Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Atlantic

  • central north atlantic
  • eastern atlantic
  • ne atlantic
  • north atlantic
  • north-east atlantic
  • northeast atlantic
  • northeastern atlantic
  • northwest atlantic
  • south atlantic
  • southwestern atlantic
  • tropical atlantic
  • western atlantic
  • western north atlantic

  • Terms modified by Atlantic

  • atlantic SST
  • atlantic basin
  • atlantic bluefin tuna
  • atlantic bottlenose dolphin
  • atlantic canada
  • atlantic coast
  • atlantic coastal plain
  • atlantic cod
  • atlantic cod gadus morhua
  • atlantic convergence zone
  • atlantic europe
  • atlantic forest
  • atlantic halibut
  • atlantic herring
  • atlantic island
  • atlantic mackerel
  • atlantic margin
  • atlantic ocean
  • atlantic oscillation
  • atlantic oscillation index
  • atlantic population
  • atlantic rain forest
  • atlantic rainforest
  • atlantic region
  • atlantic salmon
  • atlantic salmon fry
  • atlantic salmon parr
  • atlantic salmon population
  • atlantic salmon salmo salar
  • atlantic salmon salmo salar l.
  • atlantic salmon smolt
  • atlantic sea surface temperature
  • atlantic sea-surface temperature
  • atlantic sector
  • atlantic species
  • atlantic sst
  • atlantic world

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT. Evidence relating to the extent, dynamics, and relative chronology of the last glaciation of the Shetland Islands, North Atlantic, is presented here, in an attempt to better illuminate some of the controversies that still surround the glacial history of the archipelago. We appraise previous interpretations and compare these earlier results with new evidence gleaned from the interpretation of a high resolution digital terrain model and from field reconnaissance. By employing a landsystems approach, we identify and describe three quite different assemblages of landscape features across the main islands of Mainland, Yell and Unst. Using the spatial interrelationship of these landsystems, an assessment of their constituent elements, and comparisons with similar features in other glaciated environments, we propose a simple model for the last glaciation of Shetland. During an early glacial phase, a coalescent British and Scandinavian ice sheet flowed approximately east to west across Shetland. The terrestrial land-forms created by this ice sheet in the north of Shetland suggest that it had corridors of relatively fast-flowing ice that were partially directed by bed topography, and that subsequent deglaciation was interrupted by at least one major stillstand. Evidence in the south of Shetland indicates the growth of a local ice cap of restricted extent that fed numerous radial outlet glaciers during, or after, ice-sheet deglaciation. Whilst the absolute age of these three landsystems remains uncertain, these new geo-morphological and palaeoglaciological insights reconcile many of the ideas of earlier workers, and allow wider speculation regarding the dynamics of the former British ice sheet. [source]


    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 1 2007
    Ian K. Steele
    First page of article [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    The Corallinoideae (Corallinaceae) is represented in the northeastern Atlantic by Corallina officinalis L.; Corallina elongata J. Ellis et Sol.; Haliptilon squamatum (L.) H. W. Johans., L. M. Irvine et A. M. Webster; and Jania rubens (L.) J. V. Lamour. The delimitation of these geniculate coralline red algae is based primarily on morphological characters. Molecular analysis based on cox1 and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies supported the division of the Corallinoideae into the tribes Janieae and Corallineae. Within the Janieae, a sequence difference of 46,48 bp (8.6%,8.9%) between specimens of H. squamatum and J. rubens in the cox1 phylogeny leads us to conclude that they are congeneric. J. rubens var. rubens and J. rubens var. corniculata (L.) Yendo clustered together in both phylogenies, suggesting that for those genes, there was no genetic basis for the morphological variation. Within the Corallineae, it appears that in some regions, the name C. elongata has been misapplied. C. officinalis samples formed two clusters that differed by 45,54 bp (8.4%,10.0%), indicating species-level divergence, and morphological differences were sufficient to define two species. One of these clusters was consistent with the morphology of the type specimen of C. officinalis (LINN 1293.9). The other species cluster is therefore described here as Corallina caespitosa sp. nov. This study has demonstrated that there is a clear need for a revision of the genus Corallina to determine the extent of "pseudocryptic" diversity in this group of red algae. [source]

    Towards an integrated GIS-based coastal forecast workflow

    Gabrielle Allen
    Abstract The SURA Coastal Ocean Observing and Prediction (SCOOP) program is using geographical information system (GIS) technologies to visualize and integrate distributed data sources from across the United States and Canada. Hydrodynamic models are run at different sites on a developing multi-institutional computational Grid. Some of these predictive simulations of storm surge and wind waves are triggered by tropical and subtropical cyclones in the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. Model predictions and observational data need to be merged and visualized in a geospatial context for a variety of analyses and applications. A data archive at LSU aggregates the model outputs from multiple sources, and a data-driven workflow triggers remotely performed conversion of a subset of model predictions to georeferenced data sets, which are then delivered to a Web Map Service located at Texas A&M University. Other nodes in the distributed system aggregate the observational data. This paper describes the use of GIS within the SCOOP program for the 2005 hurricane season, along with details of the data-driven distributed dataflow and workflow, which results in geospatial products. We also focus on future plans related to the complimentary use of GIS and Grid technologies in the SCOOP program, through which we hope to provide a wider range of tools that can enhance the tools and capabilities of earth science research and hazard planning. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The cervical (Pap) smear,personal experience on both sides of the Atlantic

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    G. T. McKee
    What's in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet. Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet [source]

    Taxonomic diversity gradients through geological time

    J. Alistair Crame
    Abstract., There is evidence from the fossil record to suggest that latitudinal gradients in taxonomic diversity may be time-invariant features, although almost certainly not on the same scale as that seen at the present day. It is now apparent that both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients increased dramatically in strength through the Cenozoic era (i.e. the last 65 my) to become more pronounced today than at any time in the geological past. Present-day taxonomic diversity gradients, in both the marine and terrestrial realms, are underpinned by the tropical radiations of a comparatively small number of species-rich clades. Quite why these particular taxa proliferated through the Cenozoic is uncertain, but it could be that at least part of the explanation involves the phenomenon of evolutionary escalation. This is, in essence, a theory of biological diversification through evolutionary feedback mechanisms between predators and prey; first one develops an adaptive advantage, and then the other. However, there may also have been some form of extrinsic control on the process of tropical diversification, and this was most likely centred on the phenomenon of global climate change. This is especially so over the last 15 my Various Late Cenozoic (Neogene) vicariant events effectively partitioned the tropics into a series of high diversity centres, or foci. It has been suggested that, in the largest of these in the marine realm (the Indo-West Pacific or IWP centre), a critical patterns of islands acted as a template for rapid speciation during glacioeustatic sea level cycles. The same process occurred in the Atlantic, Caribbean and East Pacific (ACEP) centre, though on a lesser scale. Tropical terrestrial diversity may also have been promoted by rapid range expansions and contractions in concert with glacial cycles (a modified refugium hypothesis). We are beginning to appreciate that an integrated sequence of Neogene tectonic and climatic events greatly influenced the formation of contemporary taxonomic diversity patterns. [source]

    Species richness of marine Bryozoa in the continental shelf and slope off Argentina (south-west Atlantic)

    Juan López Gappa
    Abstract., A total of 246 marine bryozoan species was recorded within an area of the south-west Atlantic between 35° and 56°S, and between the coast of Argentina and 50°W. The distribution pattern of benthic stations surveyed during the most important cruises in the area shows that the sampling effort has been biased towards southern shelf areas off Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego, as well as around the Malvinas (Falkland) islands. The littoral zone, Patagonian gulfs and the continental shelf off Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires state received less attention, and should be surveyed more intensively in the future. Only 2% of the species can be regarded as non-indigenous, all of them inhabiting biofouling communities in harbour environments. With the exception of some thoroughly surveyed localities, the number of species recorded for different areas of the coast, shelf and slope is estimated to be just a small fraction of the actual number of species present. A distinct diversity gradient was found, with species-rich stations located only in the southern shelf. Highest diversity occurred in shelf areas dominated by coarse sediments, and along a high-productivity shelf-break front. A remarkable decrease in species richness was found in inner and middle shelf areas off Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires state. This pattern may be related to the Pacific origin of the Magellanic fauna, since the diversity of bryozoans is higher in the Pacific than in the Atlantic Ocean. The trend of species richness is, however, overemphasized by the fact that the least diverse faunistic assemblage occurs in areas where surveys have been relatively less frequent. An up-to-date checklist of species recorded for the study area is included. [source]

    Searching for new morphological characters in the systematics of scleractinian reef corals: comparison of septal teeth and granules between Atlantic and Pacific Mussidae

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    Ann F. Budd
    Abstract Recent molecular analyses have challenged the traditional classification of scleractinian corals at all taxonomic levels suggesting that new morphological characters are needed. Here we tackle this problem for the family Mussidae, which is polyphyletic. Most of its members belong to two molecular clades composed of: (1) Atlantic Mussidae and Faviidae (except Montastraea) and (2) Pacific Mussidae (Cynarina, Lobophyllia, Scolymia, Symphyllia) and Pectiniidae. Other Pacific mussids (e.g. Acanthastrea) belong to additional clades. To discover new characters that would better serve as phylogenetic markers, we compare the skeletal morphology of mussid genera in different molecular-based clades. Three sets of characters are considered: (1) macromorphology (budding; colony form; size and shape of corallites; numbers of septal cycles), (2) micromorphology (shapes and distributions of septal teeth and granules), and (3) microstructure (arrangement of calcification centres and thickening deposits within costosepta). Although most traditional macromorphological characters exhibit homoplasy, several new micromorphological characters are effective at distinguishing clades, including the shapes and distribution of septal teeth and granules, the area between teeth, and the development of thickening deposits. Arrangements of calcification centres and fibres differ among clades, but the fine-scale structure of thickening deposits does not. [source]

    Viking Pirates and Christian Princes: Dynasty, Religion and Empire in the North Atlantic By Benjamin Hudson

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Early juvenile development of deep-sea asteroids of the NE Atlantic Ocean, with notes on juvenile bathymetric distributions

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2001
    Paulo Y. G. Sumida
    Abstract The postmetamorphic ontogenesis of 11 deep-sea asteroid species is described. Juvenile bathymetric distributions are compared to adults. The deep-sea juvenile asteroids of the NE Atlantic could be distinguished to species level from a very early stage of development. In all species, except Porcellanaster ceruleus and Plinthaster dentatus, the arms grow faster than the body. In Porcellanaster ceruleus and Plinthaster dentatus, early growth is nearly isometric. In the appearance of the epiproctal cone, the change in form of the furrow and apical spines, the early development of the cribriform organ adjacent to the madreporite and the appearance of sediment in the stomach indicate that Porcellanaster ceruleus is likely to undergo a shift in habitat and diet during the juvenile phase. Porcellanaster ceruleus is probably a predator on meiofauna and small macrofauna during the early stages of life, changing to a burrowing lifestyle ingesting sediment particles. Juvenile sea stars showed wider bathymetric distributions than their adult counterparts, suggesting that events occurring during the early stages of life are important for the maintenance of the local population structure and diversity in the deep NE Atlantic. [source]

    Tooth row counts, vicariance, and the distribution of the sand tiger shark Carcharias taurus

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2003
    Luis O. Lucifora
    Geographic variation in tooth row counts among sand tiger sharks Carcharias taurus (Chondrichthyes), from the SW Atlantic, NW Atlantic and the East China Sea is analyzed in this paper. We found significant differences between sand tigers from the SW Atlantic (Southern Hemisphere population) and each of the other two (Northern Hemisphere) regions in the number of upper lateral tooth rows, and between individuals from the SW Atlantic and the East China Sea in the total number of upper tooth rows. Sand tiger sharks from the two Northern Hemisphere populations did not differ in any of the studied variables. Our results agree with comparisons of vertebral counts between sand tiger sharks from Southern and Northern Hemispheres. Both lines of evidence suggest that Southern and Northern Hemisphere populations of C. taurus were isolated to a larger extent than populations of the Northern Hemisphere. The fossil record of the genus Carcharias begins in the Early Cretaceous and C. taurus is certainly known since the Late Miocene. During the Miocene, the Tethys Sea separating northern and southern land masses was still present and it provided a continuous temperate shallow sea that could allow dispersal of sand tiger sharks along Northern Hemisphere seas. Independent observations on the distribution and evolutionary history of the genera Myripristis, Neoniphon, Sargocentron and Aphanius, and genetic studies on the temperate shark genus Mustelus that indicate a close relationship between the Indo-Pacific M. manazo and the Mediterranean M. asterias suggest that this hypothesis is plausible and deserves to be tested. [source]

    Insect community organisation in estuaries: the role of the physical environment

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2002
    D. Dudley Williams
    Insects are reportedly uncommon in marine habitats and, from a spatial/temporal intercomparison perspective, estuaries are among the least studied. We examined the natural variability seen among insect community organisation in estuaries on both sides of the North Atlantic, and evaluated the role of their physical environments. Community composition was found to be strongly influenced by three physical factors: estuary size, the degree of inundation by incoming tides, and substrate size/stability. Insects formed a significant proportion (17,54%, by numbers) of the benthic community of coarse-grained-substratum estuaries, and species richness increased with estuary size. Nymphs/larvae of mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, elmid beetles and chironomids dominated channel sites inundated by up to 25% of all incoming tides, but a gradual loss in species richness occurred downstream. However, even the most seaward sites supported high insect densities (up to 25,016 and 5433 m,2, supporting 26 and 4 species, at sites inundated by 75 and 100% of all incoming tides, respectively). Sites covered by tides for between 3 and 5 h twice daily were dominated by orthocladine chironomids, especially of the genus Orthocladius. Chironomid larvae contribute significantly to the diets of some coastal fish species, particularly juvenile flounder and sticklebacks. We present a schematic model summarising the relationships between estuary size, degree of inundation by salt water and insect community structure. [source]

    Reconciling differences in trophic control in mid-latitude marine ecosystems

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 10 2006
    Kenneth T. Frank
    Abstract The dependence of long-term fishery yields on primary productivity, largely based on cross-system comparisons and without reference to the potential dynamic character of this relationship, has long been considered strong evidence for bottom-up control in marine systems. We examined time series of intensive empirical observations from nine heavily exploited regions in the western North Atlantic and find evidence of spatial variance of trophic control. Top-down control dominated in northern areas, the dynamics evolved from bottom-up to top-down in an intermediate region, and bottom-up control governed the southern areas. A simplified, trophic control diagram was developed accounting for top-down and bottom-up forcing within a larger region whose base state dynamics are bottom-up and can accommodate time-varying dynamics. Species diversity and ocean temperature co-varied, being relatively high in southern areas and lower in the north, mirroring the shifting pattern of trophic control. A combination of compensatory population dynamics and accelerated demographic rates in southern areas seems to account for the greater stability of the predator species complex in this region. [source]

    Population genetics of the European trout (Salmo trutta L.) migration system in the river Rhine: recolonisation by sea trout

    A. Schreiber
    Abstract , Allozyme genetics (34 loci) is studied in up to 1010 European trout (Salmo trutta) from the Rhine, Meuse, Weser, Elbe and Danube river systems in Central Europe. Population samples from single collection sites, chiefly small streams (GCG = 0.2126), rather than the divergence of the trout from Atlantic and Danubian drainages (GSG = 0.0711), contributed to the overall gene diversity of GST = 0.2824. Sea trout (n = 164) and brown trout (n = 767) in Atlantic rivers adhere to the same biogeographical stock, but anadromous trout from the Rhine and the Elbe display more genetic cohesion than resident brown trout from the Rhine system alone. Strayers from the Elbe could have founded the recently re-established sea trout population of the Rhine, after a few decades of absence or precarious rarity. Migrants may even connect the Rhine and Elbe stocks by ongoing gene flow. A release,recapture study confirms that all trout in the Rhine belong to one partly migratory population network: Six of 2400 juvenile sea trout released into a tributary of the Rhine were later recorded as emigrants to the Rhine delta, against three of 1600 released brown trout. One migrant had entered the open North Sea, but the other dispersers were recorded in fresh waters of the Rhine delta (Ijsselmeer, Amstelmeer). Stocking presumably elevated both heterozygosity and fixation indices of brown trout, but this effect is subtle within the range of the Atlantic population group. Improved sea trout management in the Rhine, and modifications to brown trout stocking in the upper Danubian area are recommended. [source]

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.): a review of aspects of their life histories

    A. Klemetsen
    Abstract ,,,Among the species in the family Salmonidae, those represented by the genera Salmo, Salvelinus, and Oncorhynchus (subfamily Salmoninae) are the most studied. Here, various aspects of phenotypic and life-history variation of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., brown trout Salmo trutta L., and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) are reviewed. While many strategies and tactics are commonly used by these species, there are also differences in their ecology and population dynamics that result in a variety of interesting and diverse topics that are challenging for future research. Atlantic salmon display considerable phenotypic plasticity and variability in life-history characters ranging from fully freshwater resident forms, where females can mature at approximately 10 cm in length, to anadromous populations characterised by 3,5 sea-winter (5SW) salmon. Even within simple 1SW populations, 20 or more spawning life-history types can be identified. Juveniles in freshwater can use both fluvial and lacustrine habitats for rearing, and while most smolts migrate to sea during the spring, fall migrations occur in some populations. At sea, some salmon undertake extensive oceanic migrations while other populations stay within the geographical confines of areas such as the Baltic Sea. At the other extreme are those that reside in estuaries and return to freshwater to spawn after spending only a few months at sea. The review of information on the diversity of life-history forms is related to conservation aspects associated with Atlantic salmon populations and current trends in abundance and survival. Brown trout is indigenous to Europe, North Africa and western Asia, but was introduced into at least 24 countries outside Europe and now has a world-wide distribution. It exploits both fresh and salt waters for feeding and spawning (brackish), and populations are often partially migratory. One part of the population leaves and feeds elsewhere, while another part stays as residents. In large, complex systems, the species is polymorphic with different size morphs in the various parts of the habitat. Brown trout feed close to the surface and near shore, but large individuals may move far offshore. The species exhibits ontogenetic niche shifts partly related to size and partly to developmental rate. They switch when the amount of surplus energy available for growth becomes small with fast growers being younger and smaller fish than slow growers. Brown trout is an opportunistic carnivore, but individuals specialise at least temporarily on particular food items; insect larvae are important for the young in streams, while littoral epibenthos in lakes and fish are most important for large trout. The sexes differ in resource use and size. Females are more inclined than males to become migratory and feed in pelagic waters. Males exploit running water, near-shore and surface waters more than females. Therefore, females feed more on zooplankton and exhibit a more uniform phenotype than males. The Arctic charr is the northernmost freshwater fish on earth, with a circumpolar distribution in the Holarctic that matches the last glaciation. Recent mtDNA studies indicate that there are five phylogeographic lineages (Atlantic, Arctic, Bering, Siberian and Acadian) that may be of Pleistocene origin. Phenotypic expression and ecology are more variable in charr than in most fish. Weights at maturation range from 3 g to 12 kg. Population differences in morphology and coloration are large and can have some genetic basis. Charr live in streams, at sea and in all habitats of oligotrophic lakes, including very deep areas. Ontogenetic habitat shifts between lacustrine habitats are common. The charr feed on all major prey types of streams, lakes and near-shore marine habitats, but has high niche flexibility in competition. Cannibalism is expressed in several cases, and can be important for developing and maintaining bimodal size distributions. Anadromy is found in the northern part of its range and involves about 40, but sometimes more days in the sea. All charr overwinter in freshwater. Partial migration is common, but the degree of anadromy varies greatly among populations. The food at sea includes zooplankton and pelagic fish, but also epibenthos. Polymorphism and sympatric morphs are much studied. As a prominent fish of glaciated lakes, charr is an important species for studying ecological speciation by the combination of field studies and experiments, particularly in the fields of morphometric heterochrony and comparative behaviour. [source]

    Occurrence and density of Halobates micans (Hemiptera: Gerridae) in the eastern South Indian Ocean

    Terumi IKAWA
    Abstract Two species of ocean skaters, Halobates germanus and Halobates micans, live in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian Ocean. From December 1992 to December 1993, Halobates was intensively sampled in the easternmost region of the South Indian Ocean (13,18.5°S, 114,121E°), from which there have been a small number of records of Halobates. No H. germanus was caught, but a total of 1190 H. micans were collected, with densities estimated at 13 900,28 100 individuals/km2. This suggests that H. micans lives in the study area at high densities comparable to those in the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. We also discuss the possible effects of ocean currents and winds on the geographic distributions of the two Halobates species in the eastern South Indian Ocean. [source]

    Comparative analysis of genome fragments of Acidobacteria from deep Mediterranean plankton

    Achim Quaiser
    Summary Acidobacteria constitute a still poorly studied phylum that is well represented in soils. Recent studies suggest that members of this phylum may be also abundant in deep-sea plankton, but their relative abundance and ecological role in this ecosystem are completely unknown. A recent screening of three metagenomic deep-sea libraries of bathypelagic plankton from the South Atlantic (1000 m depth), the Adriatic (1000 m depth) and the Ionian (3000 m depth) seas in the Mediterranean revealed an unexpected relative proportion of acidobacterial fosmids, which affiliated to the Solibacterales (Group 3), to the Group 11 and, most frequently, to the Group 6 of this diverse phylum. Here, we present the comparative analysis of 11 acidobacterial genome fragments containing the rrn operon from these Mediterranean libraries. A highly conserved syntenic region spanning up to 30 kb and containing up to 25 open reading frames was shared by Group 6 Acidobacteria. Synteny was also partially conserved in distantly related acidobacterial genome fragments derived from a metagenomic soil library, indicating a remarkable conservation of this genomic region within these Acidobacteria. A search for Acidobacteria -specific hits in directly comparable, available fosmid-end sequences from soil and marine metagenomic libraries showed a significant increase of their relative proportion in plankton libraries as a function of increasing depth reaching, at high depth, levels nearly comparable to those of soil. Thus, our results suggest that Acidobacteria are abundant and represent a significant proportion of the microbial community in the deep-sea ecosystem. [source]

    Abundance and activity of Chloroflexi -type SAR202 bacterioplankton in the meso- and bathypelagic waters of the (sub)tropical Atlantic

    Marta M. Varela
    Summary The contribution of Chloroflexi -type SAR202 cells to total picoplankton and bacterial abundance and uptake of d - and l -aspartic acids (Asp) was determined in the different meso- and bathypelagic water masses of the (sub)tropical Atlantic (from 35°N to 5°S). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the overall abundance of SAR202 was , 1 × 103 cells ml,1 in subsurface waters (100 m layer), increasing in the mesopelagic zone to 3 × 103 cells ml,1 and remaining fairly constant down to 4000 m depth. Overall, the percentage of total picoplankton identified as SAR202 increased from < 1% in subsurface waters to 10,20% in the bathypelagic waters. On average, members of the SAR202 cluster accounted for about 30% of the Bacteria in the bathypelagic waters, whereas in the mesopelagic and subsurface waters, SAR202 cells contributed < 5% to total bacterial abundance. The ratio of d -Asp : l -Asp uptake by the bulk picoplankton community increased from the subsurface layer (d -Asp : l -Asp uptake ratio , 0.03) to the deeper layers reaching a ratio of ,1 at 4000 m depth. Combining FISH with microautoradiography to determine the proportion of SAR202 cells taking up d -Asp versus l -Asp, we found that ,,30% of the SAR202 cells were taking up l -Asp throughout the water column while d -Asp was essentially not taken up by SAR202. This d -Asp : l -Asp uptake pattern of SAR202 cells is in contrast to that of the bulk bacterial and crenarchaeal community in the bathypelagic ocean, both sustaining a higher fraction of d -Asp-positive cells than l -Asp-positive cells. Thus, although the Chloroflexi -type SAR202 constitutes a major bathypelagic bacterial cluster, it does not contribute to the large fraction of d -Asp utilizing prokaryotic community in the meso- and bathypelagic waters of the North Atlantic, but rather utilizes preferentially l -amino acids. [source]

    Life in Darwin's dust: intercontinental transport and survival of microbes in the nineteenth century

    Anna A. Gorbushina
    Summary Charles Darwin, like others before him, collected aeolian dust over the Atlantic Ocean and sent it to Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg in Berlin. Ehrenberg's collection is now housed in the Museum of Natural History and contains specimens that were gathered at the onset of the Industrial Revolution. Geochemical analyses of this resource indicated that dust collected over the Atlantic in 1838 originated from the Western Sahara, while molecular-microbiological methods demonstrated the presence of many viable microbes. Older samples sent to Ehrenberg from Barbados almost two centuries ago also contained numbers of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Many diverse ascomycetes, and eubacteria were found. Scanning electron microscopy and cultivation suggested that Bacillus megaterium, a common soil bacterium, was attached to historic sand grains, and it was inoculated onto dry sand along with a non-spore-forming control, the Gram-negative soil bacterium Rhizobium sp. NGR234. On sand B. megaterium quickly developed spores, which survived for extended periods and even though the numbers of NGR234 steadily declined, they were still considerable after months of incubation. Thus, microbes that adhere to Saharan dust can live for centuries and easily survive transport across the Atlantic. [source]

    Assessing diversity and biogeography of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in surface waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans using the Global Ocean Sampling expedition metagenomes

    Natalya Yutin
    Summary Aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (AAnP) were recently proposed to be significant contributors to global oceanic carbon and energy cycles. However, AAnP abundance, spatial distribution, diversity and potential ecological importance remain poorly understood. Here we present metagenomic data from the Global Ocean Sampling expedition indicating that AAnP diversity and abundance vary in different oceanic regions. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the composition of AAnP assemblages change between different oceanic regions, with specific bacterial assemblages adapted to open ocean or coastal areas respectively. Our results support the notion that marine AAnP populations are complex and dynamic, and compose an important fraction of bacterioplankton assemblages in certain oceanic areas. [source]

    Oceanic influence on the precipitation of the south-east of Venezuela

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 3 2002
    Lelys Guenni
    Abstract The Caroní catchment located in the south-east of Venezuela accounts for 70 per cent of the total hydropower energy of the country. On a year to year basis, it has been shown that low frequency large scale ocean-atmosphere phenomena are highly coupled to the hydroclimatology of the region, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) being a major forcing mechanism of climatic and hydrological anomalies. Regional differences in amplitude and timing are due to complex orographic interactions, land surface-atmosphere feedback mechanisms and the evolution of dominant synoptic meteorological conditions. A detailed analysis of the relationship between rainfall and several large scale ocean-atmospheric variables was carried out to determine the potential use of large scale climatic information as predictors of the rainfall anomalies over the region. The problem was tackled in two ways: (a) first a seasonal dynamic rainfall model was fitted to monthly rainfall for different locations. In this case rainfall is assumed as a normal variate w which has been transformed to account for its departure from normality and truncated to account for the positive probability mass of zero values, which corresponds to negative values of the normal variable. The time series of the model parameters and the macroclimatic variables are inspected for their potential relationship with local rainfall via the stochastic model. (b) Second, dynamic linear regression models between the macroclimatic variables as predictors and the rainfall anomalies as predictant were fitted to evaluate and quantify the significance of these dependencies. Consistent patterns are observed with the Tropical Atlantic and Pacific ocean temperature anomalies, in which a significant negative relationship has been present since 1976, indicating an overall decrease (increase) in rainfall when the Pacific and the Tropical Atlantic are warmer (colder) than normal. In all cases the results suggest that the relationships between rainfall anomalies and the macroclimatic variables are not constant with time. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Directions in Rural Development Policy , Lessons from Both Sides of the Atlantic Richtlinien für die ländliche Entwicklungspolitik , Beispiele von diesseits und jenseits des Atlantiks Les orientations de la politique de développement rural , Enseignements en provenance des deux côtés de l'Atlantique

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 1 2008
    David Blandford
    Directions in Rural Development Policy , Lessons from Both Sides of the Atlantic A workshop comparing rural development policies in Europe and the US found differences in the social values that shape them. These include different attachments to place, concerns with lagging regions, and interests in the assessment of public interventions. There is also a difference in coverage. In the EU environmental and landscape issues form part of the CAP's Rural Development Pillar, using agriculture as an instrument, whereas in the US these are handled by other policies, some of which can claim deeper historical roots. In the context of rural development policy, the EU attaches intrinsic value to the environment, while in the US the focus is more on economic spin-offs from environmental quality. There are also differences in governance; a complete US view requires taking in Federal, State and local initiatives whereas in the EU a more organised framework is apparent. Nevertheless, when policy is viewed from a bottom-up perspective many common features are found. Improving human and social capital and infrastructure are key factors to stimulating economic development on both sides of the Atlantic, though only some of these drivers form part of the CAP's Pillar II. While in the EU the role of rural development is set to expand, this is far less certain in the US where the emphasis on agricultural support is likely to continue to dominate the political agenda. Les orientations de la politique de développement rural , Enseignements en provenance des deux côtés de l'Atlantique Un atelier comparant les politiques de développement rural en Europe et aux États-Unis a mis en évidence des différences entre les valeurs sociales sur lesquelles sont fondées ces politiques. Ces différences concernent entre autre l'attachement à des lieux particuliers, l'inquiétude pour les régions en retard de croissance, et l'intérêt pour une évaluation des pouvoirs publics. Les différences portent aussi sur l'étendue de la question. Dans l'Union européenne, les questions portant sur le paysage et l'environnement sont abordées dans le cadre du pilier de la PAC sur le développement rural, qui porte sur l'agriculture comme instrument du développement rural, alors qu'aux États-Unis, ces questions sont traitées par d'autres politiques dont certaines remontent à loin. Dans le contexte de la politique de développement rural, l'Union européenne attache une valeur intrinsèque à l'environnement tandis qu'aux États-Unis, l'accent est mis plutôt sur les retombées économiques d'un environnement de qualité. Les différences portent également sur la gouvernance : pour avoir une vue d'ensemble sur les États-Unis, il faut considérer les actions aux niveaux fédéral, des États et du local alors que dans l'Union européenne, un cadre plus organisé est apparent. Cependant, dans le cas de politiques partant de la base (bottom-up), de nombreux points communs existent. L'amélioration du capital social et humain, et celle des infrastructures sont des éléments clés pour stimuler le développement économique des deux côtés de l'Atlantique, même si seuls quelques uns de ces facteurs sont compris dans le deuxième pilier de la PAC. Alors que le rôle du développement rural devrait s'étendre dans l'Union européenne, c'est beaucoup moins certain aux États-Unis où l'accent sur le soutien à l'agriculture continuera probablement à dominer l'ordre du jour de la politique. Richtlinien für die ländliche Entwicklungspolitik , Beispiele von diesseits und jenseits des Atlantiks Im Rahmen eines Workshops wurden europäische und US-amerikanische Politikmaßnahmen zur Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums miteinander verglichen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich die gesellschaftlichen Werte für die Ausgestaltung der Politikmaßnahmen im Hinblick auf Ortsverbundenheit, die Belange der rückständigen Regionen und das Interesse bei der Bewertung öffentlicher Interventionen unterscheiden. Die jeweiligen Geltungsbereiche unterscheiden sich ebenfalls. In der EU bilden Fragestellungen in Bezug auf Umwelt und landschaftliche Gestaltung einen Teil der zweiten Säule der GAP (Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums), und die Landwirtschaft ist dabei ein Mittel zum Zweck. In den USA hingegen werden diese Fragestellungen durch andere Politikmaßnahmen abgedeckt, von denen einige über längere historische Wurzeln verfügen. Im Rahmen der Politik zur Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums misst die EU der Umwelt intrinsischen Wert bei, während sich die USA mehr auf aus der Umweltqualität resultierende wirtschaftliche Nebeneffekte konzentriert. Im Hinblick auf die Governance sind ebenfalls Unterschiede vorhanden: Während es im Falle der USA erforderlich ist, in einer Gesamtbetrachtung die Initiativen auf staatlicher, bundesstaatlicher und kommunaler Ebene zu berücksichtigen, lassen die Rahmenbedingungen in Europa ein höheres Maß an Organisation erkennen. Wird die Politik jedoch aus einer Bottom-up-Perspektive heraus betrachtet, können zahlreiche Gemeinsamkeiten gefunden werden. Bei der Verbesserung des Human- und Sozialkapitals und der Infrastruktur handelt es sich um Schlüsselfaktoren für die Ankurbelung der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung diesseits und jenseits des Atlantiks, wenngleich nur einige dieser Triebfedern die zweite Säule der GAP ausmachen. Während die Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums in der EU eine immer größere Rolle spielen wird, ist dies in den USA längst nicht sicher; dort wird der Schwerpunkt auf die Agrarstützung wahrscheinlich weiterhin die politische Agenda dominieren. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2000
    Stefan R. Schulze
    Abstract. Invertebrate interspecific developmental patterns can be highly variable and, taxonomically, are considered only weakly constrained. Intraspecifically, some invertebrate species possess multiple developmental modes,a condition known as poecilogony. Closer examination of most putative poecilogenous species, however, has not supported poecilogony, but rather has uncovered hidden or cryptic species. The polychaete Streblospio benedicti is a well-known, poecilogenous species found along the coast of North America. We collected mitochondrial cytochrome subunit I DNA sequence data from 88 individuals taken from 11 locations along the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific Coasts of the United States to provide a phylogenetic framework from which to interpret intraspecific variation in larval life history and brooding structure morphology in this species. Our results are consistent with a recent revision of the species into two separate species: S. benedicti, a pouched brooding form distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts, and S. gynobranchiata, a branchiate brooding form in the Gulf of Mexico. Contrary to the redescription, S. benedicti is paraphyletic because the pouched brooding population in Vero Beach, Florida shows strong genetic affinity with Gulf of Mexico populations (S. gynobranchiata). However, S. benedicti is a true poecilogenous species, with both lecithotrophic and planktotrophic individuals possessing identical mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. Crossbreeding experiments further support the molecular phylogeny with reproductive isolation demonstrated between, but not within, the major phylogenetic clades consistent with the previously described species. The genetic break near Vero Beach, Florida, corresponds to a well-known phylogeographic boundary, but the estimated time of separation for the Streblospio spp., approximately 10 million years before present, predates all other known phylogeographic subdivisions in this area. This suggests that biogeographic sundering in this region is a recurrent event. Divergence times within the major Streblospio spp. clades are recent and indicate that changes in larval life history as well as brooding structure morphology are highly plastic and can evolve rapidly. [source]

    SYNTHESIS: Life history change in commercially exploited fish stocks: an analysis of trends across studies

    Diana M. T. Sharpe
    Abstract Age and size at maturation have declined dramatically in many commercial fish stocks over the past few decades , changes that have been widely attributed to fishing pressure. We performed an analysis of such trends across multiple studies, to test for the consistency of life history changes under fishing, and for their association with the intensity of exploitation (fishing mortality rate). We analyzed 143 time series from 37 commercial fish stocks, the majority of which originated from the North Atlantic. Rates of phenotypic change were calculated for two traditional maturation indices (length and age at 50% maturity), as well as for probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs). We found that all three indices declined in heavily exploited populations, and at a rate that was strongly correlated with the intensity of fishing (for length at 50% maturity and PMRNs). These results support previous assertions that fishing pressure is playing a major role in the life history changes observed in commercial fish stocks. Rates of change were as strong for PMRNs as for age and size at 50% maturity, which is consistent with the hypothesis that fishing-induced phenotypic changes can sometimes have a genetic basis. [source]

    Bacteria in the cold deep-sea benthic boundary layer and sediment,water interface of the NE Atlantic

    Carol Turley
    Abstract This is a short review of the current understanding of the role of microorganisms in the biogeochemistry in the deep-sea benthic boundary layer (BBL) and sediment,water interface (SWI) of the NE Atlantic, the gaps in our knowledge and some suggestions of future directions. The BBL is the layer of water, often tens of meters thick, adjacent to the sea bed and with homogenous properties of temperature and salinity, which sometimes contains resuspended detrital particles. The SWI is the bioreactive interface between the water column and the upper 1 cm of sediment and can include a large layer of detrital material composed of aggregates that have sedimented from the upper mixed layer of the ocean. This material is biologically transformed, over a wide range of time scales, eventually forming the sedimentary record. To understand the microbial ecology of deep-sea bacteria, we need to appreciate the food supply in the upper ocean, its packaging, passage and transformation during the delivery to the sea bed, the seasonality of variability of the supply and the environmental conditions under which the deep-sea bacteria grow. We also need to put into a microbial context recent geochemical findings of vast reservoirs of intrinsically labile organic material sorped onto sediments. These may well become desorped, and once again available to microorganisms, during resuspension events caused by deep ocean currents. As biotechnologists apply their tools in the deep oceans in search of unique bacteria, an increasing knowledge and understanding of the natural processes undertaken and environmental conditions experienced by deep-sea bacteria will facilitate this exploitation. [source]

    Genetic population structure of marine fish: mismatch between biological and fisheries management units

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2009
    Henning Reiss
    Abstract An essential prerequisite of a sustainable fisheries management is the matching of biologically relevant processes and management action. In fisheries management and assessment, fish stocks are the fundamental biological unit, but the reasoning for the operational management unit is often indistinct and mismatches between the biology and the management action frequently occur. Despite the plethora of population genetic data on marine fishes, to date little or no use is made of the information, despite the fact that the detection of genetic differentiation may indicate reproductively distinct populations. Here, we discuss key aspects of genetic population differentiation in the context of their importance for fisheries management. Furthermore, we evaluate the population structure of all 32 managed marine fish species in the north-east Atlantic and relate this structure to current management units and practice. Although a large number of studies on genetic population structure have been published in the last decades, data are still rare for most exploited species. The mismatch between genetic population structure and the current management units found for six species (Gadus morhua, Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Merlangius merlangus, Micromesistius poutassou, Merluccius merluccius and Clupea harengus), emphasizes the need for a revision of these units and questions the appropriateness of current management measures. The implementation of complex and dynamic population structures into novel and less static management procedures should be a primary task for future fisheries management approaches. [source]

    Characterizing regime shifts in the marine environment

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 2 2006
    Kathryn Lees
    Abstract Recent years have seen a plethora of studies reporting that ,regime shifts' have occurred in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during the last century. In many cases, the criteria used to distinguish a regime shift have not been explicitly stated. In other cases, a formal definition has been proposed and the data set assessed against it. Developing a universal quantitative definition for identifying and distinguishing between purported climatic and ecological regime shifts has proved problematic as many authors have developed criteria that seem unique to the system under study. Consequently, they throw little light on the drivers of ecological regime shifts. Criteria used to define regime shifts are reviewed and on the basis of evidence from purported regime shifts, common characteristics in the speed and amplitude of the changes and the duration of quasi-stable states are used to propose a more clearly defined set of criteria for defining climatic and ecological regime shifts. Causal drivers of regime shifts are explored using correlation analysis. Limitations of these methods are discussed. [source]

    Wasted fishery resources: discarded by-catch in the USA

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2005
    Jennie M Harrington
    Abstract Fishery by-catch, especially discarded by-catch, is a serious problem in the world's oceans. Not only are the stocks of discarded species affected, but entire trophic webs and habitats may be disrupted at the ecosystem level. This paper reviews discarding in the marine fisheries of the USA; however, the type, diversity and regulatory mechanisms of the fisheries are similar to developed fisheries and management programmes throughout the world. We have compiled current estimates of discarded by-catch for each major marine fishery in the USA using estimates from existing literature, both published and unpublished. We did not re-estimate discards or discard rates from raw data, nor did we include data on protected species (turtles, mammals and birds) and so this study covers discarded by-catch of finfish and fishable invertebrates. For some fisheries, additional calculations were required to transform number data into weight data, and typically length and weight composition data were used. Specific data for each fishery are referenced in Harrington et al. (Wasted Resources: Bycatch and discards in US Fisheries, Oceana, Washington, DC, 2005). Overall, our compiled estimates are that 1.06 million tonnes of fish were discarded and 3.7 million tonnes of fish were landed in USA marine fisheries in 2002. This amounts to a nationwide discard to landings ratio of 0.28, amongst the highest in the world. Regionally, the southeast had the largest discard to landings ratio (0.59), followed closely by the highly migratory species fisheries (0.52) and the northeast fisheries (0.49). The Alaskan and west coast fisheries had the lowest ratios (0.12 and 0.15 respectively). Shrimp fisheries in the southeast were the major contributors to the high discard rate in that region, with discard ratios of 4.56 (Gulf of Mexico) and 2.95 (South Atlantic). By-catch and discarding is a major component of the impact of fisheries on marine ecosystems. There have been substantial efforts to reduce by-catch in some fisheries, but broadly based programmes covering all fisheries are needed within the USA and around the world. In response to international agreements to improve fishery management, by-catch and discard reduction must become a regular part of fishery management planning. [source]

    Broadbill swordfish: status of established fisheries and lessons for developing fisheries

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2000
    P. Ward
    Guidelines for the assessment and management of developing swordfish fisheries are derived through an examination of five swordfish fisheries. As they develop, swordfish fisheries may be inclined to local depletion around underwater features, such as seamounts and banks. Few nations have applied the precautionary approach in managing their developing swordfish fisheries. Without controls, swordfish fisheries expand geographically and fishing effort increases, often overshooting optimum levels. However, it is difficult to distinguish clear evidence of fishery collapse; modern longliners harvest widely distributed tuna and swordfish and they are able to relocate to distant areas or switch between target species in response to fluctuations in species abundance and price. Furthermore, the wide distribution of swordfish combined with year-round spawning and high growth rates amongst juveniles probably contribute to the apparent resilience of swordfish stocks to intensive harvesting. Over half the world's swordfish catch is taken as an incidental catch of longliners fishing for tuna. In several areas, such as the North Atlantic, catch quotas have sometimes caused tuna longline fishers to discard swordfish. Minimum size limits have also resulted in discarding of swordfish in tuna fisheries and in dedicated swordfish fisheries. In addition to weakening the effectiveness of those management measures, bycatch and discarding add to the complexities of managing swordfish fisheries and to uncertainties in assessing the stocks. Longliners that target swordfish often fish at high latitudes where interactions with marine wildlife, such as seabird, are generally more frequent than at low latitudes. Concern over incidental catches of marine wildlife and other species is becoming a driving force in the management of several swordfish fisheries. Fishery management organisations will need to implement management measures to protect non-target species and gather reliable data and information on the situation by placing observers on boats fishing for swordfish. [source]

    Variation in abundance of Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, Clupeidae) throughout the 20th century and the influence of climatic fluctuations

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 3 2000
    R. Toresen
    A long-term (1907,98) virtual population analysis (VPA) was made for Norwegian spring-spawning herring (NSSH), which is a huge pelagic fish stock in the north-east Atlantic. It shows that this herring stock has had large fluctuations during the last century; these fluctuations have mainly been determined by variations in the temperature of the inflowing water masses to the region. The spawning stock biomass (SSB) increased from a rather low level in the early years of this century and reached a high level of around 14 million tons by 1930. The spawning stock biomass then decreased to a level of around 10 million tons by 1940, but increased again to a record high level of 16 million tons by 1945. The stock then started to decrease and during the next 20-year period fell to a level of less than 50 000 tons by the late 1960s. Through the 1970s and 1980s, the stock slowly recovered and after the recruitment of strong year classes in 1983 and 1990,1992 the stock recovered to a spawning stock biomass of about 10 million tons. The long-term fluctuation in spawning stock biomass is caused by variations in the survival of recruits. It is found that the long-term changes in spawning stock abundance are highly correlated with the long-term variations in the mean annual temperature of the inflowing Atlantic water masses (through the Kola section) into the north-east Atlantic region. The recruitment is positively correlated with the average temperature in the Kola section in the winter months, January,April, which indicates that environmental factors govern the large-scale fluctuations in production for this herring stock. [source]