Promoter Regions (promoter + regions)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Promoter Regions

  • gene promoter regions

  • Selected Abstracts

    Identifying Putative Promoter Regions of Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Genes by Means of Phylogenetic Footprinting

    Horia Stanescu
    Summary HPS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and prolonged bleeding. Eight human genes are described resulting in the HPS subtypes 1,8. Certain HPS proteins combine to form Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complexes (BLOCs), thought to function in the formation of intracellular vesicles such as melanosomes, platelet dense bodies, and lytic granules. Specifically, BLOC-2 contains the HPS3, HPS5 and HPS6 proteins. We used phylogenetic footprinting to identify conserved regions in the upstream sequences of HPS3, HPS5 and HPS6. These conserved regions were verified to have in vitro transcription activation activity using luciferase reporter assays. Transcription factor binding site analyses of the regions identified 52 putative sites shared by all three genes. When analysis was limited to the conserved footprints, seven binding sites were found shared among all three genes: Pax-5, AIRE, CACD, ZF5, Zic1, E2F and Churchill. The HPS3 conserved upstream region was sequenced in four patients with decreased fibroblast HPS3 RNA levels and only one HPS3 mutation in the coding exons and surrounding exon/intron boundaries; no mutation was found. These findings illustrate the power of phylogenetic footprinting for identifying potential regulatory regions in non-coding sequences and define the first putative promoter elements for any HPS genes. [source]

    Preferential expression of a plant cystatin at nematode feeding sites confers resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida

    Catherine J. Lilley
    Summary The expression patterns of three promoters preferentially active in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana have been investigated in transgenic potato plants in response to plant parasitic nematode infection. Promoter regions from the three genes, TUB-1, ARSK1 and RPL16A were linked to the GUS reporter gene and histochemical staining was used to localize expression in potato roots in response to infection with both the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida and the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. All three promoters directed GUS expression chiefly in root tissue and were strongly up-regulated in the galls induced by feeding M. incognita. Less activity was associated with the syncytial feeding cells of the cyst nematode, although the ARSK1 promoter was highly active in the syncytia of G. pallida infecting soil grown plants. Transgenic potato lines that expressed the cystatin OcI,D86 under the control of the three promoters were evaluated for resistance against Globodera sp. in a field trial and against M. incognita in containment. Resistance to Globodera of 70 ± 4% was achieved with the best line using the ARSK1 promoter with no associated yield penalty. The highest level of partial resistance achieved against M. incognita was 67 ± 9% using the TUB-1 promoter. In both cases this was comparable to the level of resistance achieved using the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter. The results establish the potential for limiting transgene expression in crop plants whilst maintaining efficacy of the nematode defence. [source]

    Requirement for ,B1-crystallin promoter of Xenopus laevis in embryonic lens development and lens regeneration

    Nobuhiko Mizuno
    Regulation of the lens-specific ,B1-crystallin promoter in Xenopus laevis was investigated using transgenic larvae and tadpoles. Comparison of the promoter sequence with that of chicken ,B1-crystallin gene indicates significant sequence similarity over a span of several hundred base pairs starting from the transcriptional start site. Remarkably, PL-1 and PL-2 sequences identified in the chicken promoter as essential binding sites of MAF, Pax6 and Prox1 transcription factors were conserved. Mutations of X (Xenopus) PL-1 and XPL-2 sequences eliminated the promoter activity, indicating a conserved mechanism regulating ,B1-crystallin promoter among vertebrate species. A stepwise deletion of the promoter sequence starting from 2800 bp indicated that the proximal 260 bp directly upstream of the transcription initiation site is sufficient for eliciting lens-specific expression, but the 150 bp promoter sequence is inactive despite it containing the XPL-1 and XPL-2 sequences, suggesting the presence of an additional and essential regulatory sequence located between ,150 and ,260 bp. Activity of the ,B1-crystallin promoter during lens regeneration from cornea was examined using transgenic tadpoles and found to have the same dependence on promoter regions as in embryonic lens development, indicating that gene regulation is largely shared by the two lens-generating processes. [source]

    HOXA13 directly regulates EphA6 and EphA7 expression in the genital tubercle vascular endothelia

    Carley A. Shaut
    Abstract Hypospadias, a common defect affecting the growth and closure of the external genitalia, is often accompanied by gross enlargements of the genital tubercle (GT) vasculature. Because Hoxa13 homozygous mutant mice also exhibit hypospadias and GT vessel expansion, we examined whether genes playing a role in angiogenesis exhibit reduced expression in the GT. From this analysis, reductions in EphA6 and EphA7 were detected. Characterization of EphA6 and EphA7 expression in the GT confirmed colocalization with HOXA13 in the GT vascular endothelia. Analysis of the EphA6 and EphA7 promoter regions revealed a series of highly conserved cis -regulatory elements bound by HOXA13 with high affinity. GT chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that HOXA13 binds these gene-regulatory elements in vivo. In vitro, HOXA13 activates gene expression through the EphA6 and EphA7 gene-regulatory elements. Together these findings indicate that HOXA13 directly regulates EphA6 and EphA7 in the developing GT and identifies the GT vascular endothelia as a novel site for HOXA13-dependent expression of EphA6 and EphA7. Developmental Dynamics 236:951,960, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Retinal patterning by Pax6-dependent cell adhesion molecules

    Elisabeth Rungger-Brändle
    Abstract Long-standing evidence gained from Pax6 mutant embryos pointed to an involvement of Pax6-dependent cell adhesion molecules in patterning the central nervous system and, in particular, the retina. However, direct evidence for such pathways remained elusive. We here present direct evidence that knockdown of Pax6 expression by morpholino antisense molecules in Xenopus embryos and knockdown of maternal N-cadherin (mNcad), N-cadherin (Ncad) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) produce similar phenotypes. Eye formation is reduced and retinal lamination is heavily disorganized. In Pax6 knockdown embryos, the levels of mRNAs coding for these cell adhesion molecules are markedly reduced. Overexpression of Pax6 efficiently rescues the phenotype of Pax6 knockdown embryos and restores expression of these putative target genes. Rescue of Pax6-deficiency by the putative target gene mNcad moderately rescues eye formation. The promoters of the genes coding for cell adhesion molecules contain several putative Pax6 binding sites, as determined by computer analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that, in embryonic heads, Pax6 binds to promoter regions containing such predicted binding sites. Thus, several cell adhesion molecules are direct target genes of Pax6 and cooperate in retinal patterning. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 70: 764,780, 2010 [source]

    Proteomic analysis of liver cancer cells treated with 5-Aza-2,-deoxycytidine (AZA),

    Shujun Bai
    Abstract 5-Aza-2,-deoxycytidine (AZA) is a potent inhibitor of DNA methylation that exhibits anti-tumor activity in a variety of tumor cells via reactivation of tumor suppressor genes. However, few studies have been done on the biological and clinical significance of AZA in human hepatocellular carcinoma. To identify potential genes that may be aberrantly methylated and confer growth advantage to neoplastic cells and to better understand the molecular mechanism(s) underlying AZA anti-tumor activity, a proteomics approach was used to annotate global gene expression changes of HepG2 cell line pre- and post-treatment with AZA. A total of 56 differentially expressed proteins were identified by 2D gel analysis, 48 of which were up-regulated while the remaining 8 were down regulated. Among the identified proteins, eight of these showed marked changed proteins, including seven up-regulated proteins: glutathione S-transferase P, protein DJ-1, peroxiredoxin-2, UMP-CMP kinase, cytochrome c-type heme lyase, enhancer of rudimentary homolog, profilin-1, and one down-regulated protein, heat-shock protein ,,1. The possible implication of these proteins in hepatocarcinogenesis is discussed. We tested two up-regulated proteins, glutathione S-transferase P and peroxiredoxin-2, using RT-PCR and their expression was consistent with the results obtained in the protein level. Both of these genes were methylated when methylation-specific PCR was used against their promoter regions. Following treatment with AZA, the gene promoter regions were found to be unmethylated, concomitant with overexpression of the proteins compared to HepG2 cells without treatment. These data provide useful information in evaluating the therapeutic potential of AZA for the treatment of HCC. Drug Dev Res 69, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Impaired CD4+ T-cell proliferation and effector function correlates with repressive histone methylation events in a mouse model of severe sepsis

    William F. Carson
    Abstract Immunosuppression following severe sepsis remains a significant human health concern, as long-term morbidity and mortality rates of patients who have recovered from life-threatening septic shock remain poor. Mouse models of severe sepsis indicate this immunosuppression may be partly due to alterations in myeloid cell function; however, the effect of severe sepsis on subsequent CD4+ T-cell responses remains unclear. In the present study, CD4+ T cells from mice subjected to an experimental model of severe sepsis (cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)) were analyzed in vitro. CD4+CD62L+ T cells from CLP mice exhibited reduced proliferative capacity and altered gene expression. Additionally, CD4+CD62L+ T cells from CLP mice exhibit dysregulated cytokine production after in vitro skewing with exogenous cytokines, indicating a decreased capability of these cells to commit to either the TH1 or TH2 lineage. Repressive histone methylation marks were also evident at promoter regions for the TH1 cytokine IFN-, and the TH2 transcription factor GATA-3 in naïve CD4+ T cells from CLP mice. These results provide evidence that CD4+ T-cell subsets from post-septic mice exhibit defects in activation and effector function, possibly due to chromatin remodeling proximal to genes involved in cytokine production or gene transcription. [source]

    Hypoxia suppresses the production of matrix metalloproteinases and the migration of humanmonocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Wenli Zhao
    Abstract As most solid tumors are hypoxic, dendritic cells (DC) in solid tumors are also exposed to hypoxia. While many adaptation responses of tumor cells to hypoxia are known, it is yet to be determined how hypoxia affects the functions of DC. To explore the effects of hypoxia on the functions of DC, we compared the expression of surface markers, cytokines, chemokine receptors and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) of human monocyte-derived DC (hmDC) differentiated under hypoxia to those differentiated under normoxia. Both groups of hmDC expressed similar levels of surface markers and cytokines. However, expression of MMP-9 and membrane type-1-MMP, as well as migrating activity, was significantly suppressed in hmDC differentiated under hypoxia compared with their normoxia counterparts. We also demonstrated that trichostatin A restored the production of MMP-9 in hmDC, under hypoxia. Collectively, our findings show that a hypoxic microenvironment suppresses the production of MMP in hmDC, most probably through the deacetylation of promoter regions of MMP, thus suppressing the migrating activity of hmDC. Our results suggest that the hypoxic microenvironment in solid tumor tissues may suppress the function of DC. [source]

    Comparative distribution of the mammalian mediator subunit thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein (TRAP220) mRNA in developing and adult rodent brain

    Anastasia Galeeva
    Abstract TRAP220 (thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein) is a recently cloned nuclear receptor coactivator, which interacts with several nuclear receptors in a ligand-dependent manner and stimulates transcription by recruiting the TRAP mediator complex to hormone responsive promoter regions. TRAP220 has been shown to interact with thyroid hormone receptors, vitamin D receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, retinoic acid receptors and oestrogen receptors. Thyroid hormone and retinoic acid play very important roles in brain development and they also influence adult brain. Using in situ hybridization we have examined expression of TRAP220 mRNA in the central nervous system during development and in adult rat and mouse brain. Expression of TRAP220 was seen already during early embryonic development in the epithelium of neural tube at E9 in mouse and at E12 in rat. At later stages of development the strongest signal was seen in different layers of cerebral neocortex, external germinal layer of cerebellum, differentiating fields of hippocampus and neuroepithelium, and a moderate signal was detected in basal ganglia, different areas of diencephalon and midbrain. In adult rat brain the signal was more restricted than during development. TRAP220 expression occurred mostly in the granular layer of cerebellar cortex, piriform cortex and hippocampal formation. The signal was found predominantly in neurons. Our work supports the assumption that TRAP220 plays an important role in growth and differentiation of central nervous system and may have a function in certain areas of adult brain. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2002
    Nadia A. Chuzhanova
    Abstract Complexity analysis is capable of highlighting those gross evolutionary changes in gene promoter regions (loosely termed "promoter shuffling") that are undetectable by conventional DNA sequence alignment. Complexity analysis was therefore used here to identify the modular components (blocks) of the orthologous ,-globin gene promoter sequences of 22 vertebrate species, from zebrafish to humans. Considerable variation between the ,-globin gene promoters was apparent in terms of block presence/absence, copy number, and relative location. Some sequence blocks appear to be ubiquitous, whereas others are restricted to a specific taxon. Block similarities were also evident between the promoters of the paralogous human ,-like globin genes. It may be inferred that a wide variety of different mutational mechanisms have operated upon the ,-globin gene promoter over evolutionary time. Because these include gross changes such as deletion, duplication, amplification, elongation, contraction, and fusion, as well as the steady accumulation of single base-pair substitutions, it is clear that some redefinition of the term "promoter shuffling" is required. This notwithstanding, and as previously described for the vertebrate growth hormone gene promoter, the modular structure of the ,-globin promoter region and those of its paralogous counterparts have continually been rearranged into new combinations through the alteration, or shuffling, of preexisting blocks. Some of these changes may have had no influence on promoter function, but others could have altered either the level of gene expression or the responsiveness of the promoter to external stimuli. The comparative study of vertebrate ,-globin gene promoter regions described here confirms the generality of the phenomenon of sequence block shuffling and thus supports the view that it could have played an important role in the evolution of differential gene expression. [source]

    Transcription of mammalian cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV-2 is controlled by a novel conserved oxygen responsive element

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 21 2007
    Maik Hüttemann
    Subunit 4 of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a nuclear-encoded regulatory subunit of the terminal complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have recently discovered an isoform of CcO 4 (CcO4-2) which is specific to lung and trachea, and is induced after birth. The role of CcO as the major cellular oxygen consumer, and the lung-specific expression of CcO4-2, led us to investigate CcO4-2 gene regulation. We cloned the CcO4-2 promoter regions of cow, rat and mouse and compared them with the human promoter. Promoter activity is localized within a 118-bp proximal region of the human promoter and is stimulated by hypoxia, reaching a maximum (threefold) under 4% oxygen compared with normoxia. CcO4-2 oxygen responsiveness was assigned by mutagenesis to a novel promoter element (5,-GGACGTTCCCACG-3,) that lies within a 24-bp region that is 79% conserved in all four species. This element is able to bind protein, and competition experiments revealed that, within the element, the four core bases 5,-TCNCA-3, are obligatory for transcription factor binding. CcO isolated from lung showed a 2.5-fold increased maximal turnover compared with liver CcO. We propose that CcO4-2 expression in highly oxygenated lung and trachea protects these tissues from oxidative damage by accelerating the last step in the electron transport chain, leading to a decrease in available electrons for free radical formation. [source]

    Regulation of transcription of the Dnmt1 gene by Sp1 and Sp3 zinc finger proteins

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 12 2002
    Shotaro Kishikawa
    The Sp family is a family of transcription factors that bind to cis -elements in the promoter regions of various genes. Regulation of transcription by Sp proteins is based on interactions between a GC-rich binding site (GGGCGG) in DNA and C-terminal zinc finger motifs in the proteins. In this study, we characterized the GC-rich promoter of the gene for the DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt1) that is responsible for methylation of cytosine residues in mammals and plays a role in gene silencing. We found that a cis -element (nucleotides ,161 to ,147) was essential for the expression of the mouse gene for Dnmt1. DNA-binding assays indicated that transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 bound to the same cis -element in this region in a dose-dependent manner. In Drosophila SL2 cells, which lack the Sp family of transcription factors, forced expression of Sp1 or Sp3 enhanced transcription from the Dnmt1 promoter. Stimulation by Sp1 and Sp3 were independent phenomena. Furthermore, cotransfection reporter assays with a p300-expression plasmid revealed the activation of the promoter of the Dnmt1 gene in the presence of Sp3. The transcriptional coactivator p300 interacted with Sp3 in vivo and in vitro. Our results indicate that expression of the Dnmt1 gene is controled by Sp1 and Sp3 and that p300 is involved in the activation by Sp3. [source]

    Autoregulation of the HAC1 gene is required for sustained activation of the yeast unfolded protein response

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 2 2004
    Naoki Ogawa
    Eukaryotic cells respond to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by activating a transcriptional induction program termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The transcription factor Hac1p responsible for the UPR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tightly regulated by a post-transcriptional mechanism. HAC1 mRNA must be spliced in response to ER stress to produce Hac1p, which then activates transcription via direct binding to the cis -acting UPR element (UPRE) present in the promoter regions of its target genes. Here, we show that the HAC1 promoter itself responds to ER stress to induce transcription of its downstream gene, similarly to the KAR2 promoter; the KAR2 gene represents a major target of the UPR. Consistent with this observation, the HAC1 promoter contains an UPRE-like sequence, which is necessary and sufficient for the induction and to which Hac1p binds directly. Cells expressing the HAC1 gene from a mutant HAC1 promoter lacking the HAC1 UPRE could not maintain high levels of either unspliced or spliced HAC1 mRNA and became sensitive to ER stress when insulted for hours. Based on these results, we concluded that autoregulation of the HAC1 genes is required for sustained activation of the UPR and sustained resistance to ER stress. [source]

    Identification and characterization of a novel progesterone receptor-binding element in the mouse prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP2 gene

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 9 2003
    Sohken Tsuchiya
    Background:, Gene expression of prostaglandin E receptor EP2 is induced in the luminal epithelium of the mouse uterus during peri-implantation period (day-5 of pseudopregnancy), suggesting the involvement of progesterone and its receptor (PR) in this expression. However it remains unclear whether PR affects EP2 gene expression through its binding. Results:, We investigated transcriptional regulation of EP2 gene expression with reporter gene analysis using HeLa cells with or without expression of the PR. The 5,-flanking region (,3260 to ,27, upstream of the translation initiation site) exhibited progesterone-induced promoter activation and basal promoter activity in the presence of PR. Using successive deletion analysis, we determined the six regulatory regions in the EP2 gene. Three regions were found to be involved in progesterone-induced promoter activation, whereas the other three regions were involved in basal promoter activity in the presence of PR. We identified a novel PR-binding sequence, 5,-G(G/A)CCGGA-3,, in the two basal promoter regions and Sp1- and Sp3-binding in the other basal promoter region. Conclusions:, We identified a novel PR-binding sequence, which may be involved in the regulation of basal promoter activity in the EP2 gene. [source]

    Interleukin-6 (G-174C) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (G-308A) gene polymorphisms in geriatric patients with chronic periodontitis

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    A. M. Costa
    doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2009.00291.x Interleukin-6 (G-174C) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (G-308A) gene polymorphisms in geriatric patients with chronic periodontitis Background and objective:, Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and genetic factors may have an important role in its severity. Polymorphisms in the promoter regions of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) genes have been reported to cause changes in the production of these cytokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of IL-6 (G,174C) and tumour necrosis factor (G,308A) polymorphisms, in the severity of chronic periodontitis in an elderly population. Materials and methods:, In this study, a group of 65 elderly women, comprising 17 patients with moderate chronic periodontitis, 21 with severe chronic periodontitis and 27 healthy patients were selected. DNA was isolated from all subjects, and polymerase chain reaction was used to study the IL-6 and TNF-, gene polymorphisms. Results:, The results of this study showed a significant difference in the allele and genotype frequencies of IL-6 gene polymorphism between patients with periodontal disease and controls. Subjects carrying the G/G genotype of IL-6 were most severely affected by periodontitis. The TNF-, gene polymorphism showed no association with chronic periodontitis between patients and controls. Conclusion:, The results suggest that the IL-6 gene polymorphism may be associated with chronic periodontitis, and that TNF-, gene polymorphism may not be involved in the progression of chronic periodontitis in the population of elderly Brazilian women. [source]

    Characterization of core promoter elements for ecdysone receptor isoforms of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    H. Shirai
    Abstract Two ecdysone receptor (EcR) isoforms, EcR-A and EcR-B1, are expressed in a tissue- and stage-specific manner, although the details of their transcription mechanisms are unknown. We determined the transcription start sites of EcR-A and EcR-B1 isoforms of Bombyx mori and found that both core promoter regions consist of initiator (Inr) and downstream promoter elements (DPE) but not TATA boxes. Promoter truncation analysis performed using the luciferase reporter assays and BmN cells showed that, in both isoforms, the regions ,296 to ,74 for BmEcR-B1, ,104 to ,61 for BmEcR-A and downstream regions of +1 are essential for basal transcriptional activity. Mutation experiments revealed that both DPE and its 5,-flanking CGCGCG sequence are crucial but DPE of BmEcR-B1 is not important for BmEcR-A transcription. These results indicate that the basal promoter activities differ between the two BmEcR isoforms. [source]

    The highly compact structure of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase genomic region of Drosophila melanogaster: functional and evolutionary implications

    E. Lefai
    Abstract The structure of a Drosophila melanogaster genomic region containing five tightly clustered genes has been determined and evaluated with regard to its functional and evolutionary relationships. In addition to the genes encoding the two subunits (, and ,) of the DNA polymerase , holoenzyme, the key enzyme for mitochondrial DNA replication, other genes contained in the cluster may be also involved in the cellular distribution of mitochondria and in the coordination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA replication. The gene cluster is extremely compact, with very little intergenic space. It contains two bidirectional promoter regions, and particularly notable is the 5, end overlap detected in two of its genes, an exceptional situation in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization. [source]

    Presence of simian virus 40 DNA sequences in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in Tunisia correlates with aberrant promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes

    Khaled Amara
    Abstract The simian virus SV40 (SV40), a potent DNA oncogenic polyomavirus, has been detected in several human tumors including lymphomas, mainly in diffuse large B-cell type (DLBCL). However, a causative role for this virus has not been convincingly established. Hypermethylation in promoter regions is a frequent process of silencing tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in cancers, which may be induced by oncogenic viruses. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the presence of SV40 DNA sequences and the methylation status of 13 TSGs in 108 DLBCLs and 60 nontumoral samples from Tunisia. SV40 DNA presence was investigated by PCR assays targeting the large T-antigen, the regulatory and the VP1 regions. Hypermethylation was carried out by methylation-specific PCR. SV40 DNA was detected in 63/108 (56%) of DLBCL and in 4/60 (6%) of nontumoral samples. Hypermethylation frequencies for the tested TSGs were 74% for DAPK, 70% for CDH1, SHP1, and GSTP1, 58% for p16, 54% for APC, 50% for p14, 39% for p15, 19% for RB1, 15% for BLU, 3% for p53, and 0% for p300 and MGMT. No hypermethylation was observed in nontumoral samples. Hypermethylation of SHP1, DAPK, CDH1, GSTP1 and p16 genes were significantly higher in SV40-positive than in SV40-negative DLBCL samples (p values ranging from 0.0006 to <0.0001). Our findings showed a high prevalence of SV40 DNA in DLBCLs in Tunisia. The significant association of promoter hypermethylation of multiple TSGs with the presence of SV40 DNA in DLBCLs supports a functional effect of the virus in those lymphomas. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    DNA methylation patterns in adenomas from FAP, multiple adenoma and sporadic colorectal carcinoma patients

    Coral V.A. Wynter
    Abstract Colorectal adenomas have traditionally been regarded as homogeneous. The aim of our study was to identify molecular features that may differentiate sporadic adenomas from familial adenomas such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and Multiple Adenoma patients. DNA methylation was tested at Methylated IN Tumor (MINT) loci (1,2,12,31) and the CpG promoter region of genes MLH1, HPP1, MGMT, p14ARF and p16INK4a in FAP-associated adenomas (33) from 5 patients with a known APC mutation (Group 1, FAP), adenomas (29) from 4 Multiple Adenoma patients (Group 2 Multiple), adenomas (14) from 3 patients with sporadic colorectal cancers showing high microsatellite instability (Group 3, MSI-H) and adenomas (16) from 7 patients, with sporadic colorectal cancers showing microsatellite stable or low level instability (Group 4, MSS/MSI-L). Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACFs), Hyperplastic Polyps (HPs) and cancers were also examined for methylation status as well as K- ras mutation. Multiple Adenoma patients were examined for germline polymorphisms in the base excision repair gene, MYH. The familial syndrome, FAP -associated adenomas showed a significantly low frequency of MINT methylation (15.5%,) compared to sporadic MSS/MSI-L-associated adenomas (35.5%). Group 3 (MSI-H) adenomas were different in that many showed serration and a high level of methylation (57.1%). Group 2, Multiple Adenoma cases, resembled sporadic MSS/MSI-L-associated adenomas. However the promoter regions of key genes, MGMT, p14ARF and p16INK4a were methylated to a greater extent than MINTs in both sporadic and familial adenomas. Genetic profiling of adenomas supports the concept that adenomas belonging to familial syndromes pursue a different pathway to tumorigenesis than their sporadic counterpar/ts from their earliest formation. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Aberrant methylation of multiple genes in the upper aerodigestive tract epithelium of heavy smokers

    Sabine Zöchbauer-Müller
    Abstract An important method for silencing tumor suppressor genes in cancers is by aberrant methylation (referred to as methylation) of CpG islands in gene promoter regions. In lung cancer, methylation of the genes retinoic acid receptor ,-2 (RAR,- 2), CDH13 (H-cadherin), p16INK4a (p16), RASSF1A (RAS association domain family I) is frequent. Thus, we investigated methylation of these genes in 4 different types of specimens (oropharyngeal brushes, sputum samples, bronchial brushes and bronchioloalveolar lavage [BAL] samples) of the upper aerodigestive tract epithelium from heavy smokers without evidence of cancer but with morphometric evidence of sputum atypia and compared the frequencies of methylation in the different types of specimens. In addition, we also analyzed sputum samples from 30 never smokers for methylation of these genes. Our major findings are: (i) At least one gene was methylated in one or more specimens from 48% of the smokers. However, methylation was statistically significant less frequently in never smokers compared to smokers. (ii) In general, methylation occurred more frequently in samples from the central airways (sputum, bronchial brushes) compared to the peripheral airways (BAL) and only occasionally in the oropharynx. (iii) RAR,- 2 was the most frequently methylated gene, whereas the frequency of methylation for the other genes was lower. (iv) Data from sputum samples and bronchial brushes were comparable. Our findings suggest that detection of methylation should be investigated as an intermediate marker for lung cancer risk assessment and response to chemopreventive regimens. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Frequencies of the -330 (T , G) IL-2 and -590 (T , C) IL-4 gene polymorphisms in a population from south-eastern Brazil

    R. M. Scarel-Caminaga
    Summary Polymorphisms in the promoter regions of cytokine genes may affect their transcription. A T/G substitution at position ,330 of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene and a T/C substitution at position ,590 of the interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene have been described previously. The ,590 (T , C) IL-4 gene polymorphism was associated with asthma and atopy in US and Japanese populations. Population genetics is a useful tool for determination of the biological significance of genetic polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of polymorphisms in the promoter regions of the IL-2 and IL-4 genes in a population from south-eastern Brazil and to compare them with those published for other populations. Allele frequencies were estimated in 114 unrelated individuals from São Paulo State. These subjects had an average age of 41.2 years (± 12.4 years) and the ethnic composition of the sample was: 78.07% Caucasian, 11.4% Black and 10.53% Mulatto. DNA from subjects was extracted from epithelial buccal cells, and the PCR-RFLP technique was employed to investigate the ,330 (T , G) IL-2 and ,590 (T , C) IL-4 gene polymorphisms. The allele frequency of the IL-2 gene polymorphism obtained in our study was similar to that found in UK Caucasoid groups. The T allele frequency of the IL-4 gene polymorphism observed in the Caucasian Brazilian group was similar to that found in UK and Australian populations, while the frequency observed for the Black Brazilian group was similar to that found in Japanese and Kuwaiti Arab populations. The results for the ,330 (T , G) IL-2 and ,590 (T , C) IL-4 polymorphisms are consistent with the high contribution of European lineages to the population in south-eastern Brazil. [source]

    Detecting methylation patterns of p16, MGMT, DAPK and E-cadherin genes in multiple myeloma patients

    Summary Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell neoplasia characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. Besides known genetic abnormalities, epigenetic changes are also known to effect MM pathogenesis. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that silences genes by adding methyl groups to cytosine-guanine dinucleotides at the promoter regions. In this study, the methylation status of four genes; p16, O6-methyl guanine DNA methyl transferase (MGMT), death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and E-cadherin (ECAD); at the time of diagnosis was investigated using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR). In the 20 cases studied; methylation of the promoter regions of p16, MGMT, DAPK and ECAD genes was detected in 10%, 40%, 10% and 45% of the cases, respectively. In 65% (13/20) of cases, at least one of the genes studied had promoter methylation; while 35% of cases (7/20) had methylated promoters of more than one gene. There was a significant correlation between promoter hypermethylation of MGMT and the presence of extramedullary involvement; but for the other genes no correlation was found regarding disease properties like age, disease stage, clinical course and the presence of lytic bone lesions. Determining the methylation profiles of genes in MM, could lead to a new understanding of the disease pathogenesis and guide the assessment of treatment options. [source]

    Differentiation-dependent association of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase with the chromatin of osteoblast-related genes

    Yan Li
    Abstract The ERK/MAP kinase pathway is an important regulator of gene expression and differentiation in postmitotic cells. To understand how this pathway controls gene expression in bone, we examined the subnuclear localization of P-ERK in differentiating osteoblasts. Induction of differentiation was accompanied by increased ERK phosphorylation and expression of osteoblast-related genes, including osteocalcin (Bglap2) and bone sialoprotein (Ibsp). Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that P-ERK colocalized with the RUNX2 transcription factor in the nuclei of differentiating cells. Interestingly, a portion of this nuclear P-ERK was directly bound to the proximal promoter regions of Bglap2 and Ibsp. Furthermore, the level of P-ERK binding to chromatin increased with differentiation, whereas RUNX2 binding remained relatively constant. The P-ERK-chromatin interaction was seen only in RUNX2-positive cells, required intact RUNX2-selective enhancer sequences, and was blocked with MAPK inhibition. These studies show for the first time that RUNX2 specifically targets P-ERK to the chromatin of osteoblast-related genes, where it may phosphorylate multiple substrates, including RUNX2, resulting in altered chromatin structure and gene expression. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research [source]

    Heat shock proteins (chaperones) in fish and shellfish and their potential role in relation to fish health: a review

    R J Roberts
    Abstract Heat shock proteins (HSPs), also known as stress proteins and extrinsic chaperones, are a suite of highly conserved proteins of varying molecular weight (c. 16,100 kDa) produced in all cellular organisms when they are exposed to stress. They develop following up-regulation of specific genes, whose transcription is mediated by the interaction of heat shock factors with heat shock elements in gene promoter regions. HSPs function as helper molecules or chaperones for all protein and lipid metabolic activities of the cell, and it is now recognized that the up-regulation in response to stress is universal to all cells and not restricted to heat stress. Thus, other stressors such as anoxia, ischaemia, toxins, protein degradation, hypoxia, acidosis and microbial damage will also lead to their up-regulation. They play a fundamental role in the regulation of normal protein synthesis within the cell. HSP families, such as HSP90 and HSP70, are critical to the folding and assembly of other cellular proteins and are also involved in regulation of kinetic partitioning between folding, translocation and aggregation within the cell. HSPs also have a wider role in relation to the function of the immune system, apoptosis and various facets of the inflammatory process. In aquatic animals, they have been shown to play an important role in health, in relation to the host response to environmental pollutants, to food toxins and in particular in the development of inflammation and the specific and non-specific immune responses to bacterial and viral infections in both finfish and shrimp. With the recent development of non-traumatic methods for enhancing HSP levels in fish and shrimp populations via heat, via provision of exogenous HSPs or by oral or water administration of HSP stimulants, they have also, in addition to the health effects, been demonstrated to be valuable in contributing to reducing trauma and physical stress in relation to husbandry events such as transportation and vaccination. [source]

    Effects of interferon alpha therapy on the catalytic domains of the polymerase gene and basal core promoter, precore and core regions of hepatitis B virus

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the catalytic domains of the polymerase gene, the basal core promoter and the precore and core regions of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome for specific mutations. These may account for the response to interferon alpha (IFN-,) treatment, which may have prognostic value. Methods: Multiple serum samples were collected prospectively from 30 patients with chronic active hepatitis B who were treated with IFN-,. Patients were assigned to one of three groups: group A (n = 11) and group B (n = 10) individuals were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive prior to treatment. Group A patients underwent HBeAg seroconversion after treatment while group B patients did not. Group C (n = 9) patients were HBeAg-negative prior to treatment. The HBV DNA was extracted from the sera collected before, during and after treatment and the various genomic regions were amplified, sequenced and examined for mutations. Results: During IFN-, therapy, multiple changes were found in the catalytic domains of the HBV polymerase gene in all groups. The frequency of mutations and associated amino acid changes were highest in virus from group C patients and lowest in group A patients. The interdomain regions of the viral polymerase were the most affected. Multiple mutations were also found in the precore, core and core promoter regions. However, no specific mutations were associated with clinical response or outcome. Conclusions: During IFN-, treatment, multiple mutations occurred in the HBV genome, including the catalytic domains of the polymerase gene. Changes that did occur could not be correlated to the clinical response or treatment outcome. However, no mutations were found that have been linked to lamivudine escape, indicating that lamivudine therapy would be effective in IFN-, non-responder patients. [source]

    Transcription of rat TRPV1 utilizes a dual promoter system that is positively regulated by nerve growth factor

    Qing Xue
    Abstract The capsaicin receptor, also known as ,transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype 1' (TRPV1, VR1), is an ion channel subunit expressed in primary afferent nociceptors, which plays a critical role in pain transduction and thermal hyperalgesia. Increases in nociceptor TRPV1 mRNA and protein are associated with tissue injury,inflammation. As little is understood about what controls TRPV1 RNA transcription in nociceptors, we functionally characterized the upstream portion of the rat TRPV1 gene. Two functional rTRPV1 promoter regions and their transcription initiation sites were identified. Although both promoter regions directed transcriptional activity in nerve growth factor (NGF) treated rat sensory neurons, the upstream Core promoter was the most active in cultures enriched in sensory neurons. Because NGF is a key modulator of inflammatory pain, we examined the effect of NGF on rTRPV1 transcription in PC12 cells. NGF positively regulated transcriptional activity of both rTRPV1 promoter regions in PC12 cells. We propose that the upstream regulatory region of the rTRPV1 gene is composed of a dual promoter system that is regulated by NGF. These findings support the hypothesis that NGF produced under conditions of tissue injury and/or inflammation directs an increase of TRPV1 expression in nociceptors in part through a transcription-dependent mechanism. [source]

    DNA methylation: an epigenetic pathway to cancer and a promising target for anticancer therapy

    Jesper Worm
    Abstract The unique properties of a cancer cell are acquired through a stepwise accumulation of heritable changes in the information content of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. While gain, loss, and mutation of genetic information have long been known to contribute to tumorigenesis, it has been increasingly recognized over the past 5 years that ,epigenetic' mechanisms may play an equally important role. The main epigenetic modification of the human genome is methylation of cytosine residues within the context of the CpG dinucleotide. De novo methylation of ,CpG islands' in the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes may lead to transcriptional silencing through a complex process involving histone deacetylation and chromatin condensation, and thus represents a tumorigenic event that is functionally equivalent to genetic changes like mutation and deletion. DNA methylation is interesting from a diagnostic viewpoint because it may be easily detected in DNA released from neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions into serum, urine or sputum, and from a therapeutic viewpoint because epigenetically silenced genes may be reactivated by inhibitors of DNA methylation and/or histone deacetylase. A better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms leading to tumor formation and chemoresistance may eventually improve current cancer treatment regimens and be instructive for a more rational use of anticancer agents. [source]

    A Functional Polymorphism in the Promoter Region of the Tryptophan Hydroxylase Gene Is Associated With Alcohol Dependence in One Aboriginal Group in Taiwan

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2005
    H Sunny Sun
    Background: Polymorphisms within intron 7 of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1) gene were found to be associated with alcohol dependence in different ethnic groups, including the aboriginal Bunun group in Taiwan. This study aimed to identify genetic variants at the TPH1 locus and to examine their associations with alcoholism. We hypothesized that the polymorphism of TPH1 gene is functional and influences the human circadian rhythm to contribute to the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence. Methods: DNA from the Taiwanese Han and Bunun was subjected to sequence for screening genetic variation in the coding and promoter regions of the TPH1 locus. Polymorphisms among individuals with alcohol dependence and control subjects in two ethnic groups in Taiwan were investigated. Results: Three variants in the TPH1 promoter region were identified, and the markers are in complete linkage disequilibrium in both populations. Positive associations at both allelic and genotypic levels were obtained between case and control groups in the Bunun. Expression studies demonstrated that the variants indeed affected reporter gene activity in human choriocarcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in the promoter region may influence the function of the TPH1 gene and further influence the proclivity of alcohol dependence in one ethnic group in Taiwan. The associations between TPH1 genotypes and alcoholism may deserve further investigation. [source]

    Enhancement of gene expression by a peptide p(CHWPR) produced by Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12

    Takashi Mitsuma
    ABSTRACT Recently, probiotics, including Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus, among other organisms, have been clinically applied for their enhancing effects on defense mechanisms. It is reported that gene expression in somatic cells can be activated by autoinducers, which are hormone-like molecules produced in a microbial QS system. In the present study, based on a hypothesis that a low-molecular substance related to the QS system is involved in the probiotics effects of Bifidobacterium, we intended to extract the low-molecular substance. As a result, we successfully isolated the peptide p(CHWPR), which was composed of five amino acids including Cys, His, Trp, Pro, and Arg, and found that the peptide was produced in the stationary phase of bacterial growth and that it could enhance the gene expression of oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase (Oxc). p(CHWPR) enhanced the gene expression of c-myc and interleukin (IL)-6 in an established cell line, HL-60. We demonstrated that p(CHWPR) penetrates the cell membrane and binds specifically to ROR,, which is a cytosolic nuclear receptor. This suggests that ROR, bound to p(CHWPR) would bind to promoter regions of the c-myc gene. Furthermore, we found that p(CHWPR) also bound to a transcriptional avtivation subunit, CRSP70; this suggests that p(CHWPR), ROR,, and CRSP70 in combination enhance transcription activity. [source]

    Unphosphorylated CsgD controls biofilm formation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Katherina Zakikhany
    Summary The transcriptional regulator CsgD of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a major regulator of biofilm formation required for the expression of csgBA, which encodes curli fimbriae, and adrA, coding for a diguanylate cyclase. CsgD is a response regulator with an N-terminal receiver domain with a conserved aspartate (D59) as a putative target site for phosphorylation and a C-terminal LuxR-like helix,turn,helix DNA binding motif, but the mechanisms of target gene activation remained unclear. To study the DNA-binding properties of CsgD we used electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprint analysis to show that unphosphorylated CsgD-His6 binds specifically to the csgBA and adrA promoter regions. In vitro transcription analysis revealed that CsgD-His6 is crucial for the expression of csgBA and adrA. CsgD-His6 is phosphorylated by acetyl phosphate in vitro, which decreases its DNA-binding properties. The functional impact of D59 in vivo was demonstrated as S. Typhimurium strains expressing modified CsgD protein (D59E and D59N) were dramatically reduced in biofilm formation due to decreased protein stability and DNA-binding properties in the case of D59E. In summary, our findings suggest that the response regulator CsgD functions in its unphosphorylated form under the conditions of biofilm formation investigated in this study. [source]