Propylene

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Propylene

  • propylene copolymer
  • propylene diene monomer
  • propylene glycol
  • propylene glycol alginate
  • propylene glycol solution
  • propylene imine
  • propylene oxide
  • propylene polymerization

  • Selected Abstracts


    Effects of organophilic clay on the solvent-maintaining capability, dimensional stability, and electrochemical properties of gel poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite electrolytes

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 22 2002
    H. J. Liu
    Abstract Four quaternary alkyl ammonium salts were used in an organophilic procedure, performed on montmorillonite clay, and resulted in intercalation in dimethylformamide (DMF) or ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) as a cosolvent between poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) and the organophilic clay. An examination using X-ray diffraction revealed that PVdF entered galleries of montmorillonite clay, and it exhibited exfoliation and intercalation phenomena when it was analyzed with transmission electron microscopy. Gel PVdF nanocomposite electrolyte materials were successfully prepared by the addition of the appropriate percentages of DMF or PC/EC as a cosolvent, organophilic clay, and lithium perchlorate to PVdF. The maximum ionic conductivity was 1.03 10,2 S/cm, and the materials exhibited better film formation, solvent-maintaining capability, and dimensional stability than electrolyte films without added organophilic clays. The results of cyclic voltammetry testing showed that the addition of the organophilic clays significantly enhanced the electrochemical stability of the polymer electrolyte system. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 40: 3873,3882, 2002 [source]


    Solid polymer electrolytes III: Preparation, characterization, and ionic conductivity of new gelled polymer electrolytes based on segmented, perfluoropolyether-modified polyurethane

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 4 2002
    Chi-Chang Chen
    Abstract New segmented polyurethanes with perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and poly(ethylene oxide) blocks were synthesized from a fluorinated macrodiol mixed with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in different ratios as a soft segment, 2,4-toluene diisocyanate as a hard segment, and ethylene glycol as a chain extender. Fourier transform infrared, NMR, and thermal analysis [differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)] were used to characterize the structures of these copolymers. The copolymer films were immersed in a liquid electrolyte (1 M LiClO4/propylene carbonate) to form gel-type electrolytes. The ionic conductivities of these polymer electrolytes were investigated through changes in the copolymer composition and content of the liquid electrolyte. The relative molar ratio of PFPE and PEG in the copolymer played an important role in the conductivity and the capacity to retain the liquid electrolyte solution. The copolymer with a 50/50 PFPE/PEG ratio, having the lowest decomposition temperature shown by TGA, exhibited the highest ionic conductivity and lowest activation energy for ion transportation. The conductivities of these systems were about 10,3 S cm,1 at room temperature and 10,2 S cm,1 at 70 C; the films immersed in the liquid electrolyte with an increase of 70 wt % were homogenous with good mechanical properties. 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 40: 486,495, 2002; DOI 10.1002/pola.10119 [source]


    Effect of Solvents on Living Polymerization of Propylene with [t -BuNSiMe2Flu]TiMe2 -MMAO Catalyst System

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 3 2004
    Kei Nishii
    Abstract Summary: Batchwise polymerization of propylene was conducted at 0,C in heptane using [tert -BuNSiMe2Flu]TiMe2 (1) combined with dried methylaluminoxane (MAO) and dried modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO), which were prepared from the toluene solutions of MAO and MMAO by removing the solvent and the free trialkylaluminium. The dried MMAO system quantitatively gave the polymer with higher molecular weight and narrower molecular weight distribution (MWD), ca. 1.3, compared with the dried MAO system. In addition, the polymerization with dried MMAO in toluene, chlorobenzene (CB) and ortho -dichlorobenzene (o -DCB), as solvent, also produced polymers quantitatively with MWD of ca. 1.1,1.3. The number-average molecular weight () of the polymers, obtained with these systems, increased linearly against the polymer yield, while the narrow MWD was retained and the number of polymer chains was almost constant. The results of post-polymerization in heptane and o -DCB proved that the living polymerization proceeded irrespective of the solvent used. The semi-batch polymerizations under an atmospheric pressure of propylene indicated that the propagation rate was more than 10 times higher in o -DCB than in heptane. The 13C NMR analysis of the polymers indicated that the syndiotacticity also depended on the polarity of the solvent and increased in the following order: CB,,,o -DCB,<,toluene,<,heptane. A plausible scheme for the interaction between active species and solvents. [source]


    The Role of Allylanisole in Metallocene-Catalyzed Propylene Polymerization and Synthesis of End-Capped Oligomers

    MACROMOLECULAR REACTION ENGINEERING, Issue 4 2008
    Muhammad Atiqullah
    Propylene was copolymerized with allylanisole (AA) using Me2Si(Ind)2ZrCl2 and Et(Ind)2ZrCl2, and the methylaluminoxane MAO cocatalyst at 70,C and a cocatalyst to catalyst (Al:Zr) molar ratio of 1,000. It was fed at 8.5 bar(g). The weight-average molecular weight, , for both metallocenes decreased as the AA feed concentration increased. Therefore, allylanisole acted as an in situ chain transfer agent. The chain transfer constants, ktr/kp, of AA for Et(Ind)2ZrCl2 and Me2Si(Ind)2ZrCl2 turned out to be 0.33 and 0.40, respectively. The characterization of the resulting products by 1H NMR demonstrated that AA end-capped the isotactic poly(propylene) chains which showed to be low molecular weight oligomers; 4.96,,103,,,,,,9.80,,103. An appropriate chain transfer mechanism for AA has been proposed. [source]


    Sorption and Diffusion of Propylene and Ethylene in Heterophasic Polypropylene Copolymers

    MACROMOLECULAR SYMPOSIA, Issue 1 2007
    Michael Bartke
    Abstract Summary: Sorption experiments of ethylene and propylene in different polypropylene powder samples, both homopolymer and heterophasic copolymers with different rubber content, have been carried out in a high-pressure magnetic suspension balance at 10 bars pressure and 70,C. The gross solubilities measured can be well correlated with the rubber content of the polymer samples. Solubility of ethylene and propylene in the rubber phase differ from solubility in the amorphous fraction of the homopolymer, especially the concentration ratio of propylene to ethylene differs significantly between rubber phase and amorphous fraction of the homopolymer. From the slope of monomer uptake, information on kinetics of mass-transfer can be gained. No significant differences were observed in terms of mass-transfer for ethylene and propylene. With increasing rubber content, effective diffusion coefficients increased slightly. By combined sorption studies with powder samples and compressed films, information about both effective diffusion coefficients and the effective length scale of diffusion could be gained. It could be shown, that the particle radius is not the characteristic length of diffusion in the studied powder samples. Mass transfer of nearly all samples could be described by a constant diffusion length of 120 to 130 m, independently on particle size. This indicates that the effective scale of diffusion in polymer particles is in between microparticle and macroparticle scale used in classical particle modeling. [source]


    Growing Cholesterol-Dependent NS0 Myeloma Cell Line in the Wave Bioreactor System: Overcoming Cholesterol-Polymer Interaction by Using Pretreated Polymer or Inert Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene

    BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 4 2005
    Judith Kadarusman
    Difficulty in growing cholesterol-dependent NS0 cells in the Wave bioreactor using the original low-density polypropylene (LDPE) bags has been encountered. It has been shown that in these bags chemically defined cholesterol is depleted from solution and therefore unavailable for the cells. Our data suggest that the cause of the depletion is not chemical but is due to the physical structure of the polymer. It is proposed that polymer structures with inkbottle pores retain cholesterol, whereas structures with V-shaped pores adsorb cholesterol reversibly. Ultra-low-density polyethylene (ULDPE) bags can support cell growth but need to be pretreated with excess cholesterol. Another material, fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) does not need to be pretreated and is found to be superior (negligible cholesterol adsorption) as a result of its inert characteristics. [source]


    ChemInform Abstract: Catalytic, Asymmetric Cyanohydrin Synthesis in Propylene Carbonate.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 46 2009
    Michael North
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]


    An Efficient Synthesis of ,-Hydroxyethylpyrazoles from Propylene and Styrene Oxide Using Cs2CO3.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 44 2004
    Virginie Duprez
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]


    Palladium(II)- and Platinum(II)-Catalyzed Addition of Stabilized Carbon Nucleophiles to Ethylene and Propylene.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 30 2004
    Xiang Wang
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]


    Copolymerization of Ethylene/1-hexene and Polymerization of Propylene with Cp-indenyl Zirconium Complexes

    CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, Issue 8 2005
    Zhang Yong
    Abstract Complexes (R1Cp)(R2Ind)ZrCl2, the catalysts previously reported active for ethylene polymerization showed high activity in ethylene/1-hexene copolymerization and propylene polymerization in the presence of MAO. The content of 1-hexene in copolymers ranged from 1.2% to 3.2%. In propylene polymerization the complex 1 showed the highest activity, up to 1.2106 g of polypropylene per mol of catalyst per hour. Based on the analysis of NMR spectral data, the relationships between complex structures and polymerization results were explored. [source]


    Multicenter nature of titanium-based Ziegler,Natta catalysts: Comparison of ethylene and propylene polymerization reactions

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 12 2003
    Yury V. Kissin
    Abstract This article discusses the similarities and differences between active centers in propylene and ethylene polymerization reactions over the same Ti-based catalysts. These correlations were examined by comparing the polymerization kinetics of both monomers over two different Ti-based catalyst systems, ,-TiCl3 -AlEt3 and TiCl4/DBP/MgCl2 -AlEt3/PhSi(OEt)3, by comparing the molecular weight distributions of respective polymers, in consecutive ethylene/propylene and propylene/ethylene homopolymerization reactions, and by examining the IR spectra of "impact-resistant" polypropylene (a mixture of isotactic polypropylene and an ethylene/propylene copolymer). The results of these experiments indicated that Ti-based catalysts contain two families of active centers. The centers of the first family, which are relatively unstable kinetically, are capable of polymerizing and copolymerizing all olefins. This family includes from four to six populations of centers that differ in their stereospecificity, average molecular weights of polymer molecules they produce, and in the values of reactivity ratios in olefin copolymerization reactions. The centers of the second family (two populations of centers) efficiently polymerize only ethylene. They do not homopolymerize ,-olefins and, if used in ethylene/,-olefin copolymerization reactions, incorporate ,-olefin molecules very poorly. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 41: 1745,1758, 2003 [source]


    Application of CAMD in separating hydrocarbons by extractive distillation

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 12 2005
    Biaohua Chen
    Abstract The solvent is the core of extractive distillation, and a suitable solvent plays an important role in the economical design of extractive distillation. Computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) has been applied to rapidly screen the solvents for separating hydrocarbons by extractive distillation. The systems of propane/propylene, n-butane/1-butene, and n-heptane/benzene, respectively, as the representatives of C3, C4, and C6 hydrocarbons were investigated, and the potential solvents were selected by means of CAMD. The designed results were further proven by experiments and process simulation. The mechanism for separating hydrocarbons by extractive distillation is based on the different fluidities of the electron cloud of CC (no double bond), CC (one double bond), and ACH (aromatic carbon ring) bonds and thus different interactions between solvent and hydrocarbon molecules. To improve the separation ability of the main solvent, one strategy is to add some additive that can form hydrogen bonding with the main solvent to make into a mixture. 2005 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2005 [source]


    The Synthesis and Reactivity of Group 4 Zwitterionic Complexes of the Type Mt+CH2AlCl3,: One-Component Stereoselective Polymerization and Oligomerization Catalysts for Olefins and Acetylenes

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 15 2004
    John J. Eisch
    Abstract A reinvestigation of the interaction of TiCl4 with 2 equiv. of Me3Al in toluene between ,78 C and 25 C over 24 h has now established that the ultimate black product obtained is an associated zwitterion of the type [Ti+,CH2,AlCl3,]n, supported by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometric and gasometric analyses of the gases evolved (CH4, H2) upon its protolysis. Chemical reactions of the zwitterion have corroborated specific aspects of its proposed structure: 1) its methylene character, by its transformation of benzophenone into 1,1-diphenylethylene; 2) its divalent titanium content, by the substantial reductive dimerization of benzophenone to tetraphenylethylene, and 3) its Lewis acidic Ti center, by its catalytic isomerization of trans -stilbene oxide to 1,1-diphenylacetaldehyde. Similar individual reactions of ZrCl4 or HfCl4 with Me3Al have led to the analogous zwitterions [Zr+,CH2,AlCl3,]n and [Hf+,CH2,AlCl3,]n, respectively. These zwitterions of Ti, Zr and Hf have been proven to be capable of the cyclotrimerization and/or polymerization of acetylenes with varying facility, as evidenced by their catalytic action on 1-hexyne, phenylacetylene, di- n -butylacetylene, and diphenylacetylene. Furthermore, all three zwitterions were able to polymerize ethylene, without any added cocatalyst, with an activity following the order Zr > Ti > Hf. The Ti and Zr zwitterions effected the stereoselective polymerization of propylene to yield 50% of isotactic polymer, and all three catalysts induced the polymerization of 1-hexene to yield 85% (Zr, Hf) or 100% (Ti) of isotactic polymer. These oligomerizations and stereoselective polymerizations of acetylenes and olefins can be rationalized through a model for the active site resembling a three-membered metallacyclopropa(e)nium ion intermediate formed from the attack of the Group 4 metal zwitterion on the unsaturated hydrocarbon. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2004) [source]


    Toughening study of fire-retardant high-impact polystyrene

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 2 2009
    Cui Wenguang
    Abstract Fire-retardant high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) was modified by melt blending with varying amounts of three types of tougheners. The effects of the tougheners on the properties of the fire-retardant HIPS were studied by mechanical, combustion tests, and thermogravimetric analysis. The morphologies of fracture surfaces and char layers were characterized through scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the impact properties of styrene,butadiene,styrene (SBS)-containing composites were better than those of ethylene,propylene,diene monomer (EPDM)-containing or ethylene,vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)-containing composites. The tensile strength and flexural modulus of the fire-retardant HIPS decreased evidently with the addition of tougheners. It is found that the compatibility between SBS copolymer and HIPS matrix was best among the three types of tougheners. The addition of SBS had little influence on the thermal property, residue, flammability, and morphology of char layer of the fire-retardant HIPS, but the addition of EPDM rubber or EVA brought adverse influence on the residue, flammability, and morphology of char layer of the fire-retardant HIPS, especially for EPDM. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    A Thermoplastic Gel Electrolyte for Stable Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 15 2007
    H. Wu
    Abstract Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are receiving considerable attention as low-cost alternatives to conventional solar cells. In DSSCs based on liquid electrolytes, a photoelectric efficiency of 11,% has been achieved, but potential problems in sealing the cells and the low long-term stability of these systems have impeded their practical use. Here, we present a thermoplastic gel electrolyte (TPGE) as an alternative to the liquid electrolytes used in DSSCs. The TPGE exhibits a thermoplastic character, high conductivity, long-term stability, and can be prepared by a simple and convenient protocol. The viscosity, conductivity, and phase state of the TPGE can be controlled by tuning the composition. Using 40,wt,% poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as the polymeric host, 60,wt,% propylene carbonate (PC) as the solvent, and 0.65,M KI and 0.065,M I2 as the ionic conductors, a TPGE with a conductivity of 2.61,mS,cm,2 is prepared. Based on this TPGE, a DSSC is fabricated with an overall light-to-electrical-energy conversion efficiency of 7.22,% under 100,mW,cm,2 irradiation. The present findings should accelerate the widespread use of DSSCs. [source]


    The Large Electrochemical Capacitance of Microporous Doped Carbon Obtained by Using a Zeolite Template,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 11 2007
    O. Ania
    Abstract A novel microporous templated carbon material doped with nitrogen is synthesized by using a two-step nanocasting process using acrylonitrile (AN) and propylene as precursors, and Na,Y zeolite as a scaffold. Liquid-phase impregnation and in,situ polymerization of the nitrogenated precursor inside the nanochannels of the inorganic scaffold, followed by gas-phase impregnation with propylene, enables pore-size control and functionality tuning of the resulting carbon material. The material thereby obtained has a narrow pore-size distribution (PSD), within the micropore range, and a large amount of heteroatoms (i.e., oxygen and nitrogen). In addition, the carbon material inherits the ordered structure of the inorganic host. Such features simultaneously present in the carbon result in it being ideal for use as an electrode in a supercapacitor. Although presenting a moderately developed specific surface area (SBET,=,1680,m2,g,1), the templated carbon material displays a large gravimetric capacitance (340,F,g,1) in aqueous media because of the combined electrochemical activity of the heteroatoms and the accessible porosity. This material can operate at 1.2,V in an aqueous medium with good cycleability,-beyond 10,000,cycles,and is extremely promising for use in the development of high-energy-density supercapacitors. [source]


    Detailed chemical kinetic modeling of pyrolysis of ethylene, acetylene, and propylene at 1073,1373 K with a plug-flow reactor model

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL KINETICS, Issue 4 2008
    Koyo Norinaga
    This study examines the predictive capability of our recently proposed reaction mechanism (Norinaga and Deutschmann, Ind Eng Chem Res 2007, 46, 3547) for hydrocarbon pyrolysis at varying temperature. The conventional flow reactor experiments were conducted at 8 kPa, over the temperature range 1073,1373 K, using ethylene, acetylene, and propylene as reactants to validate the mechanism. More than 40 compounds were identified and quantitatively analyzed by on- and off-line gas chromatography. The chemical reaction schemes consisting of 227 species and 827 reactions were coupled with a plug-flow reactor model that incorporated the experimentally measured axial temperature profile of the reactor. Comparisons between the computations and the experiments are presented for more than 30 products including hydrogen and hydrocarbons ranging from methane to coronene as a function of temperature. The model can predict the compositions of major products (mole fractions larger than 10,2) in the pyrolysis of three hydrocarbons with satisfactory accuracies over the whole temperature range considered. Mole fraction profiles of minor compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) up to three ring systems, such as phenanthrene, anthracene, and phenylnaphthalene, are also fairly modeled. At temperatures lower than 1273 K, larger PAHs were underpredicted and the deviation became larger with decreasing temperature and increasing molecular mass of PAHs, while better agreements were found at temperatures higher than 1323 K. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 40: 199,208, 2008 [source]


    Kinetics of propane oxydehydrogenation on metals oxides and metals phosphates catalysts: Evidence of compensation effects

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL KINETICS, Issue 3 2006
    B. Y. Jibril
    Kinetics of oxidative dehydrogenation of propane has been tested on three groups of catalysts; alumina-supported metal oxides (MO) (where metal is V, Cr, Ni, Zr, Mo, or Ba), alumina-supported rare earth metal oxides (RO) (where metal is Ce, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, or Yb), and metal phosphates (MP) (where metal is V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zr, Mg, Ba, or Ce). They were found to be active and exhibited different selectivities to propylene, ethylene, and COx (CO and CO2). The Arrhenius parameters,apparent pre-exponential factor (lnAapp) and activation energy Eapp),were evaluated. Evidence of compensation effects was established through statistically significant linear relationship between ln Aapp and Eapp. The rates of propane conversions and COx productions on MO and MP showed common compensation line different from that of RO. When the data for rates of production of propylene and ethylene were plotted, the line for the ethylene rate on MO appeared above that of propylene rate, contrary to the observation on MP and RO. An attempt was made to associate the differences in the behaviors of the catalysts with differences in the ensembles of chemisorbed species that form the respective active centers. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 38: 176,183, 2006 [source]


    Polystyrene-Supported Amino Acids as Efficient Catalyst for Chemical Fixation of Carbon Dioxide

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 11-12 2010
    Chaorong Qi
    Abstract Four new polystyrene-supported amino acids have been synthesized and applied to the chemical fixation of carbon dioxide for the first time. Two series of experiments with polystyrene-supported threonine (PS-Thr) and polystyrene-supported tyrosine (PS-Tyr) as catalyst, respectively, were conducted to study the effect of the reaction conditions on the carboxylation of propylene oxide/carbon dioxide. There was no considerable decrease in the yield of propylene carbonate after the polystyrene-supported amino acids were used five times, indicating that these catalysts are very stable. It was demonstrated that these catalysts were very efficient in the carboxylation of various epoxides and aziridines with carbon dioxide under mild conditions without any solvents. The mechanism for this carboxylation is also discussed. [source]


    FI Catalysts: A Molecular Zeolite for Olefin Polymerization

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 10 2010
    Haruyuki Makio
    Abstract A bis(phenoxyimine) group 4 transition metal catalyst (now known as FI catalysts) can discern ethylene from a mixture of ethylene and propylene at more than 99% selectivity. Denisty function theory (DFT) calculations revealed a spatially confined reaction site in the transition states of the migratory insertion which is just the right size for an ethylene molecule but too small for a propylene one. The substituents adjacent to the phenoxy-oxygens are of crucial importance in developing the size/shape-selectivity. [source]


    Catalytic Asymmetric Cycloaddition of Carbon Dioxide and Propylene Oxide Using Novel Chiral Polymers of BINOL-Salen- Cobalt(III) Salts

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 9 2009
    Peng Yan
    Abstract Four new chiral polymers of BINOL-Salen-cobalt(III) salt complexes have been designed, synthesized and applied to the direct fabrication of chiral propylene carbonate from racemic propylene oxide. The (R/S)-polymer catalyst 2 and (S/R)-polymer catalyst 4 exhibit better enantioselectivity than the (R/R)-polymer catalyst 1 and the (S/S)-polymer catalyst 3 and have been recovered and reused more than ten times without loss of activity and enantioselectivity. [source]


    PP/EVA blends: Mechanical properties and morphology.

    ADVANCES IN POLYMER TECHNOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Effect of compatibilizers on the impact behavior
    Abstract The mechanical properties of blends of isotactic polypropylene (PP) and poly[ethylene- co -(vinyl acetate)] (EVA) are studied under tension at several temperatures (from ,30C to room temperature). The morphology and thermal properties are given attention at every stage of the stretching process. To improve the impact resistance of the blends, poly[propylene- graft -(maleic anhydride)] (PPMA) and hydroxylated EVA (EVAOH) are used as compatibilizers. The domain size of the dispersed phase decreases with compatibilizer content, improving the impact resistance of the blends. This is accompanied with changes in the morphology of such systems. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 24: 241,252, 2005; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20050 [source]


    Small and wide-angle X-ray scattering study of metallocene isotactic poly(propylene)

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, Issue 3-1 2000
    P.S. Dai
    We report a study of metallocene isotactic poly(propylene) (m-iPP) which crystallizes into , and , crystal modifications. Simultaneous in-situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) were used to study kinetics during crystallization. Both techniques provide information about time development of crystallinity, while WAXS gives also kinetics of formation of , and , crystals. During the earliest stages of crystal formation, the SAXS Bragg peak occurs simultaneously, or slightly lags, the appearance of crystalline WAXS reflections. We conclude crystallization occurs by a nucleation and growth process in this m-iPP. [source]


    Fabrication and properties of crosslinked poly(propylene carbonate maleate) gel polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 4 2010
    Xiaoyuan Yu
    Abstract The poly(propylene carbonate maleate) (PPCMA) was synthesized by the terpolymerization of carbon dioxide, propylene oxide, and maleic anhydride. The PPCMA polymer can be readily crosslinked using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as crosslinking agent and then actived by absorbing liquid electrolyte to fabricate a novel PPCMA gel polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion battery. The thermal performance, electrolyte uptake, swelling ratio, ionic conductivity, and lithium ion transference number of the crosslinked PPCMA were then investigated. The results show that the Tg and the thermal stability increase, but the absorbing and swelling rates decrease with increasing DCP amount. The ionic conductivity of the PPCMA gel polymer electrolyte firstly increases and then decreases with increasing DCP ratio. The ionic conductivity of the PPCMA gel polymer electrolyte with 1.2 wt % of DCP reaches the maximum value of 8.43 10,3 S cm,1 at room temperature and 1.42 10,2 S cm,1 at 50C. The lithium ion transference number of PPCMA gel polymer electrolyte is 0.42. The charge/discharge tests of the Li/PPCMA GPE/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cell were evaluated at a current rate of 0.1C and in voltage range of 2.8,4.2 V at room temperature. The results show that the initial discharge capacity of Li/PPCMA GPE/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3 O2 cell is 115.3 mAh g,1. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Effects of curing systems and polysulfonamide pulp on the curing characteristics, mechanical properties, and swelling behavior of ethylene,propylene,diene elastomer composites

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
    Xiaolong Jia
    Abstract The effects of three curing systems and polysulfonamide (PSA) pulp on the curing characteristics, mechanical properties, and swelling behavior of ethylene,propylene,diene elastomer (EPDM) composites were investigated. The maximum torque value and the optimum curing time were highest for EPDM composites cured with a peroxide system, and they were closely followed by those cured with a sulfur system. In comparison with those cured with peroxide and phenolic resin systems, EPDM composites cured with the sulfur system showed higher mechanical properties and dimensional stability. With increasing PSA pulp content, the maximum torque value of the EPDM composites increased, whereas the optimum curing time of the composites decreased. The orientation percentage of the PSA pulp in the EPDM composites was maximum at 30 phr pulp, as determined from green strength measurements. In the longitudinal direction along which the pulp was oriented, the EPDM composites showed higher tensile strength as well as lower elongation and swelling ratios. Also, with increasing PSA pulp content, the tensile strength of the EPDM composites decreased up to 10 phr pulp and subsequently increased, whereas the elongation and swelling ratio of the EPDM composites decreased linearly. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Polyamide 6/maleated ethylene,propylene,diene rubber/organoclay composites with or without glycidyl methacrylate as a compatibilizer

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    Lingyan Zhang
    Abstract Polyamide 6 (PA6)/maleated ethylene,propylene,diene rubber (EPDM- g -MA)/organoclay (OMMT) composites were melt-compounded through two blending sequences. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was used as a compatibilizer for the ternary composites. The composite prepared through via the premixing of PA6 with OMMT and then further melt blending with EPDM- g -MA exhibited higher impact strength than the composite prepared through the simultaneous blending of all the components. However, satisfactorily balanced mechanical properties could be achieved by the addition of GMA through a one-step blending sequence. The addition of GMA improved the compatibility between PA6 and EPDM- g -MA, and this was due to the reactions between PA6, EPDM- g -MA, and GMA, as proved by Fourier transform infrared analysis and solubility (Molau) testing. In addition, OMMT acted as a compatibilizer for PA6/EPDM- g -MA blends at low contents, but it weakened the interfacial interactions between PA6 and EPDM- g -MA at high contents. Both OMMT and GMA retarded the crystallization of PA6. The complex viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus of the composites were obviously affected by the addition of OMMT and GMA. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Raman spectroscopy for spinline crystallinity measurements.

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2008

    Abstract Online Raman spectra, obtained at different points along the spinline during the melt spinning of polypropylene homopolymer (hPP) fibers, are presented. The percentage crystallinity corresponding to each spectrum was determined from the normalized intensity of the 809-cm,1 Raman band. A calibration curve for propylene crystallinity was established offline with compression-molded films and fibers spun under different processing conditions. Several hPPs and propylene,ethylene copolymers (with 5,15% ethylene) were used to cover a wide calibration range for propylene crystallinity (9.5,60.9%) with an R2 value of 0.989. This calibration curve was subsequently used to predict the polypropylene crystallinity in the spinline as a function of distance from the spinneret. Under identical conditions of quench and throughput, at a fixed point along the spinline, the overall crystallinity developed in the fiber was found to increase with an increase in the spinning speed. As the spinning speed increased, the point of the onset of crystallization moved closer to the spinneret. The rise in crystallinity was more gradual, at 750 m/min as opposed to 1500 m/min. Increasing the throughput at constant spinning speed was found to decrease the rate of crystallization because of a decrease in the spinline stress. At a fixed distance from the spinneret under identical conditions of quench and spinning speed, fibers spun at a higher throughput showed less overall crystallinity. The onset and rate of crystallization was found to be faster in the lower melt index H502-25RG resin as compared to the 5D49 resin under the spinning conditions explored. The experimental data presented here were used to validate fundamental fiber-spinning models (see part II of this series of articles). The validated models and experimental observations can be used to guide the fiber spinning of isotactic polypropylene for rapid product development. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of PE-EPDM based jute fiber composites

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
    Gautam Sarkhel
    Abstract The present investigation deals with the mechanical, thermal and viscoelastic properties of ternary composites based on low density polyethylene (LDPE)-ethylene,propylene,diene terpolymer (EPDM) blend and high density polyethylene (HDPE)-EPDM blend reinforced with short jute fibers. For all the untreated and compatibilizer treated composites, the variation of mechanical and viscoelastic properties as a function of fiber loading (10, 20 and 30 wt %) and compatibilizer concentration (1, 2, and 3%) were evaluated. The flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength, and hardness increased with increasing both the fiber loading and the compatibilizer dose. The storage modulus (E,) and loss modulus (E,) of the HDPE-EPDM/jute fiber composites were recorded higher compared to those of the LDPE-EPDM/jute fiber composites at all level of fiber loading and compatibilizer doses. The tan, (damping efficiency) spectra showed a strong influence of the fiber loading and compatibilizer dose on the , relaxation process of polymer matrix in the composite. The thermo-oxidative stability was significantly enhanced for treated composites compared to untreated composites. Scanning electron microscopy investigation confirmed that the higher values of mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the treated composites compared to untreated composites is caused by improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion as result of compatibilizer treatment. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Dimethylsilylbis(1-indenyl) zirconium dichloride/methylaluminoxane catalyst supported on nanosized silica for propylene polymerization

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    Kuo-Tseng Li
    Abstract A dimethylsilylene-bridged metallocene complex, (CH3)2Si(Ind)2ZrCl2, was supported on a nanosized silica particle, whose surface area was mostly external. The resulting catalyst was used to catalyze the polymerization of propylene to polypropylene. Under identical reaction conditions, a nanosized catalyst exhibited much better polymerization activity than a microsized catalyst. At the optimum polymerization temperature of 55C, the former had 80% higher activity than the latter. In addition, the nanosized catalyst produced a polymer with a greater molecular weight, a narrower molecular weight distribution, and a higher melting point in comparison with the microsized catalyst. The nanosized catalyst's superiority was ascribed to the higher monomer concentration at its external active sites (which were free from internal diffusion resistance) and was also attributed to its much larger surface area. Electron microscopy results showed that the nanosized catalyst produced polymer particles of similar sizes and shapes, indicating that each nanosized catalyst particle had uniform polymerization activity. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Phase behavior on the binary and ternary mixtures of poly(isooctyl acrylate) + supercritical fluid solvents + isooctyl acrylate and CO2 + isooctyl acrylate system

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2008
    Hun-Soo Byun
    Abstract Experimental cloud-point data to the temperature of 180 C and the pressure up to 2000 bar are presented for ternary mixtures of poly(isooctyl acrylate) + supercritical fluid solvents + isooctyl acrylate systems. Cloud-point pressures of poly(isooctyl acrylate) + CO2 + isooctyl acrylate system is measured in the temperature range of 60,180C and to pressures as high as 2000 bar with isooctyl acrylate concentration of 0,44.5 wt. This system changes the pressure,temperature slope of the phase behavior curves from upper critical solution temperature (UCST) region to lower critical solution temperature (LCST) region as the isooctyl acrylate concentration increases. Poly(isooctyl acrylate) does dissolve in pure CO2 to the temperature of 180C and the pressure of 2000 bar. The phase behavior for poly(isooctyl acrylate) + CO2 + 9.5, 14.8, 30.6, and 41.9 wt % dimethyl ether (DME) mixture show the curve changes from UCST to LCST as the DME concentration increases. Also, the cloud-point curves are measured for the binary mixtures of poly(isooctyl acrylate) in supercritical propane, propylene, butane, and 1-butene. High pressure phase behaviors are measured for the CO2 + isooctyl acrylate system at 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120C and pressure up to 200 bar. This system exhibits type-I phase behavior with a continuous mixture-critical curve. The experimental results for the CO2 + isooctyl acrylate system are modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2008 [source]