Promising Candidate Gene (promising + candidate_gene)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Review article: inflammatory bowel disease and genetics

Summary Introduction, Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprising ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) is multigenic disorder. Tremendous progress has been achieved in unravelling the genetic background of IBD. It has led to the discovery of mutations in NOD2 associated with ileal CD and numerous other genes have been found to be associated with IBD susceptibility. Methods, A review of the literature on the genetic background of IBD was performed. Results, It is only partially understood how mutations in NOD2 lead to CD. Mouse models, in vitro data and studies in humans offer conflicting data as regards whether there is a loss or gain of function of NOD2 in CD. Several additional genes have been identified of which only a few are currently being recognized as potential disease causing or disease modifying genes. Promising candidate genes include TLR4, MDR1, NOD1 (CARD4), DLG5 as well as the IBD5 locus including SLC22A4/5. Conclusions, Although genetic research has not yet led to a better prediction of the disease course or patient selection for medical therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of IBD. For future genetic research, accurate phenotyping of patients is very important and large population-based cohorts are needed. Eventually, genetic research may be able to classify different disease phenotypes on a more detailed molecular basis and may provide important contributions in the development of new therapeutic approaches. [source]

Fine mapping of a sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal locus on mouse chromosome 11

H. M. Hood
We have established that there is a considerable amount of common genetic influence on physiological dependence and associated withdrawal from sedative-hypnotic drugs including alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates and inhalants. We previously mapped two loci responsible for 12 and 9% of the genetic variance in acute alcohol and pentobarbital withdrawal convulsion liability in mice, respectively, to an approximately 28-cM interval of proximal chromosome 11. Here, we narrow the position of these two loci to a 3-cM interval (8.8 Mb, containing 34 known and predicted genes) using haplotype analysis. These include genes encoding four subunits of the GABAA receptor, which is implicated as a pivotal component in sedative-hypnotic dependence and withdrawal. We report that the DBA/2J mouse strain, which exhibits severe withdrawal from sedative-hypnotic drugs, encodes a unique GABAA receptor ,2 subunit variant compared with other standard inbred strains including the genetically similar DBA/1J strain. We also demonstrate that withdrawal from zolpidem, a benzodiazepine receptor agonist selective for ,1 subunit containing GABAA receptors, is influenced by a chromosome 11 locus, suggesting that the same locus (gene) influences risk of alcohol, benzodiazepine and barbiturate withdrawal. Our results, together with recent knockout studies, point to the GABAA receptor ,2 subunit gene (Gabrg2) as a promising candidate gene to underlie phenotypic differences in sedative-hypnotic physiological dependence and associated withdrawal episodes. [source]

Genetics of personalities: no simple answers for complex traits

Identifying the genes that underlie phenotypic variation in natural populations, and assessing the consequences of polymorphisms at these loci for individual fitness are major objectives in evolutionary biology. Yet, with the exception of a few success stories, little progress has been made, and our understanding of the link between genotype and phenotype is still in its infancy. For example, although body length in humans is largely genetically determined, with heritability estimates greater than 0.8, massive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have only been able to account for a very small proportion of this variation (Gudbjartsson et al. 2008). If it is so difficult to explain the genetics behind relatively ,simple' traits, can we envision that it will at all be possible to find genes underlying complex behavioural traits in wild non-model organisms? Some notable examples suggest that this can indeed be a worthwhile endeavour. Recently, the circadian rhythm gene Clock has been associated with timing of breeding in a wild blue tit population (Johnsen et al. 2007; Liedvogel et al. 2009) and the Pgi gene to variation in dispersal and flight endurance in Glanville fritillary butterflies (Niitepold et al. 2009). A promising candidate gene for influencing complex animal personality traits, also known as behavioural syndromes (Sih et al. 2004), is the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene. Within the last decade, polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with variation in novelty seeking and exploration behaviour in a range of species, from humans to great tits (Schinka et al. 2002; Fidler et al. 2007). In this issue, Korsten et al. (2010) attempt to replicate this previously observed association in wild-living birds, and test for the generality of the association between DRD4 and personality across a number of European great tit populations. [source]

CYR61 polymorphisms are associated with plasma HDL-cholesterol levels in obese individuals

L Bouchard
We have recently characterized the transcriptome of the omental adipose tissue of non-diabetic, obese men with and without the metabolic syndrome (MS). The cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) is one of the most differentially expressed genes between the groups and has been selected for a detailed molecular investigation. Direct sequencing of complete CYR61 gene revealed five polymorphisms with minor allele frequency >5% in the promoter region (rs3753794, rs3753793 and rs2297140), intron 1 (rs2297141) and intron 2 (IVS2+50). Chi-square test and logistic regression were applied to test for association between CYR61 polymorphisms and the individual MS components in a cohort of 697 obese individuals. In men and women, rs3753794 and rs3753793 (r2 = 0.77) were associated plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.016 and p = 0.008). Carriers of the A allele for rs3753794 were more likely to have high plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (1.50-fold; p = 0.016), as compared with G/G homozygotes and the A/A homozygotes for rs3753793 were more likely to exhibit low plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (1.56-fold; p = 0.008), as compared with C/C homozygotes. Furthermore, an association between IVS2+50 polymorphism and HDL-cholesterol was found in women and in men analyzed separately (p = 0.002 and p = 0.038, respectively). These results suggest that CYR61 is a promising candidate gene for lipoprotein/lipid perturbations. [source]

Review of animal models for autism: implication of thyroid hormone

Miyuki Sadamatsu
ABSTRACT,, Autism is a behaviorally defined disorder associated with characteristic impairments in social interactions and communication, as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors and interest. Its prevalence was once thought to be 2/10 000, but recently several large autism prevalence reviews revealed that the rate of occurrence was roughly 30/10 000. While it has been considered a developmental disorder, little is certain about its etiology. Neuroanatomical studies at the histological level in the brains of autistic patients provide many arguments in the etiology of autism. Results from postmortem and imaging studies have implicated many major structures of the brain including the limbic system, cerebellum, corpus callosum, basal ganglia and brainstem. There is no single biological or clinical marker for autism. While several promising candidate genes have been presented, the critical loci are yet unknown. Environmental influences such as rubella virus, valproic acid, and thalidomide exposure during pregnancy are also considered important, as concordance in monozygotic twins is less than 100% and the phenotypic expression of the disorder varies widely. It is thus hypothesized that non-genetic mechanisms contribute to the onset of autistic syndrome. In light of these ambiguities, hope is held that an animal model of autism may help elucidate matters. In this article, we overview most of the currently available animal models for autism, and propose the rat with mild and transient neonatal hypothyroidism as a novel model for autism. [source]

Recurrent copy number gain of transcription factor SOX2 and corresponding high protein expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Kolja Freier
Gene copy number aberrations are involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development. To delineate candidate genes inside critical chromosomal regions, array-CGH was applied to 40 OSCC specimens using a microarray covering the whole human genome with an average resolution of 1 Mb. Gene copy number gains were predominantly found at 1q23 (9 cases), 3q26 (11), 5p15 (13), 7p11 (7), 8q24 (17), 11q13 (15), 14q32 (8), 19p13 (8), 19q12 (7), 19q13 (8), and 20q13 (9), whereas gene copy number losses were detected at 3p21-3p12 (15), 8p32 (11), 10p12 (8), and 18q21-q23 (10). Subsequent mRNA expression analyses by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction found high mRNA expression of candidate genes SOX2 in 3q26.33, FSLT3 in 19p13.3, and CCNE1 in 19q12. Tissue microarray (TMA) analyses in a representative OSCC collection found gene copy number gain for SOX2 in 52% (115/223) and for CCNE1 in 31% (72/233) of the tumors. Immunohistochemical analyses on TMA sections of the corresponding proteins detected high expression of SOX2 in 18.1% (49/271) and of CyclinE1 in 23.3% (64/275) of tumors analyzed. These findings indicate that SOX2 and CCNE1 might be activated via gene copy number gain and participate in oral carcinogenesis. The combination of array-CGH with TMA analyses allows rapid pinpointing of novel promising candidate genes, which might be used as therapeutic stratification markers or target molecules for therapeutic interference. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]