Promising Biomarkers (promising + biomarker)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Mass spectrometric characterization of covalent modification of human serum albumin by 4-hydroxy- trans -2-nonenal

Giancarlo Aldini
Abstract Several pieces of evidence indicate that albumin modified by HNE is a promising biomarker of systemic oxidative stress and that HNE-modified albumin may contribute to the immune reactions triggered by lipid peroxidation-derived antigens. In this study, we found by HPLC analysis that HNE is rapidly quenched by human serum albumin (HSA) because of the covalent adduction to the different accessible nucleophilic residues of the protein, as demonstrated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) direct infusion experiments (one to nine HNE adducts, depending on the molar ratio used, from 1 : 0.25 to 1 : 5 HSA : HNE). An LC-ESI-MS/MS approach was then applied to enzymatically digested HNE-modified albumin, which permitted the identification of 11 different HNE adducts, 8 Michael adducts (MA) and 3 Schiff bases (SB), involving nine nucleophilic sites, namely: His67 (MA), His146 (MA), His242 (MA), His288 (MA), His510 (MA), Lys 195 (SB), Lys 199 (MA, SB), Lys525 (MA, SB) and Cys34 (MA). The most reactive HNE-adduction site was found to be Cys34 (MA) followed by Lys199, which primarily reacts through the formation of a Schiff base, and His146, giving the corresponding HNE Michael adduct. These albumin modifications are suitable tags of HNE-adducted albumin and could be useful biomarkers of oxidative and carbonylation damage in humans. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Plasma concentrations of VCAM-1 and PAI-1: A predictive biomarker for post-operative recurrence in colorectal cancer

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 8 2010
Yasuhide Yamada
This prospective study used antibody suspension bead arrays to identify biomarkers capable of predicting post-operative recurrence with distal metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer. One hundred colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery were enrolled in this study. The median follow-up period was 3.9 years. The pre-operative plasma concentrations of 24 angiogenesis-related molecules were analyzed with regard to the TNM stage and the development of post-operative recurrence. The concentrations of half of the examined molecules (13/24) increased significantly according to the TNM stage (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, a multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were significantly higher in the post-operative recurrence group. The VCAM-1 and PAI-1 model discriminated post-operative recurrence with an area under the curve of 0.82, a sensitivity of 0.75, and a specificity of 0.73. A leave-one-out cross-validation was applied to the model to assess the prediction performance, and the result indicated that the cross-validated error rate was 12.5% (12/96). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that antibody suspension bead arrays are a powerful tool to screen biomarkers in the clinical setting, and the plasma levels of VCAM-1 and PAI-1 together may be a promising biomarker for predicting post-operative recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. (Cancer Sci 2010) [source]

From kidney to cardiovascular diseases: NGAL as a biomarker beyond the confines of nephrology

D. Bolignano
Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (3): 273,276 Abstract Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a small 25 kDa stress-protein released from injured tubular cells after various damaging stimuli, is already known by nephrologists as one of the most promising biomarkers of incoming Acute Kidney Injury. Moreover, recent studies seem to suggest a potential involvement of this factor also in the genesis and progression of chronic kidney diseases. This brief review explores the new interesting involvement of NGAL in the experimental and clinical field of cardiovascular diseases, such as the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction and heart failure. It does not seem difficult that, in the next future, NGAL may become a new missing link between the kidney and the cardiovascular system. [source]

Apolipoproteins: promising biomarkers for cardiovascular risk prediction

A. Romero-Corral
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Neurochemical biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of movement disorders,

Brit Mollenhauer MD
Abstract In recent years, the neurochemical analysis of neuronal proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has become increasingly accepted for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementia diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt,Jakob disease. CSF surrounds the central nervous system, and in the composition of CSF proteins one finds brain-specific proteins that are prioritized from blood-derived proteins. Levels of specific CSF proteins could be very promising biomarkers for central nervous system diseases. We need the development of more easily accessible biomarkers, in the blood. In neurodegenerative diseases with and without dementia, studies on CSF and blood proteins have investigated the usefulness of biomarkers in differential diagnosis. The clinical diagnoses of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration still rely mainly on clinical symptoms as defined by international classification criteria. In this article, we review CSF biomarkers in these movement disorders and discuss recent published reports on the neurochemical intra vitam diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders (including recent CSF ,-synuclein findings). 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Clinical significance of tumor markers and an emerging perspective on colorectal cancer

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
Keishi Yamashita
Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9, a carbohydrate antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody NS19-9, are commonly used as classical tumor markers in colorectal cancer (CRC) clinics. The roles of tumor markers include: (1) diagnostic screening (diagnostic markers); (2) prediction of prognosis after treatment (prognostic markers); and (3) judgment tools for treatment effect (surveillance markers). Tumor markers can be evaluated in serum, stools, or even in tissues depending on the clinical purpose. The American Society for Clinical Oncology recommends that CEA is the only marker of choice for monitoring the response of metastatic disease to systemic therapy at present. In the present paper, we are the first to review the clinical significance of the classical tumor markers CEA and CA19-9 in serum, allowing for our original data, and present our view on the newly emerging biomarkers in CRC. Novel promising biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and surveillance purposes are reviewed and considered, some of which are anticipated for further validation. For diagnostic markers, urine or serum might replace fecal samples in the near future. On the other hand, prognostic or predictive markers for treatment sensitivity may be identified from the molecular profiles of primary cancer tissues. Selection of patients who are sensitive to chemotherapy will reduce the number of patients who undergo harmful chemotherapy with no effectiveness. The optimal tumor markers would be generalized, easy to assess, and accurate, and such markers are eagerly anticipated to enable personalized tailored therapy for CRC patients. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 195,199) [source]