Promising Intervention (promising + intervention)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Relation of School Environment and Policy to Adolescent Physical Activity,

Nefertiti Durant MD
ABSTRACT Background:, Physical activity (PA) declines as children and adolescents age. The purpose of this study was to examine how specific school factors relate to youth PA, TV viewing, and body mass index (BMI). Methods:, A sample of 12- to 18-year-old adolescents in 3 cities (N = 165, 53% females, mean age 14.6 1.7 years, 44% nonwhite) completed surveys assessing days of physical education (PE) class per week, school equipment accessibility, after-school supervised PA, and after-school field access. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between these school factors and PA at school facilities open to the public (never active vs active), overall PA level (days per week physically active for 60 minutes), BMI z score, and TV watching (hours per week). Results:, Adjusting for demographics, days of PE per week and access to school fields after school were correlated with overall PA (,= 0.286, p = .002, semipartial correlation .236 and ,= 0.801, p = .016, semipartial correlation .186, respectively). The association between after-school field access and overall PA was mediated by use of publicly accessible school facilities for PA. After-school supervised PA and school PA equipment were not associated with overall PA. In adjusted regression analyses including all school factors, days of PE remained correlated to overall PA independent of other school factors (,= 0.264, p = .007, semipartial correlation = .136). There were no associations between school factors and BMI or TV watching. Conclusions:, Based on these study findings, PE is a promising intervention to address improving overall adolescent PA within the school setting. [source]

Modafinil treatment of fatigue in patients with ALS: A placebo-controlled study

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 3 2009
Judith G. Rabkin PhD
Abstract Our objective was to determine whether modafinil alleviates fatigue in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A placebo controlled trial with a 3:1 modafinil:placebo randomization in doses up to 300 mg/day for 4 weeks was followed by 8 weeks of open maintenance treatment. The primary endpoint was the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale. Secondary endpoints were the Fatigue Severity Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Role Function Scale, and visual analog scales. Analysis of covariance was used to assess change at Week 4. Thirty-two patients were randomized; 29 completed the 4-week trial. In intention to treat (ITT) analysis, the response was 76% for modafinil versus 14% for placebo. In a completer analysis, the modafinil response rate was 86%, and the placebo response rate remained 14%. The number needed to treat was 1.6 (ITT). No medically serious adverse events were reported. Modafinil may be a promising intervention for fatigue in ALS patients. Replication in a larger study is needed. Muscle Nerve 39: 297,303, 2009 [source]

Modified Directly Observed Therapy (MDOT) for Injection Drug Users with HIV Disease

Elinore F. McCance-Katz M.D., Ph.D.
Injection drug use is an important factor in the spread of HIV infection, and strategies to enhance adherence to HIV therapeutics are critically important to controlling viral transmission and improving clinical outcomes. To this end, the authors sought (1) to enhance adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among methadone-maintained injection drug users (IDUs) using modified directly observed therapy (MDOT), and (2) to define interactions between methadone and HAART and the potential contribution of drug interactions to adherence and HIV outcomes in this population. Adherence was explored here through a pilot, unblinded, 24-week study in a methadone maintenance program in which simplified HAART (efavirenz and didanosine [once daily] and a second nucleoside [twice daily]) was administered 6 days/week by clinic staff to HIV-infected IDUs (n = 5) with their methadone. Evening doses of riboflavin-tagged nucleoside and one full day of medication weekly were given as take home doses. As a result of HAART administration, four of five participants with mean viral load at baseline of 105 copies/ml had undetectable viral load by 8 weeks of treatment (p = 043). Methadone area under the curve (AUC) decreased by 55% (p = 007) within 2 weeks of initiating this HAART regimen, and a mean methadone dose increase of 52%o was required. The authors conclude that MDOT is a promising intervention for the treatment of IDUs with HIV disease, though significant drug interactions must be monitored for carefully and rapidly addressed. [source]

Psychotherapy as monotherapy for the treatment of bipolar II depression: a proof of concept study

Holly A Swartz
Objectives:, We conducted a proof of concept study to determine the feasibility of using an individual psychotherapy, Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT), as monotherapy for the acute treatment of bipolar II depression. Methods:, Unmedicated individuals (n = 17) meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar II disorder and currently depressed received weekly psychotherapy (IPSRT) for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of acute treatment, individuals received an additional 8 weeks of follow-up treatment consisting of continued weekly IPSRT with supplementary lamotrogine for IPSRT non-responders. Results:, By week 12, 41% (n = 7) of the sample responded to IPSRT monotherapy (defined as ,50% reduction in depression scores without an increase in mania scores), 41% (n = 7) dropped out of or were removed from the study, and 18% (n = 3) did not respond to treatment. By week 20, 53% (n = 9) had achieved a response and 29% (n = 5) achieved a full remission of symptoms. Conclusions:, Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy appears to be a promising intervention for a subset of individuals with bipolar II depression. A randomized controlled trial is needed to systematically evaluate the efficacy of IPSRT as an acute monotherapy for bipolar II depression. [source]

Complications of type 1 diabetes: new molecular findings

Alin Stirban MD
Abstract Interventions targeting the treatment of diabetic complications have not been nearly as successful as initially estimated, despite a marked improvement in therapeutic options for diabetes. The need for understanding why some very promising interventions have failed demands a closer look at the pathomechanisms of the complications. Great strides have been made in understanding the pathology, and several important hypotheses have emerged in recent years. On this basis, Brownlee and coworkers suggested a unifying hypothesis integrating various mechanisms discussed in past years with an overproduction of reactive oxygen species as an initiating cause. This hypothesis and further hypotheses, as well as mechanisms, are highlighted in this article. The field of pathomechanisms of diabetic complications is very wide, and any attempt to completely cover it within a single article is unrealistic. Therefore, our purpose is to present the most relevant concepts underlying diabetic complications in an attempt to contribute to a better understanding and pinpoint areas that warrant further research. Mt Sinai J Med 75:328,351, 2008. 2008 Mount Sinai School of Medicine [source]