Promising Areas (promising + area)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Entrepreneurial Founder Teams: Factors Associated with Member Entry and Exit

Deniz Ucbasaran
This exploratory study provides a review of the neglected area of entrepreneurial founder team turnover. A novel distinction is made between entrepreneurial founder team member entry and team member exit. Ninety owner-managed ventures were monitored between 1990 and 2000. Presented hypotheses relating to a team's human capital were explored using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Variables associated with entry were found not to be the same as those associated with exit. The size of the founding team was significantly negatively associated with subsequent team member entry. The link between team turnover and entrepreneurial team heterogeneity was mixed. Functional heterogeneity was weakly significantly positively associated with team member entry. Heterogeneity of prior entrepreneurial experience was significantly positively associated with team member exit. In addition, family firms were significantly negatively associated with team member exit. The average age of the team was not significantly associated with team member entry or exit. Additional insights in future research may be gathered if a broader definition of team turnover (i.e., considering team member entry and exit) is considered. Practitioner awareness of the different factors associated with team member entry and exit may encourage them to provide assistance, which facilitates the team building process over time in developing firms. Promising areas for additional research are highlighted. [source]

Transmission line maintenance robots capable of crossing obstacles: State-of-the-art review and challenges ahead

Kristopher Toussaint
Power line inspection and maintenance already benefit from developments in mobile robotics. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art. It focuses on mobile robots designed to cross obstacles found on a typical transmission line while using the conductor as support for traveling. Promising areas of research and development as well as challenges that remain to be solved are discussed with a view to developing fully autonomous technologies. Maintenance tasks, including inspection and repairs, are identified as high-value applications in transmission live-line work. Conclusions are drawn from experience, and the future of mobile robotics applied to transmission line maintenance is discussed. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Innate immunity against malaria parasites in Anopheles gambiae

INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 1 2008
Yang Chen
Abstract Malaria continues to exert a huge toll in the world today, causing approximately 400 million cases and killing between 1-2 million people annually. Most of the malaria burden is borne by countries in Africa. For this reason, the major vector for malaria in this continent, Anopheles gambiae, is under intense study. With the completion of the draft sequence of this important vector, efforts are underway to develop novel control strategies. One promising area is to harness the power of the innate immunity of this mosquito species to block the transmission of the malaria parasites. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll and Imd signaling pathways and other immunity-related genes (encoding proteins possibly function in recognition or as effector molecules) play significant roles in two different arms of innate immunity: level of infection intensity and melanization of Plasmodium oocysts. The challenges in the future are to understand how the functions of these different genes are coordinated in defense against malaria parasites, and if different arms of innate immunity are cross,regulated or coordinated. [source]

Multiple myeloma: A review of the epidemiologic literature

Dominik D. Alexander
Abstract Multiple myeloma, a neoplasm of plasma cells, accounts for ,,15% of lymphatohematopoietic cancers (LHC) and 2% of all cancers in the US. Incidence rates increase with age, particularly after age 40, and are higher in men, particularly African American men. The etiology is unknown with no established lifestyle, occupational or environmental risk factors. Although several factors have been implicated as potentially etiologic, findings are inconsistent. We reviewed epidemiologic studies that evaluated lifestyle, dietary, occupational and environmental factors; immune function, family history and genetic factors; and the hypothesized precursor, monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS). Because multiple myeloma is an uncommon disease, etiologic assessments can be difficult because of small numbers of cases in occupational cohort studies, and few subjects reporting exposure to specific agents in case,control studies. Elevated risks have been reported consistently among persons with a positive family history of LHC. A few studies have reported a relationship between obesity and multiple myeloma, and this may be a promising area of research. Factors underlying higher incidence rates of multiple myeloma in African Americans are not understood. The progression from MGUS to multiple myeloma has been reported in several studies; however, there are no established risk factors for MGUS. To improve our understanding of the causes of multiple myeloma, future research efforts should seek the causes of MGUS. More research is also needed on the genetic factors of multiple myeloma, given the strong familial clustering of the disease. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Teachers' Pets and Why They Have Them: An Investigation of the Human Animal Bond,

Sara Staats
The present study queried a random, university faculty sample as to their reasons for owning pets. Mere pet ownership was not correlated with self-reported health, happiness, or quality of work life in this sample. Five dominant reasons were given for pet ownership. Women were more likely than men to self-report reasons related to social support for pet ownership, including that a pet helped them get through hard times and that they would be lonely without a pet. Men were more likely to report pragmatic reasons, such as the pet facilitating exercise or serving a useful function. Beliefs in the positive effects of pets on health were typical. Those beliefs in the health promoting aspects of pets are suggested as a link to human health and a promising area for future research. [source]

Social goals and conflict strategies of individuals with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities who present problems of aggression

C. Pert
Abstract Background A few recent studies have adopted a social cognitive perspective to explore how individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs), who present problems of aggression, view their social world. The focus has mainly been on participants' perceptions of others' behaviour within conflict situations. The present exploratory study aims to compliment existing research by exploring social cognitive factors that may influence how individuals respond to conflict. Methods Study was carried out with 20 aggressive and 20 non-aggressive men and women who have a mild to moderate ID. The ,Social Goals and Strategies for Conflict' (SGASC) assessment was devised to explore whether group or gender differences could be found in participants' expected outcomes of aggressive strategies, their expected outcomes of submissive strategies and their emotional reaction to these outcomes. Participants' social goals within hypothetical situations of conflict were also explored. Results It was found that aggressive and non-aggressive participants have different social goals. There were no significant differences for expected outcomes of aggression or submissiveness. Nevertheless, a number of trends suggest that more aggressive participants expect negative outcomes for submissiveness compared with their non-aggressive peers. Conclusions While the findings of this study are tentative, investigating the social outcomes that are valued by individuals with ID who present problems of aggression appears to be a promising area for further research, with possible implications for clinical assessment and treatment. [source]

Mimicking biological delivery through feedback-controlled drug release systems based on molecular imprinting

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 6 2009
David R. Kryscio
Intelligent drug delivery systems (DDS) are able to rapidly detect a biological event and respond appropriately by releasing a therapeutic agent; thus, they are advantageous over their conventional counterparts. Molecular imprinting is a promising area that generates a polymeric network which can selectively recognize a desired analyte. This field has been studied for a variety of applications over a long period of time, but only recently has it been investigated for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recent work in the area of molecularly imprinted polymers in drug delivery highlights the potential of these recognitive networks as environmentally responsive DDS that can ultimately lead to feedback controlled recognitive release systems. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009. [source]

Allelochemical tricin in rice hull and its aurone isomer against rice seedling rot disease

Chui-Hua Kong
Abstract BACKGROUND: One promising area of rice disease management is the potential of exploiting biological control agents. Rice seedling rot disease caused by soil-borne pathogenic fungi has become a dominant disease problem because of greater use of direct seeding. Rice hull has been potentially used to control paddy weeds, but little information is available on rice disease. This study was conducted to investigate the relationships between disease incidence and soil amended with tricin-releasing rice hull, and to assess fungicidal activity of tricin and its synthesised aurone isomer, with an attempt to develop an allelochemical-based fungicide against rice seedling rot disease. RESULTS: Tricin was detected in all hulls of 12 rice cultivars tested, but its contents in rice hulls varied greatly with the cultivar and genotype. Tricin in rice hulls was released into the soil once amended. Disease incidence was significantly reduced by soil amended with rice hull. Tricin-rich rice hull amendment greatly suppressed soil-borne pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Rhizoctonia solani Khn which cause rice seedling rot disease. In attempting to obtain enough tricin for further experiments, the aurone isomer (5,7,4,-trihydroxy-3,,5,-dimethoxyaurone) of tricin rather than tricin itself was unexpectedly synthesised. This aurone isomer had much stronger fungicidal activity on both F. oxysporum and R. solani than tricin itself. CONCLUSION: Soil amended with tricin-rich rice hull was associated with reduced risk of developing seedling rot disease. The tricin isomer, aurone, is more effective against rice seedling rot disease than tricin itself, making it an ideal lead compound for new fungicide discovery. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Insect-symbiont systems: From complex relationships to biotechnological applications

Sandra Chaves
Abstract Microbial symbiosis is a ubiquitous aspect of life and was a major element in the ability of insects to explore several adverse environments. To date, the study of symbiosis in insects has been impaired by the unculturability of most symbionts. However, some molecular methods represent powerful tools to help understand insect-microorganism associations and to disclose new symbiont-host systems. Beyond playing an essential role in nutrition and development of the insects, symbionts can produce bioactive compounds that protect the host against adverse environmental conditions, predators and/or direct competitors. Since the search for natural bioactive products and new enzymes is a developing area, understanding the diversity and nature of symbiont-host relationships paves the way for the exploitation of new resources in biotechnology. Furthermore, genetic transformation of the symbionts with genes that code for compounds that are toxic for pathogenic and phytopathogenic agents is also a promising area of application of the insect-symbiont relationships. The search for new bioactive compounds, the use of symbionts for pest and disease control and the molecular strategies applied for these purposes are issues of particular interest for innovative biotechnological applications and are addressed in the present review. [source]

Flow Coordination and Information Sharing in Supply Chains: Review, Implications, and Directions for Future Research

Funda Sahin
ABSTRACT Advances in information technology, particularly in the e-business arena, are enabling firms to rethink their supply chain strategies and explore new avenues for inter-organizational cooperation. However, an incomplete understanding of the value of information sharing and physical flow coordination hinder these efforts. This research attempts to help fill these gaps by surveying prior research in the area, categorized in terms of information sharing and flow coordination. We conclude by highlighting gaps in the current body of knowledge and identifying promising areas for future research. [source]

Translational approaches to understanding anorexia nervosa

Diane A. Klein MD
Abstract Translational research has fostered significant gains in neuroscience and psychiatry and has been identified by the NIMH as a "priority area" for further funding. As applied to anorexia nervosa (AN), "translational research" describes the application of principles and methodologies employed in related fields to advance the understanding, and ultimately treatment and prevention, of this disorder. Several promising areas of translational research in AN are identified. Such research, particularly when linked to a conceptual framework, offers the potential of lending much-needed novel insight into this challenging and enigmatic disorder. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

New frontiers for arch models

Robert Engle
In the 20 years following the publication of the ARCH model, there has been a vast quantity of research uncovering the properties of competing volatility models. Wide-ranging applications to financial data have discovered important stylized facts and illustrated both the strengths and weaknesses of the models. There are now many surveys of this literature. This paper looks forward to identify promising areas of new research. The paper lists five new frontiers. It briefly discusses three,high-frequency volatility models, large-scale multivariate ARCH models, and derivatives pricing models. Two further frontiers are examined in more detail,application of ARCH models to the broad class of non-negative processes, and use of Least Squares Monte Carlo to examine non-linear properties of any model that can be simulated. Using this methodology, the paper analyses more general types of ARCH models, stochastic volatility models, long-memory models and breaking volatility models. The volatility of volatility is defined, estimated and compared with option-implied volatilities. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Sociology of Adolescence and Youth in the 1990s: A Critical Commentary

Frank F. Furstenberg
The 1990s saw considerable advances in the state of research on adolescence and youth. This article provides a critical commentary on a subset of this research, focusing on the causes and consequences of the lengthened period in which the transition to adulthood occurs. It provides a brief history of adolescence research, identifying a select set of topics, themes, and research problems that will guide research on adolescence and youth over the next decade. These research foci, which include peer group relations, biological influences on adolescence, employment experiences, increased autonomy, and racial and gender differences, are described as representing either continuities or advances in adolescence research. The strengths and shortcomings of this research are detailed. The paper concludes by suggesting promising areas for future research and by providing guidelines for undertaking such research. [source]

Water-soluble triply-responsive homopolymers of N,N -dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with a terminal azobenzene moiety

Xinde Tang
Abstract Novel water-soluble triply-responsive homopolymers of N,N -dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) containing an azobenzene moiety as the terminal group were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique. The ATRP process of DMAEMA was initiated by an azobenzene derivative substituted with a 2-bromoisobutyryl group (Azo-Br) in the presence of CuCl/Me6TREN in 1,4-dioxane as a catalyst system. The molecular weights and their polydispersities of the resulting homopolymers (Azo-PDMAEMA) were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The homopolymers are soluble in aqueous solution and exhibit a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) that alternated reversibly in response to Ph and photoisomerization of the terminal azobenzene moiety. It was found that the LCST increased as pH decreased in the range of testing. Under UV light irradiation, the trans -to- cis photoisomerization of the azobenzene moiety resulted in a higher LCST, whereas it recovered under visible light irradiation. This kind of polymers should be particularly interesting for a variety of potential applications in some promising areas, such as drug controlled-releasing carriers and intelligent materials because of the multistimuli responsive property. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 2564,2570, 2010 [source]

Magnetic and seismic investigations of historic features in the Suchon area, Kongju, Korea

Jinyong Oh
Abstract Integrated geophysical surveys including magnetometer, gradiometer and seismic refraction were performed in the Suchon area, Kongju, Korea, which revealed three locations of buried architectural features. The magnetometer survey identified four main anomalies that were further tested using the gradiometer. Application of the second vertical derivative and the high-pass filtering techniques to the magnetometer data isolated the deeper sources and enhanced the near-surface features. Depth was estimated using magnetometer data and seismic refraction analysis. The study identified three promising areas that are strongly recommended for excavation, which can be seen in the northeastern and southwestern parts of the study area. They are strongly linked to shallow historical features, i.e. brick tomb structure, pottery collection and stone-mound tomb, that were dominant during Baekche rule in Suchon area and therefore are believed to be from the Baekche period. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A systematic study of 50S ribosomal subunit purification enabling robust crystallization

Thomas J. McLellan
A systematic analysis was undertaken to seek correlations between the integrity, purity and activity of 50S ribosomal subunit preparations from Deinococcus radiodurans and their ability to crystallize. Conditions of fermentation, purification and crystallization were varied in a search for crystals that could reliably supply an industrial X-ray crystallography program for the structure-based design of ribosomal antibiotics. A robust protocol was obtained to routinely obtain crystals that gave diffraction patterns extending to 2.9, resolution and that were large enough to yield a complete data set from a single crystal. To our knowledge, this is the most systematic study of this challenging area so far undertaken. Ribosome crystallization is a complex multi-factorial problem and although a clear correlation of crystallization with subunit properties was not obtained, the search for key factors that potentiate crystallization has been greatly narrowed and promising areas for further inquiry are suggested. [source]

Covariate Adjustment and Ranking Methods to Identify Regions with High and Low Mortality Rates

BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2010
Huilin Li
Summary Identifying regions with the highest and lowest mortality rates and producing the corresponding color-coded maps help epidemiologists identify promising areas for analytic etiological studies. Based on a two-stage Poisson,Gamma model with covariates, we use information on known risk factors, such as smoking prevalence, to adjust mortality rates and reveal residual variation in relative risks that may reflect previously masked etiological associations. In addition to covariate adjustment, we study rankings based on standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), empirical Bayes (EB) estimates, and a posterior percentile ranking (PPR) method and indicate circumstances that warrant the more complex procedures in order to obtain a high probability of correctly classifying the regions with the upper,100,%,and lower,100,%,of relative risks for,,= 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2. We also give analytic approximations to the probabilities of correctly classifying regions in the upper,100,%,of relative risks for these three ranking methods. Using data on mortality from heart disease, we found that adjustment for smoking prevalence has an important impact on which regions are classified as high and low risk. With such a common disease, all three ranking methods performed comparably. However, for diseases with smaller event counts, such as cancers, and wide variation in event counts among regions, EB and PPR methods outperform ranking based on SMRs. [source]