Proposed Guidelines (proposed + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Naturally Occurring Female Hairline Patterns

BACKGROUND Hair transplantation is gaining popularity in women. Although much has been written about hairline design in male patients, more information is needed about natural female hairlines. OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency, dimensions, and location of structures that compose the female hairline. METHODS Hairline characteristics were measured in 360 female volunteers at an informal hair salon setting. RESULTS A widow's peak was present in 81%. The mean distance from the mid-eyebrow to the frontal midpoint was 5.5 cm. Lateral mounds were observed in 98%. The mean distance from the frontal midpoint to the apex of the lateral mounds was 3.74 cm on the right and 3.97 cm on the left. The mean distance from the apex of the lateral mounds to the apex of the temporal points was 3.78 cm on the right and 3.51 cm on the left. The shape of the temporal recessions was concave triangular or concave oval in 87% of the subjects. CONCLUSION This study provides proposed guidelines for designing the hairline in women. [source]

Nature conservation and urban development control in the Portuguese planning system: a new impetus against old praxis?

Teresa Fidelis
Abstract Natura 2000 areas bring a new incentive to assess the performance of land-use planning in protecting environmental values from the impacts of development pressures. In the last decades, urban growth and consequent environmental impacts on natural areas have been a major concern for the Portuguese land-use planning system. Sprawl around sensitive areas has been revealed to be a persistent phenomenon in spite of the increasing challenges underlying land-use plans. This article critically analyses the content of three main documents recently adopted by the Portuguese government , the ,National Strategy for Sustainable Development', the ,National Policy Programme for Spatial Planning' and the ,Sector Plan for Natura 2000' , seeking prospects to innovate future plans at lower levels in order to prevent additional pressures on natural areas. First, the article reviews the recent theoretical debate on planning for the protection of natural areas. Results evidenced by recent EU evaluation reports are used to propose a set of guidelines to evaluate planning guidance at national level. Second, it critically analyses the three planning documents, bearing in mind the main features of the planning system and the proposed guidelines. The article is concluded with a discussion of their potential, exploring whether they bring a new impetus to the role of land-use planning against an outdated and persistent praxis, or whether, on the contrary, further efforts to strengthen planning guidance remain to be formulated. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Guidelines for developing and using quantitative structure-activity relationships

John D. Walker
Abstract Numerous quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have been developed to predict properties, fate, and effects of mostly discrete organic chemicals. As the demand for different types of regulatory testing increases and the cost of experimental testing escalates, there is a need to evaluate the use of QSARs and provide some guidance to avoid their misuse, especially as QSARs are being considered for regulatory purposes. This paper provides some guidelines that will promote the proper development and use of QSARs. While this paper uses examples of QSARs to predict toxicity, the proposed guidelines are applicable to QSARs used to predict physical or chemical properties, environmental fate, ecological effects and health effects. [source]

Comparison of two laser fluorescence devices for the detection of occlusal caries in vivo

Felix Krause
Laser fluorescence measurements have been shown to be well suited for caries diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare two laser fluorescence devices and to correlate the respective values with the visual and radiographic assessment and with the extent of the carious lesion. Ninety-four clinically non-cavitated occlusal carious lesions in the premolars and molars of 82 patients were examined. Laser fluorescence values on the surface were measured with a conventional laser fluorescence system and a novel laser fluorescence pen device. When operative intervention at a site was indicated, the extent of caries was determined after its removal. Readings obtained with both systems were significantly different with an interdevice factor of 0.64. Sensitivity and specificity for operative care were 92.6% and 53.7%, respectively, for the conventional, and 88.9% and 53.7%, respectively, for the pen device. For both devices, a correlation between laser fluorescence values and the visual and radiographic assessment and with the extent of the lesion was shown. The study indicates that the novel laser fluorescence device seems to be suitable for occlusal caries diagnosis. However, proposed guidelines for the clinical use of laser fluorescence readings of the conventional device cannot be transferred to the novel pen system. [source]

Japanese guidelines for prevention of perioperative infections in urological field

Tetsuro Matsumoto
Abstract: For urologists, it is very important to master surgical indications and surgical techniques. On the other hand, the knowledge of the prevention of perioperative infections and the improvement of surgical techniques should always be considered. Although the prevention of perioperative infections in each surgical field is a very important issue, the evidence and the number of guidelines are limited. Among them, the preparation of guidelines has progressed, especially in gastrointestinal surgery. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) proposed guidelines for the prevention of surgical site infections, which have been used worldwide. In urology, the original guidelines were different from those of general surgery, due to many endourological procedures and urine exposure in the surgical field. The Japanese Society of UTI Cooperative Study Group has thus framed these guidelines supported by The Japanese Urological Association. The guidelines consist of the following nine techniques: open surgeries, laparoscopic surgeries, transurethral resection of bladder tumor, ureterorenoscope and transurethral lithotripsy, transurethral resection of the prostate, prostate biopsy, cystourethroscope, pediatric surgeries in the urological field, and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and febrile neutropenia. These are the first guidelines for the prevention of perioperative infections in the urological field in Japan. Although most of these guidelines were made using reliable evidence, there are parts without enough evidence. Therefore, if new reliable data is reported, it will be necessary for these guidelines to be revised in the future. [source]

Recommendations for treatment of intermittent mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents

Charles K. Naspitz MD
Abstract Many parents and caretakers of children and adolescents with mild persistent asthma (MPA) do not follow proposed guidelines, namely the daily and continuous administration of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Instead, parents and caretakers tend to use ICS and bronchodilators intermittently for short periods and restart such therapy only when symptoms reappear. It is our opinion that intermittent treatment of MPA in children and adolescents might achieve the same level of asthma control as has been achieved in adults. We propose, therefore, that after an initial period of stabilization with age-appropriate doses of oral glucocorticoids or high-dose ICS and short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA), caretakers can stop treatment once there are no longer signs or symptoms of asthma. When asthmatic symptoms recur, treatment should be restarted with ICS and SABA, or oral corticosteroids if the exacerbation is severe. The perception of developing asthma symptoms remains an unsolved problem. Based on our clinical experience in children and adolescents with asthma, we list a number of signs and symptoms that precede an exacerbation of asthma, allowing for an early re-introduction of treatment to prevent an exacerbation. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:205,208. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]