Promising Development (promising + development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Photodynamic Treatment of the Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and its Microconidia with Porphyrin Photosensitizers,

Threes G. M. Smijs
ABSTRACT The application of photosensitizers for the treatment of fungal infections is a new and promising development within the field of photodynamic treatment (PDT). Dermatophytes, fungi that can cause infections of the skin, hair and nails, are able to feed on keratin. Superficial mycoses are probably the most prevalent of infectious diseases in all parts of the world. One of the most important restrictions of the current therapeutic options is the return of the infection and the duration of the treatment. This is especially true in the case of infections of the nail (tinea unguium) caused by Trichophyton rubrum, an anthropophilic dermatophyte with a worldwide distribution. Recently, we demonstrated that 5,10,15-tris(4-methylpyridinium)-20-phenyl-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (Sylsens B) and deuteroporphyrin monomethylester were excellent photosensitizers toward T. rubrum when using broadband white light. This study demonstrates the photodynamic activity of these photosensitizers with red light toward both a suspension culture of T. rubrum and its isolated microconidia. The higher penetration depth of red light is important for the PDT of nail infections. In addition, we tested the photodynamic activity of a newly synthesized porphyrin, quinolino-[4,5,6,7-efg]-7-demethyl-8-deethylmesoporphyrin dimethylester, displaying a distinct peak in the red part of the spectrum. However, its photodynamic activity with red light toward a suspension culture of T. rubrum appeared to be only fungistatic. Sylsens B was the best photosensitizer toward both T. rubrum and its microconidia. A complete inactivation of the fungal spores and destruction of the fungal hyphae was found. In studies into the photostability, Sylsens B appeared to be photostable under the conditions used for fungal PDT. A promising result of this study is the demonstration of the complete degradation of the fungal hyphae in the time after the PDT and the inactivation of fungal spores, both with red light. These results offer the ingredients for a future treatment of fungal infections, including those of the nail. [source]

Silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistors for quantitative biosensing applications

Petra A. Neff
Abstract Field-effect based semiconductor devices for the label-free detection of molecular interactions represent a promising development for biosensor applications. Recently, several such devices have been presented for the direct electrical detection of nucleic acids and proteins. However, a detailed and quantitative understanding of experimental observations is still elusive in most cases. Here we employ a recently introduced Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) based field-effect sensor for the label-free detection of molecules by their intrinsic charge. We present a theoretical description for the quantitative analysis of the sensor response. A capacitor model was developed which accounts for dielectric effects as well as for Debye screening by mobile ions within the layers of molecules bound to the surface. We successfully applied the model to the detection of charged peptides and multilayers at the functionalized sensor surfaces. The electrical detection of the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to the sensor surface is demonstrated and can be explained in terms of a dipolar orientation of the bound molecules. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Current use of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Combined Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

Lee A. Zimmer
The history and physical examination, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging are the cornerstones for identifying new and recurrent cancers of the head and neck. The advent of positron emission tomography (PET) and combined PET/CT imaging technology is a promising development. These modalities have the potential to help stage patients presenting with head and neck cancer, identify responses to nonsurgical therapy, and allow earlier detection of recurrence in the hope of improving survival. The following paper provides a brief history of PET and PET/CT imaging. The current PET and PET/CT literature for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is reviewed, and specific recommendations for its use are provided. [source]

Management of severe adult atopic dermatitis

Nicholas Reynolds
In common with many units, we run a specialist atopic eczema clinic that receives both secondary and tertiary referrals. Investigation into possible provoking factors includes RAST testing and patch testing where appropriate. The mainstay of treatment for moderate to severe atopic eczema remains topical steroids and emollients. Our specialist nurses play a key role in education and in particular demonstrating topical treatments , including bandaging. It is surprising that many patients have not previously been shown how to apply the treatments prescribed. Nevertheless, despite optimizing topical treatment protocols, a proportion of patients require hospital admission or second-line therapy. Our recent double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of narrow-band UVII vs. UVA (as used in PUVA) vs. placebo has confirmed that narrow-band WB phototherapy is an effective adjunctive treatment in moderate to severe atopic eczema. This trial also highlighted the value of recording disease activity (e.g. SASSAD) in individual patients following a change of therapy. UVA1 may be useful for acute severe atopic eczema but this UV source is only available in limited centres within the UK. Selected resistant patients or patients with acute flares are considered for short-term cyclosporin therapy. Azathioprine is widely used by consultant dermatologists in the UK as a second-line agent , despite the lack of evidence of efficacy. We are currently conducting a randomized placebo-controlled trial to address this issue. The importance of checking thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) prior to initiating azathioprine therapy has been emphasized. Our pilot data, with a dosage regime based on the TPMT result, suggest that patients may achieve a longer-term remission after a relatively short course. Mycophenolate mofetil has been reported to be effective in an open trial and methotrexate is also used but there is a lack of published evidence. The advent of topical tacrolimus and ascomycins, which have been shown to be effective in controlled trials, appear to be a promising development in the management of patients with moderate to severe atopic eczema and may lead to reduction in the use of systemic agents. [source]


ABSTRACT The global value of the biotechnology industry is now estimated at 17 billion dollars, with over 1300 firms involved as of the year 2000.2 It has been said that ,What we are witnessing is nothing less than a new kind of gold rush, and the territory is the body.' As in previous gold rushes, prospectors are flooding into unexplored and ,wide open' territories from all over the world, with possible ramifications for exploitation of Third World populations. These territories are also the Wild West of bioethics insofar as the law has very little hold on them: existing medical and patent law, such as the Moore and Chakrabarty cases, exert little control over powerful economic interests in both the United States and Europe. In the absence of a unified and consistent law on property in the body, the focus is increasingly on refining the consent approach to rights in human tissue and the human genome, with sensitive and promising developments from the Human Genetics Commission and the Department for International Development consultation on intellectual property. These developments incorporate the views of vulnerable genetic communities such as Native Americans or some Third World populations, and should be welcomed because they recognise the power imbalance between such groups and First World researchers or firms. However, they also highlight the continued tension about what is really wrong with commodifying human tissue or the human genome. Where's the injustice, and can it be solved by a more sophisticated consent procedure? [source]

Role of endoscopic ultrasound in superficial esophageal cancer

Tan Attila
SUMMARY The recent increase in the incidence of superficial esophageal cancer and promising developments in potentially curative endoscopic therapies have placed endoscopic ultrasound in a central position with regard to decision making. This is a review of the literature to determine the role of endoscopic ultrasound and high frequency probe ultrasonography in the assessment of superficial esophageal carcinomas. [source]