(methyl methacrylate) (Mn,=,5.0,,105 g/mol). The concentration of chains initiated by oxygen (air) was ,8,,10,4 mol/L, determined using the Gladstone-Dale relationship. The tentatively proposed mechanism for air initiated polymerization was supported by kinetic studies. Similar to typical ATRP systems, the rate of air initiated polymerization increased with temperature, [MMA], amount of air, and activity of the catalyst complex. Polymers with lower polydispersities (Mw/Mn,=,1.13) were obtained in the presence of Cu(II) as compared to Cu(I) catalyst complex system. Kinetic plots for the air initiated bulk polymerization of MMA at (,) 20,C, (,) 50,C, and (,) 90,C. [source]


    New Strategy Targeting Well-Defined Polymethylene- block -Polystyrene Copolymers: The Combination of Living Polymerization of Ylides and Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Issue 7 2009
    Jian-Zhuang Chen
    Abstract Well-defined polymethylene- block -polystyrene (PM- b -PS) diblock copolymers were synthesized via a combination of living polymerization of ylides and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene. A series of hydroxyl-terminated polymethylenes (PM-OHs) with different molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution were prepared using living polymerization of ylides following efficient oxidation in a quantitive functionality. Then, the macroinitiators (PM-MIs (,=,1,900,15,000; PDI,=,1.12,1.23)) transformed from PM-OHs in ,,100% conversion initiated ATRPs of styrene to construct PM- b -PS copolymers. The GPC traces indicated the successful extension of PS segment ( of PM- b -PS,=,5,000,41,800; PDI,=,1.08,1.23). Such copolymers were characterized by 1H NMR and DSC. [source]


    Synthesis of Well-Defined Rod-Coil Diblock Copolymer of Aromatic Polyether and Polyacrylonitrile by Chain-Growth Condensation Polymerization and Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Issue 8 2008
    Naomi Ajioka
    Abstract The synthesis of diblock copolymers of aromatic polyether and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was conducted by chain-growth condensation polymerization (CGCP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from an orthogonal initiator. When CGCP for aromatic polyether was carried out from a PAN macroinitiator obtained by ATRP with an orthogonal initiator, decomposition of the PAN backbone occurred. However, when ATRP of acrylonitrile was conducted from an aromatic polyether macroinitiator obtained by CGCP followed by introduction of an ATRP initiator unit, the polymerization proceeded in a well-controlled manner to yield aromatic polyether- block -polyacrylonitrile (polyether- b -PAN) with low polydispersity. This block copolymer self-assembled in N,N -dimethylformamide to form bundle-like or spherical aggregates, depending on the length of the PAN units in the block copolymer. [source]


    Synthesis of Polymer Brushes Using Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Issue 18 2003
    Jeffrey Pyun
    Abstract Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is a robust method for the preparation of well-defined (co)polymers. This process has also enabled the preparation of a wide range of polymer brushes where (co)polymers are covalently attached to either curved or flat surfaces. In this review, the general methodology for the synthesis of polymer brushes from flat surfaces, polymers and colloids is summarized focusing on reports using ATRP. Additionally, the morphology of ultrathin films from polymer brushes is discussed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other techniques to confirm the formation of nanoscale structure and organization. Formation of polymer brushes by ATRP. [source]


    Compartmentalization in Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) in Dispersed Systems,

    MACROMOLECULAR THEORY AND SIMULATIONS, Issue 8 2006
    Yasuyuki Kagawa
    Abstract Summary: Compartmentalization in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in dispersed systems at low conversion (<10%) has been investigated by means of a modified Smith,Ewart equation focusing on the system n -butyl acrylate/CuBr/4,4,-dinonyl-2,2,-dipyridyl at 110,C. Compartmentalization of both propagating radicals and deactivator was accounted for in the simulations. As the particle diameter (d) decreases below 70 nm, the polymerization rate (Rp) at 10% conversion increases relative to the corresponding bulk system, goes through a maximum at 60 nm, and thereafter decreases dramatically as d decreases further. This behavior is caused by the separate effects of compartmentalization (segregation and confined space effects) on bimolecular termination and deactivation. The very low Rp for small particles (d,<,30 nm) is due to the pseudo first-order deactivation rate coefficient being proportional to d,3. Simulated propagating radical concentration ([P,]) as a function of particle diameter (d) at 10% conversion for ATRP of n -butyl acrylate ([nBA]0,=,7.1 M, [PBr]0,=,[CuBr/dNbpy]0,=,35.5 mM) in a dispersed system at 110,C. The dotted line indicates the simulated [P,] in bulk at 10% conversion. [source]


    Controlled Grafting of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Brushes on Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Powders by Surface-initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2009
    Zhaoqi TANG
    Abstract Controlled grafting of well-defined polymer brushes of methyl methacrylate (MMA) on the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powders was carried out by the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The ATRP initiator was anchored on the PVDF surface by alkaline treatment, followed by UV-induced bromination; then methyl methacrylate (MMA) was grafted onto the brominated PVDF by the ATRP technique. The chemical composition changes of PVDF were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FT-IR and XPS results clearly indicated the successful graft of poly(methyl methacrylate) onto the PVDF surface. [source]


    Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Styrene Using a Bifunctional Initiator

    CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, Issue 9 2001
    Jin-Ying Yuan
    Abstract A bifunctional alkyl halide, namely l, 2-bis(2,-bromobutyryl) ethane (BBrBE), was synthesized and used to initiate the bulk atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene (St) at 110C in the presence of CuBr/2,2,-bipyridyl. The narrow polydispersity of polystyrene (PSt) with precisely two arms could be synthesized. The initiate ability of the two active bromide functional groups at both sides of BBrBE for St and the propagation ability of the two arms were confirmed to be similar by the characterization of the individual arms obtained upon hydrolysis of the ester link between the core and the branches. [source]


    A Hyperbranched, Highly Deliquescent Polymer,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 24 2007
    L. Tian
    Atom transfer radical polymerization is used to prepare a highly deliquescent hyperbranched polymer from a monomer containing polymerizable vinyl group and an initiation-ready site for branching and chain growth, as depicted in the figure. The figure also shows the very rapid deliquescence kinetics of this polymer originating from its hyperbranched structure. [source]


    Atom transfer radical polymerization of butadiene using MoO2Cl2/PPh3 as the catalyst

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2007
    Jing Hua
    Abstract Atom transfer radical polymerization has been used to successfully synthesize polybutadiene. This was achieved by using MoO2Cl2/triphenyl phosphine as the catalyst and the various organic halide compounds such as methyl-2-chloropropionate, CCl4, 1,4-dichloromethyl benzene, 1-phenylethyl chloride, and benzyl chloride as initiators. The monomer conversion increased up to 50% with polymerization time. The polydispersity indices of the polymers were as high as above 1.5. However, the polymerizations were controlled and the polydispersity indices of the polymers were less than 1.5 throughout the polymerizationin reverse atom transfer radical polymerization. The chemical structure of the polymer obtained was characterized by 1HNMR and FTIR. The valency states of molybdenum in this reactive system were detected by UV,vis spectra. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 104: 3517,3522, 2007 [source]


    Atom transfer radical polymerization and copolymerization of vinyl acetate catalyzed by copper halide/terpyridine

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Huadong Tang
    Abstract Copper-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is versatile for living polymerizations of a wide range of monomers, but ATRP of vinyl acetate (VAc) remains challenging due to the low homolytic cleavage activity of the carbon-halide bond of the dormant poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) chains and the high reactivity of growing PVAc radicals. Therefore, all the reported highly active copper-based catalysts are inactive in ATRP of VAc. Herein, we report the first copper-catalyst mediated ATRP of VAc using CuBr/2,2,:6,,2,-terpyridine (tPy) or CuCl/tPy as catalysts. The polymerization was a first order reaction with respect to the monomer concentration. The molecular weights of the resulting PVAc linearly increased with the VAc conversion. The living character was further proven by self-chain extension of PVAc. Using polystyrene (PS) as a macroinitiator, a well-defined diblock copolymer PS-b-PVAc was prepared. Hydrolysis of the PS-b-PVAc produced a PS-b-poly(vinyl alcohol) amphiphilic diblock copolymer. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]


    Fundamentals and development of high-efficiency supported catalyst systems for atom transfer radical polymerization

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 4 2007
    Santiago Faucher
    Abstract Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is a controlled/living radical polymerization process developed a decade ago that allows the synthesis of tailored macromolecules. It has been widely used in the laboratory for polymer synthesis since but little use has been made of it at the industrial scale for polymer production. This is due to the low activity of the ATRP catalyst that is central to the process. Much work has been done over the years to overcome this challenge, and the greatest successes have been achieved through catalyst supporting and recycling. We present here a historical account of the development of supported ATRP catalysts while shedding light on their present and future challenges. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45: 553,565, 2007 [source]


    Gradient graft copolymers derived from PEO-based macromonomers

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 4 2006
    Dorota Neugebauer
    Abstract Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of two poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) macromonomers, with different polymerization degrees (DPn) and different end groups, was conducted in solution via the grafting through method. Selection of a PEO methacrylate with a methyl end-group (PEOMeMA, DPPEO = 23) and a PEO acrylate end-capped by a phenyl ring (PEOPhA, DPPEO = 4) for the copolymerization led to a spontaneous gradient of PEO grafts along the copolymer backbone. Such a composition was formed because of significantly different reactivities of the two PEO macromonomers. The resulting copolymer has PEOMeMA at one end of the polymer chain, gradually changing through hetero-sequences of PEOPhA at the other chain end. An increase in the initial feed ratio of PEO acrylate reduced the rate of change in the shape of the gradient. Amorphous,crystalline structure in the copolymers was demonstrated by DSC and WAXS. The mechanical measurements of copolymers consisting of an amorphous PEOPhA and crystallizable PEOMeMA segments indicated elastomeric properties in the range of a soft rubber (G, , 104 Pa, G, , G,). 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 1347,1356, 2006 [source]


    Radical polymerization in a chiral ionic liquid: Atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylates

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 15 2005
    Tadeusz Biedro
    Abstract No Abstracts. [source]


    Atom transfer radical polymerization of styrenic ionic liquid monomers and carbon dioxide absorption of the polymerized ionic liquids

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 7 2005
    Huadong Tang
    Abstract Polymeric forms of ionic liquids have many potential applications because of their high thermal stability and ionic nature. Two ionic liquid monomers, 1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-3-butyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (VBIT) and 1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-3- butyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (VBIH), were synthesized through the quaternization of N -butylimidazole with 4-vinylbenzylchloride and a subsequent anion- exchange reaction with sodium tetrafluoroborate or potassium hexafluorophosphate. Copper-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization was used to polymerize VBIT and VBIH. The effects of various initiator/catalyst systems, monomer concentrations, solvent polarities, and reaction temperatures on the polymerization were examined. The polymerization was well controlled and exhibited living characteristics when CuBr/1,1,4,7,10,10-hexamethyltriethylenetetramine or CuBr/2,2,-bipyridine was used as the catalyst and ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate was used as the initiator. Characterizations by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction showed that the resulting VBIT polymer, poly[1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-3-butyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate] (PVBIT), was amorphous and had excellent thermal stability, with a glass-transition temperature of 84 C. The polymerized ionic liquids could absorb CO2 as ionic liquids: PVBIT absorbed 0.30% (w/w) CO2 at room temperature and 0.78 atm. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 1432,1443, 2005 [source]


    Atom transfer radical polymerization initiated by N -bromosuccinimide

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 22 2004
    Jianguo Jiang
    Abstract N -Bromosuccinimide (NBS) was used as the initiator in the atom transfer radical polymerizations of styrene (St) and methyl methacrylate (MMA). The NBS/CuBr/bipyridine (bpy) system shows good controllability for both polymerizations and yields polymers with polydispersity indexes ranging from 1.18 to 1.25 for St and 1.14 to 1.41 for MMA, depending on the conditions used. The end-group analysis of poly(MMA) and polystyrene indicated the polymerization is initiated by the succinimidyl radicals formed from the redox reaction of NBS with CuBr/bpy. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 42: 5811,5816, 2004 [source]


    Atom transfer radical polymerization of n -butyl acrylate catalyzed by CuBr/N -(n -hexyl)-2-pyridylmethanimine

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 21 2002
    Huiqi Zhang
    Abstract The homogeneous atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of n -butyl acrylate with CuBr/N -(n -hexyl)-2-pyridylmethanimine as a catalyst and ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate as an initiator was investigated. The kinetic plots of ln([M]0/[M]) versus the reaction time for the ATRP systems in different solvents such as toluene, anisole, N,N -dimethylformamide, and 1-butanol were linear throughout the reactions, and the experimental molecular weights increased linearly with increasing monomer conversion and were very close to the theoretical values. These, together with the relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (polydispersity index , 1.40 in most cases with monomer conversion > 50%), indicated that the polymerization was living and controlled. Toluene appeared to be the best solvent for the studied ATRP system in terms of the polymerization rate and molecular weight distribution among the solvents used. The polymerization showed zero order with respect to both the initiator and the catalyst, probably because of the presence of a self-regulation process at the beginning of the reaction. The reaction temperature had a positive effect on the polymerization rate, and the optimum reaction temperature was found to be 100 C. An apparent enthalpy of activation of 81.2 kJ/mol was determined for the ATRP of n -butyl acrylate, corresponding to an enthalpy of equilibrium of 63.6 kJ/mol. An apparent enthalpy of activation of 52.8 kJ/mol was also obtained for the ATRP of methyl methacrylate under similar reaction conditions. Moreover, the CuBr/N -(n -hexyl)-2-pyridylmethanimine-based system was proven to be applicable to living block copolymerization and living random copolymerization of n -butyl acrylate with methyl methacrylate. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 40: 3549,3561, 2002 [source]


    Synthesis of Polymer Brushes Using Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Issue 18 2003
    Jeffrey Pyun
    Abstract Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is a robust method for the preparation of well-defined (co)polymers. This process has also enabled the preparation of a wide range of polymer brushes where (co)polymers are covalently attached to either curved or flat surfaces. In this review, the general methodology for the synthesis of polymer brushes from flat surfaces, polymers and colloids is summarized focusing on reports using ATRP. Additionally, the morphology of ultrathin films from polymer brushes is discussed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other techniques to confirm the formation of nanoscale structure and organization. Formation of polymer brushes by ATRP. [source]


    Synthesis of poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide)- block -poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide) and its application for separation of proteins by capillary zone electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 10 2010
    Jing Xu
    Abstract A series of well-defined triblock copolymers, poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide)- block -poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(N, N -dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA- b -PEO- b -PDMA) synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization, were used as physical coatings for protein separation. A comparative study of EOF showed that the triblock copolymer presented good capillary coating ability and EOF efficient suppression. The effects of the Mr of PDMA block in PDMA- b -PEO- b -PDMA triblock copolymer and buffer pH on the separation of basic protein for CE were investigated. Moreover, the influence of the copolymer structure on separation of basic protein was studied by comparing the performance of PDMA- b -PEO- b -PDMA triblock copolymer with PEO- b -PDMA diblock copolymer. Furthermore, the triblock copolymer coating showed higher separation efficiency and better migration time repeatability than fused-silica capillary when used in protein mixture separation and milk powder samples separation, respectively. The results demonstrated that the triblock copolymer coatings would have a wide application in the field of protein separation. [source]


    Synthesis and Characterization of MoOI2(PMe3)3 and Use of MoOX2(PMe3)3 (X = Cl, I) in Controlled Radical Polymerization

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 13 2006
    Jos A. Mata
    Abstract Complex MoOCl2(PMe3)3 smoothly reacts with NaI in acetone to produce MoOI2(PMe3)3 in good yields. The geometry of the compound is mer - cis octahedral, that is, identical to that of the dichloride precursor, as shown by NMR spectroscopy and by an X-ray crystallographic study. Electrochemical investigations of MoOX2(PMe3)3 show irreversible oxidation waves at Ep,a = +0.18 and +0.39 V for X = Cl and I, respectively. A study of the halide exchange between MoOCl2(PMe3)3 and NaI, or between MoOI2(PMe3)3 and Bu4NCl, shows two equilibrated isomers for the mixed halide intermediate MoOICl(PMe3)3. The diiodide complex rapidly exchanges the iodo ligands with chloride upon dissolution in chloroform at room temperature, and with bromide from (1-bromoethyl)benzene (BEB) under more forcing conditions. The equilibrium favors the softer halide (I) on C and the harder one (Cl or Br) on MoIV. Both oxido compounds catalyze the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene in combination with the BEB initiator, yielding polymers with quite narrow molecular weight distributions (down to 1.11). The apparent polymerization rate constant is approximately doubled in the presence of 1 equiv. of the Al(OiPr)3 cocatalyst. On the other hand, the system is not capable of efficiently controlling the radical chain growth for methyl acrylate polymerization. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]


    Polymers from renewable resources: Bulk ATRP of fatty alcohol-derived methacrylates

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 9 2008
    Gkhan ayli
    Abstract Copper-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of lauryl methacrylate (LMA) and other long-chain methacrylates was investigated in bulk at 35,C by using CuCl/N,N,N,,N,,N,, -pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA)/tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat336) as the catalyst system and ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBIB) as the initiator. The investigated monomers can be derived from fatty alcohols and are therefore an important renewable resource for a sustainable development of our future. The amounts of ligand, Aliquat336 and CuCl were optimized and the effect of their concentrations on the control of the polymerization and the observed conversions were investigated. It was found that a molar ratio of EBIB/CuCl/Ligand/Aliquat336 of 1,:,1,:,3,:,1 provided the highest conversions of LMA and the best controlled polymerizations. These optimized conditions allowed for the synthesis of poly(lauryl methcarylate)s with different targeted DP (25, 50, 75, 100, 120, 240, and 500), including high-molecular-weight polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions. In addition, methacrylate monomers were prepared from fatty alcohols (capric, myristic, palmitic, stearic) and polymerized using the developed procedure to obtain polymers with the same DP and different chain lengths (C10, C12, C14, C16, and C18) of pending alkyl groups. Finally, the thermal properties of these polymers were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. [source]


    Synthesis, Morphology, and Properties of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)- block -Poly(vinylphenyl oxadiazole) Donor,Acceptor Rod,Coil Block Copolymers and Their Memory Device Applications

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 18 2010
    Yi-Kai Fang
    Abstract Novel donor,acceptor rod,coil diblock copolymers of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)- block -poly(2-phenyl-5-(4-vinylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiaz-ole) (POXD) are successfully synthesized by the combination of a modified Grignard metathesis reaction (GRIM) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The effects of the block ratios of the P3HT donor and POXD pendant acceptor blocks on the morphology, field effect transistor mobility, and memory device characteristics are explored. The TEM, SAXS, WAXS, and AFM results suggest that the coil block fraction significantly affects the chain packing of the P3HT block and depresses its crystallinity. The optical absorption spectra indicate that the intramolecular charge transfer between the main chain P3HT donor and the side chain POXD acceptor is relatively weak and the level of order of P3HT chains is reduced by the incorporation of the POXD acceptor. The field effect transistor (FET) hole mobility of the system exhibits a similar trend on the optical properties, which are also decreased with the reduced ordered P3HT crystallinity. The low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level (,6.08 eV) of POXD is employed as charge trap for the electrical switching memory devices. P3HT- b -POXD exhibits a non-volatile bistable memory or insulator behavior depending on the P3HT/POXD block ratio and the resulting morphology. The ITO/P3HT44 - b - POXD18/Al memory device shows a non-volatile switching characteristic with negative differential resistance (NDR) effect due to the charge trapped POXD block. These experimental results provide the new strategies for the design of donor-acceptor rod-coil block copolymers for controlling morphology and physical properties as well as advanced memory device applications. [source]