Promising Modality (promising + modality)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

HPB, Issue 5 2006
Fumihiko Miura
Abstract The ability to diagnose pancreatic carcinoma has been rapidly improving with the recent advances in diagnostic techniques such as contrast-enhanced Doppler ultrasound (US), helical computed tomography (CT), enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endoscopic US (EUS). Each technique has advantages and limitations, making the selection of the proper diagnostic technique, in terms of purpose and characteristics, especially important. Abdominal US is the modality often used first to identify a cause of abdominal pain or jaundice, while the accuracy of conventional US for diagnosing pancreatic tumors is only 50,70%. CT is the most widely used imaging examination for the detection and staging of pancreatic carcinoma. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is generally depicted as a hypoattenuating area on contrast-enhanced CT. The reported sensitivity of helical CT in revealing pancreatic carcinoma is high, ranging between 89% and 97%. Multi-detector-row (MD) CT may offer an improvement in the early detection and accurate staging of pancreatic carcinoma. It should be taken into consideration that some pancreatic adenocarcinomas are depicted as isoattenuating and that pancreatitis accompanied by pancreatic adenocarcinoma might occasionally result in the overestimation of staging. T1-weighted spin-echo images with fat suppression and dynamic gradient-echo MR images enhanced with gadolinium have been reported to be superior to helical CT for detecting small lesions. However, chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma are not distinguished on the basis of degree and time of enhancement on dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI. EUS is superior to spiral CT and MRI in the detection of small tumors, and can also localize lymph node metastases or vascular tumor infiltration with high sensitivity. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a safe and highly accurate method for tissue diagnosis of patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has been suggested as a promising modality for noninvasive differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. Previous studies reported the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for detecting malignant pancreatic tumors as being 71,100% and 64,90%, respectively. FDG-PET does not replace, but is complementary to morphologic imaging, and therefore, in doubtful cases, the method must be combined with other imaging modalities. [source]

Diode-pumped fiber lasers: A new clinical tool?

Stuart D. Jackson PhD
Abstract Background and Objective Diode-pumped fiber lasers are a compact and an efficient source of high power laser radiation. These laser systems have found wide recognition in the area of lasers as a result of these very practical characteristics and are now becoming important tools for a large number of applications. In this review, we outline the basic physics of fiber lasers and illustrate how a number of clinical procedures would benefit from their employment. Study Design/Materials and Methods The pump mechanisms, the relevant pump and laser transitions between the energy levels, and the main properties of the output from fiber lasers will be briefly reviewed. The main types of high power fiber lasers that have been demonstrated will be examined along with some recent medical applications that have used these lasers. We will also provide a general review of some important medical specialties, highlighting why these fields would gain from the introduction of the fiber laser. Results/Conclusion It is established that while the fiber laser is still a new form of laser device and hence not commercially available in a wide sense, a number of important medical procedures will benefit from its general introduction into medicine. With the number of medical and surgical applications requiring high power laser radiation steadily increasing, the demand for more efficient and compact laser systems providing this capacity will grow commensurately. The high power fiber laser is one system that looks like a promising modality to meet this need. Lasers Surg. Med. 30:184-190, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Hepatic arterial infusion of chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

Abstract Treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a significant problem for clinicians. Sorafenib, the only approved agent, improves survival rate, but is associated with a low tumor response rate. Alternative approaches for the treatment of advanced HCC are urgently needed. Hepatic arterial infusion of chemotherapy (HAIC) is a promising modality for the treatment of advanced HCC. Since its introduction, there have been improvements in implantable pumps, in catheter implantation and in the convenience and safety of HAIC in general. Numerous clinical studies have shown that HAIC provides moderate therapeutic efficacy with substantially favorable toxicity profiles in selected patient groups with advanced HCC. However, the lack of large randomized studies means that HAIC is not yet a well-established treatment for advanced HCC. We believe there is an urgent need for the further investigation of HAIC for the treatment of advanced HCC. [source]

Hybrid promoters directed tBid gene expression to breast cancer cells by transcriptional targeting

Samila Farokhimanesh
Abstract Developing cancer gene therapy constructs based on transcriptional targeting of genes to cancer cells is a new and promising modality for treatment of cancer. Introducing truncated Bid (tBid), a recently known member of the Bcl-2 family, eradicates cancer cells efficiently. For transcriptional targeting of tBid, two dual-specificity promoters, combining cancer specific core promoters and response modules, were designed. These two core promoter modules contained cancer specific promoters of MUC1 and Survivin genes accompanied by hypoxia-responsive elements and estrogen responsive elements (microenvironment condition of breast cancer cells) which were employed to achieve a higher and more specific level of tBid expression in breast cancer cells. Correlation of the level of tBid expression in normal and cancer cell lines with promoter activity was measured by RT-PCR after treatment with hypoxia and estrogen. The level of tBid expression under control of new hybrid promoters was compared with its expression under control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter as a control. Our data revealed that the level of tBid expression in breast cancer cells were nearly 11 times more than normal cells because of the cancer specific promoters, although tBid expression under control of CMV promoter was almost the same in normal and cancer cell lines. Increased apoptosis was detected in the transfected breast cancer cell lines by the Caspase-3 activity assay. The application of these promoters may prove to have the advantage of tumor selective gene therapy in breast cancer cells and low-potential toxicity for normal tissues. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2010 [source]

Carbon-ion beam treatment induces systemic antitumor immunity against murine squamous cell carcinoma

CANCER, Issue 15 2010
Akinao Matsunaga MD
Abstract BACKGROUND: Carbon-ion beam (CIB) treatment is a powerful tool for controlling primary tumors in the clinical setting. However, to date, few clinical or experimental studies have investigated the effects of CIB treatment on tumor recurrence and antitumor immunity. METHODS: A multiple challenge test was performed using syngenic and nude mouse models of a poorly immunogenic squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCCVII) after CIB treatment at a clinically available dose (77 kiloelectron volts [keV]/,m) to primary tumors. To further examine changes in antitumor immunity in this model, the authors used dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy. RESULTS: In a syngenic model, CIB treatment itself resulted not only in efficient elimination of the primary tumor but also in a dramatic reduction of tumor formation after secondary tumor challenge at a contralateral site (P < .0001). Conversely, CIB treatment eliminated neither the primary nor the secondary tumor in nude mice. This antitumor effect produced by CIB treatment was enhanced significantly by combining it with DC immunotherapy (P = .0007). Combined CIB and DC treatment induced more intense cytolytic activity than CIB in a chromium-release assay. The third challenge tests, which included challenge with a third-party tumor cell line (FM3A) and effector depletion, revealed that the antitumor effects were the results of tumor-specific, long-lasting antitumor immunity through CD8-positive T lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first demonstration of strong antitumor immunity induced by CIB treatment in a dermal tumor, and this effect was enhanced by combining it with DC-based immunotherapy. The authors concluded that this combination warrants further investigation as a promising modality for the prevention of tumor recurrence. Cancer 2010. 2010 American Cancer Society. [source]