Promoter Fused (promoter + fused)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cloning and molecular dissection of the 8.8 kb pig uroplakin II promoter using transgenic mice and RT4 cells

Deug-Nam Kwon
Abstract Uroplakin II (UPII) gene expression is highly tissue and cell specific, with mRNA present in the suprabasal cell layers of the bladder and urethra. Previous reports described the mouse UPII (mUPII) promoter as primarily urothelium selective. However, ectopic expression of a transgene under the 3.6 kb mUPII promoter was also detected in brain, kidney, and testis in some transgenic mouse lines. Here, we have cloned an 8.8 kb pig UPII (pUPII) promoter region and investigated which cells within the bladder and urethra express a transgene consisting of the pUPII promoter fused to human erythropoietin (hEPO) or a luciferase gene. pUPII-luciferase expression vectors with various deletions of the promoter region were introduced into mouse fibroblast (NIH3T3), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), and human bladder transitional carcinoma (RT4). A 2.1 kb pUPII promoter fragment displayed high levels of luciferase activity in transiently transfected RT4 cells, whereas the 8.8 kb pUPII promoter region displayed only low levels of activity. The pUPII-hEPO expression vector was injected into the pronucleus of zygotes to make transgenic mice. To elucidate the in vivo molecular mechanisms controlling the tissue- and cell-specific expression of the pUPII promoter gene, transgenic mice containing 2.1 and 8.8 kb pUPII promoter fragments linked to the genomic hEPO gene were generated. An erythropoietin (EPO) assay showed that all nine transgenic lines carrying the 8.8 kb construct expressed recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) only in their urethra and bladder, whereas two transgenic lines carrying the 2.1 kb pUPII promoter displayed hEPO expression in several organs including bladder, kidney, spleen, heart, and brain. These studies demonstrate that the 2.1 kb promoter contains the DNA elements necessary for high levels of expression, but lacks critical sequences necessary for tissue-specific expression. We compared binding sites in the 2.1 and 8.8 kb promoter sequences and found five peroxisome proliferator responsive elements (PPREs) in the 8.8 kb promoter. Our data demonstrated that proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-, activator treatment in RT4 cells induced the elevated expression of hEPO mRNA under the control of the 8.8 kb pUPII promoter, but not the 2.1 kb promoter. Collectively, our data suggested that all the major trans-regulatory elements required for bladder- and urethra-specific transcription are located in the 8.8 kb upstream region and that it may enhance tissue-specific protein production and be of interest to clinicians who are searching for therapeutic modalities with high efficacy and low toxicity. J. Cell. Biochem. 99: 462,477, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

FRNK, the autonomously expressed C-terminal region of focal adhesion kinase, is uniquely regulated in vascular smooth muscle: Analysis of expression in transgenic mice

Haruko Hayasaka
Abstract FRNK, the autonomously expressed carboxyl-terminal region of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is expressed in tissues that are rich in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here we report the generation of transgenic mice harboring the putative FRNK promoter fused to LacZ and examine the promoter activity in situ via expression of ,-galactosidase. The transgenic mice exhibited expression of ,-galactosidase predominantly in arterial VSMCs in large and small blood vessels of major organs. Upregulation of ,-galactosidase activity was observed in tunica media following carotid injury, indicating that the FRNK promoter is activated in VSMCs in response to injury. Robust expression of ,-galactosidase in blood vessels was also detected in the developing embryo. However, expression was also observed in the midline, the nose and skin epidermis, indicating distinct transcriptional regulation of the FRNK promoter in embryogenesis. To analyze FRNK expression in vitro, we identified a 116 bp sequence in the FRNK promoter that was sufficient to function as an enhancer when fused to the minimal actin promoter and expressed in cultured smooth muscle cells. Mutation of AP-1 and NF-E2 binding consensus sequences within this element abrogated enhancer activity, supporting the involvement of this promoter element in VSMC expression of FRNK. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish,

Daisuke Kojima
The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains light-sensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis -acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg(P20 -rh/P:gfp), that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish rhodopsin promoter fused with 20 PIPE repeats. In Tg(P20 -rh/P:gfp) fish, PIPE-dependent gene expression is visualized by GFP fluorescence in the pineal gland along with PIPE-independent GFP signals in the retinal rod photoreceptors. The transgenic fish exhibit detectable and reproducible GFP fluorescence in the larval pineal gland by 5 days postfertilization. Antisense morpholino-mediated knock-down of a pineal transcription factor gene, otx5, suppresses pineal GFP expression in the transgenic line. In a pilot screen of N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea-treated fish of the GFP transgenic line, we isolated potential dominant mutations that cause attenuation of pineal GFP fluorescence with a marginal effect on the retinal GFP signal. The results suggest that the Tg(P20 -rh/P:gfp) line will be useful for detecting deficits in PIPE-dependent gene expression in the pineal gland. [source]

Identification of regulatory elements involved in expression and induction by sucrose and UV-B light of the Arabidopsis thaliana COX5b-2 gene, encoding an isoform of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5b

Raśl N. Comelli
The promoter sequences required for expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana COX5b-2 gene, encoding an isoform of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5b, were analyzed using plants transformed with deleted and mutagenized forms of the promoter fused to gus. A 1000-bp promoter fragment produces expression in root and shoot meristems, leaf and cotyledon tips, and anthers. Deletion analysis indicated the presence of positive and negative regulatory elements. A regulatory element located between ,660 and ,620 from the translation start site was identified as a G-box by mutagenic analysis. Mutation of the G-box, that is present within the coding region of the preceding gene in the genome, increases expression of COX5b-2 in cotyledon and leaf lamina and abolishes induction by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light, which presumably acts through the removal of an inhibitory factor. Identified positive regulatory elements include a site II element (TGGGCC), a related element with the sequence TGGGTC and four initiator elements (YTCANTYY) that completely abolish expression when mutated in combination. Site II elements are also involved in the response to sucrose. The results imply that the COX5b-2 gene has retained expression characteristics presented by most respiratory chain component genes, but its expression mechanisms have diverged from those employed by COX5b-1, the other gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5b in Arabidopsis. [source]

Optimization of a whole-cell cadmium sensor with a toggle gene circuit

Cindy H. Wu
Abstract This work demonstrates improvement of a whole-cell cadmium detection sensor through construction of a gene circuit. A cadmium (II) specific regulatory promoter, PcadR, from Psuedomonas putida 06909, is used in the assembly of a toggle circuit. The circuit contains the cadR promoter fused to lacIq and gfp, and a divergently transcribed tac promoter and cadR. The toggle sensor exhibits lower background fluorescence, and a 20-fold lower detection limit in comparison to a nontoggle gene circuit. The detection limit of the toggle sensor is 0.01 ,M (1.12 ppb) cadmium chloride, and tunable with the addition of isopropyl-b- D -thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The toggle sensor is highly specific to cadmium (II), and no response is elicited from zinc, lead, manganese, nickel, copper, and mercury. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]