Prominent Position (prominent + position)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The impact of the 1999 CAP reforms on the efficiency of the COP sector in Spain

Fatima Lambarraa
Agenda 2000; Distance function; Efficiency; Spanish COP sector Abstract The cereal, oilseeds, and protein crop sector (COP) occupies a prominent position within the European Union's agricultural sector. Within Spain, the COP sector accounts for almost a third of total Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund expenses, and half of the utilized agricultural area (UAA). The COP sector is not only relevant because of its physical and economic magnitude, but also because of the political attention it receives. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms that occurred during the 1990s paid special attention to this sector. This article aims to determine the impacts of Agenda 2000 on a sample of Spanish COP farmers' production decisions by using an output-oriented stochastic distance function. The distance function allows for an assessment of the reform-motivated changes on total output, input used, input composition, and crop mix. It also permits an assessment of the impacts of the reform on farms' technical efficiency. Results show that the reform has shifted the production frontier inward and changed output composition in favor of voluntary set-aside land. With respect to input composition, Agenda 2000 induced a decrease in land, fertilizers, pesticides, and other inputs in favor of labor. In addition, Agenda 2000 has had a negative impact on technical efficiency. [source]

Methodological strategies for the identification and synthesis of ,evidence' to support decision-making in relation to complex healthcare systems and practices

Angus Forbes
Methodological strategies for the identification and synthesis of ,evidence' to support decision-making in relation to complex healthcare systems and practices This paper addresses the limitations of current methods supporting ,evidence-based health-care' in relation to complex aspects of care, including those questions that are best supported by descriptive or non-empirical evidence. The paper identifies some new methods, which may be useful in aiding the synthesis of data in these areas. The methods detailed are broadly divided into those that facilitate the identification of evidence and those that enable the interpretation of the data retrieved. To illustrate some of the issues involved, reference is made to a multimethod review recently completed by the authors, which aimed to identify factors that promote continuity in the transition from child to adult health and social care. It is argued that as healthcare organisations are becoming increasingly preoccupied with the evidence base of practice, such methods may help ensure that aspects of care and approaches that are outside the dominant pharmaco-medical domain maintain a prominent position on the healthcare agenda while remaining open to external scrutiny. Healthcare professionals who use such approaches need to know their relative utility and benefits to inform clinical decisions, so as to ensure that best practice is observed. [source]

Perspectives on an Early Bronze Age Island Centre: An Analysis of Pottery from Daskaleio-Kavos (Keros) in the Cyclades

Cyprian Broodbank
Island central places occupy a prominent position in archaeological, anthropological and historical debate, but the number of early examples of such centres that have to date been investigated in detail remains small. One such central place in the Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC) Cycladic islands of the Aegean was the site of Daskaleio-Kavos on Keros, although the interpretation of this site's functions is controversial. Fieldwork at the site in 1987 generated a large sample of pottery that allows the site's local and inter-regional connections to be explored in detail for the first time. The results of ceramic analysis indicate that Daskaleio-Kavos operated as the active maritime centre of an intensive network of inter-island exchange. [source]

Was Bewirkt die Volkswirtschaftslehre?

Bruno S. Frey
Due to its formality and highly analytic thinking, economics is often attributed a leading role among the social sciences and a prominent position as contributor to economic or social issues in the real world. Fact is, however, that the empirical proof for such a claim is either missing or anecdotal. This paper aims to outline the ,economics of economics'. It surveys and compares approaches of impact measurement such as a production function of economics or the demand and supply of trained economists. It furthermore discriminates between the impact of economic ideas versus that of economists as scientists or politicians. [source]

Recent advances in rational gene transfer vector design based on poly(ethylene imine) and its derivatives

Michael Neu
Abstract The continually increasing wealth of knowledge about the role of genes involved in acquired or hereditary diseases renders the delivery of regulatory genes or nucleic acids into affected cells a potentially promising strategy. Apart from viral vectors, non-viral gene delivery systems have recently received increasing interest, due to safety concerns associated with insertional mutagenesis of retro-viral vectors. Especially cationic polymers may be particularly attractive for the delivery of nucleic acids, since they allow a vast synthetic modification of their structure enabling the investigation of structure-function relationships. Successful clinical application of synthetic polycations for gene delivery will depend primarily on three factors, namely (1) an enhancement of the transfection efficiency, (2) a reduction in toxicity and (3) an ability of the vectors to overcome numerous biological barriers after systemic or local administration. Among the polycations presently used for gene delivery, poly(ethylene imine), PEI, takes a prominent position, due to its potential for endosomal escape. PEI as well as derivatives of PEI currently under investigation for DNA and RNA delivery will be discussed. This review focuses on structure-function relationships and the physicochemical aspects of polyplexes which influence basic characteristics, such as complex formation, stability or in vitro cytotoxicity, to provide a basis for their application under in vivo conditions. Rational design of optimized polycations is an objective for further research and may provide the basis for a successful cationic polymer-based gene delivery system in the future. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

SEXUAL MEDICINE HISTORY: Satyriasis: The Antiquity Term for Vulvodynia?

Janice McElhiney EdM
ABSTRACT From ancient times, through the Middle Ages, and well into the 19th century, physicians concentrated on catastrophic medical conditions and illnesses rather than on quality of life issues. Wars, plagues, and pestilence left little time, energy, or concern for "discomfort" problems. Therefore, it is not surprising that women's conditions that caused distressing symptoms but fell short of major morbidity and mortality were not given a prominent position in medicine until relatively recently. This is especially the case with vulvodynia, a condition that has been reported to affect approximately 15% (and in some studies up to 27%) of the female population at some point in their lives. Despite its high prevalence, this condition was not discussed or reported in traditional medical textbooks until the end of the 1800s. Now, we propose another viewpoint on when the first description of vulvodynia appeared; that is, that vulvodynia was described as far back as the 1st century CE. From our review of the ancient medical literature, we believe that the condition described by Soranus as "satyriasis in females" was actually vulvodynia. McElhiney J, Kelly S, Rosen R, and Bachmann G. Satyriasis: the antiquity term for vulvodynia? J Sex Med 2006;3:161,163. [source]

Legitimacy for a Supranational European Political Order,Derivative, Regulatory or Deliberative?

RATIO JURIS, Issue 1 2002
Massimo La Torre
This paper discusses some models purported to legitimise a European supranational legal order. In particular, the author focuses on an application of the so-called regulatory model to the complex structure of the European Community and the European Union. First of all, he tackles the very concept of legitimacy, contrasting it with both efficacy and efficiency. Secondly, he summarises the most prominent positions in the long-standing debate on the sources of legitimation for the European Community. Thirdly, in this perspective, he analyses several, sometimes contradictory, notions of the rule of law. His contention is that we can single out five fundamental notions of the rule of law and that some but not all of them are incompatible with or oppose democracy. Finally, the paper addresses the regulatory model as a possible application of the rule of the law to the European supranational order. The conclusion is that the regulatory model should be rejected if it is presented as an alternative to classical democratic thought, though it might be fruitful if reshaped differently and no longer assessed from a functionalist standpoint of deliberation. [source]