Prominent Form (prominent + form)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Pyroglutamate-modified amyloid ,-peptides , A,N3(pE) , strongly affect cultured neuron and astrocyte survival

Claudio Russo
Abstract N-terminally truncated amyloid-, (A,) peptides are present in early and diffuse plaques of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), are overproduced in early onset familial AD and their amount seems to be directly correlated to the severity and the progression of the disease in AD and Down's syndrome (DS). The pyroglutamate-containing isoforms at position 3 [A,N3(pE),40/42] represent the prominent form among the N-truncated species, and may account for more than 50% of A, accumulated in plaques. In this study, we compared the toxic properties, fibrillogenic capabilities, and in vitro degradation profile of A,1,40, A,1,42, A,N3(pE),40 and A,N3(pE),42. Our data show that fibre morphology of A, peptides is greatly influenced by the C-terminus while toxicity, interaction with cell membranes and degradation are influenced by the N-terminus. A,N3(pE),40 induced significantly more cell loss than the other species both in neuronal and glial cell cultures. Aggregated A,N3(pE) peptides were heavily distributed on plasma membrane and within the cytoplasm of treated cells. A,N3(pE),40/42 peptides showed a significant resistance to degradation by cultured astrocytes, while full-length peptides resulted partially degraded. These findings suggest that formation of N-terminally modified peptides may enhance ,-amyloid aggregation and toxicity, likely worsening the onset and progression of the disease. [source]


Eva Niesten
ABSTRACT,:,The European liberalising electricity industries are still heavily regulated. A prominent form of regulation is directed at the energy companies' forms of governance. European and national regulations prohibit the vertically integrated structures that characterised these companies for almost a century. Detailed rules on unbundling, independence of the transmission and distribution system operators, and network access influence to a large extent the type of new governance structures that are adopted. This paper takes the institutional organisation of regulation into account to explain the regulatory influence on governance changes at the level of the firm. Examples of the Dutch and French electricity industries illustrate that the new forms of governance are heavily influenced by the institutional organisation of regulation. [source]

Functional biotic homogenization of bird communities in disturbed landscapes

GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
Vincent Devictor
ABSTRACT Aim, Worldwide, functional homogenization is now considered to be one of the most prominent forms of biotic impoverishment induced by current global changes. Yet this process has hardly been quantified on a large scale through simple indices, and the connection between landscape disturbance and functional homogenization has hardly been established. Here we test whether changes in land use and landscape fragmentation are associated with functional homogenization of bird communities at a national scale. Location, France. Methods, We estimated functional homogenization of a community as the average specialization of the species present in that community. We studied the spatial variation of this community specialization index (CSI) using 1028 replicates from the French Breeding Bird Survey along spatial gradients of landscape fragmentation and recent landscape disturbance, measured independently, and accounting for spatial autocorrelation. Results, The CSI was very sensitive to both measures of environmental degradation: on average, 23% of the difference in the CSI values between two sample sites was attributed to the difference in fragmentation and the disturbance between sites. This negative correlation between CSI and sources of landscape degradation was consistent over various habitats and biogeographical zones. Main conclusions, We demonstrate that the functional homogenization of bird communities is strongly positively correlated to landscape disturbance and fragmentation. We suggest that the CSI is particularly effective for measuring functional homogenization on both local and global scales for any sort of organism and with abundance or presence,absence data. [source]

Distinctive Features of Short-Term Psychodynamic-Interpersonal Psychotherapy: A Review of the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Literature

Matthew D. Blagys
The present article is a review of the comparative psychotherapy process literature. It is an effort to delineate techniques and processes that distinguish two prominent forms of treatment. Seven interventions stood out as distinguishing psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy from cognitive-behavioral treatment: (1) a focus on affect and the expression of patients' emotions; (2) an exploration of patients' attempts to avoid topics or engage in activities that hinder the progress of therapy; (3) the identification of patterns in patients' actions, thoughts, feelings, experiences, and relationships; (4) an emphasis on past experiences; (5) a focus on a patients' interpersonal experiences; (6) an emphasis on the therapeutic relationship; and (7) an exploration of patients' wishes, dreams, or fantasies. A better understanding of the specific techniques and processes that distinguish psychodynamic-interpersonal from cognitive-behavioral therapy can facilitate process-outcome research, aid in the training and teaching of psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy, and provide psychodynamic-interpersonal therapists with a guide for session activity. [source]