Prominence

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Prominence

  • facial prominence


  • Selected Abstracts


    Lexical studies of Filipino person descriptors: adding personality-relevant social and physical attributes

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 4 2008
    Shellah Myra Imperio
    Abstract Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N,=,496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes,Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice versa. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The Financial Performance of Large U.S. Firms and Those with Global Prominence: How Do the Best Corporate Citizens Rate?

    BUSINESS AND SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 3 2002
    Curtis C. Verschoor
    First page of article [source]


    Comparison of antibodies to HBME-1 and calretinin for the detection of mesothelial cells in effusion cytology ,

    DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Patricia A. Fetsch M.T. (A.S.C.P.)
    Abstract The distinction of mesothelial cells in cytologic samples is often a diagnostic challenge. This is particularly true in potentially malignant effusions in which reactive mesothelial cells may simulate adenocarcinoma (ACA) cells, and in the differentiation of ACA vs. mesothelioma. We sought to determine the superior antibody for the positive identification of mesothelial cells in these circumstances. Cell block sections of 25 reactive and 8 malignant mesothelioma effusions were immunostained with an avidin-biotin procedure, using antibodies to HBME-1 and calretinin. No pretreatment of samples was necessary for the HBME-1-stained slides; microwave antigen retrieval was performed on all slides stained for calretinin. A negative control was performed on each sample. The staining intensity of tumor cells was scored on a scale of 0,3+, with the proportion of immunoreactive cells categorized as <25%, 25,50%, 50,75%, and >75%. The predominant staining pattern for HBME-1 was surface, with rare samples also exhibiting cytoplasmic staining as well. The calretinin-staining pattern was cytoplasmic, with peripheral condensation/prominence and accompanying nuclear staining. All samples were immunoreactive with both antibodies. Fifty-five percent (18/33) of samples showed significantly stronger immunoreactivity with calretinin than with HBME-1; 45% (15/33) of samples showed equivalent staining with the two markers. None of the samples in this study showed stronger immunoreactivity with HBME-1 than with calretinin. Sixty-one percent (20/33) of samples stained with HBME-1 at a moderate (2+) intensity. Fifty-five percent (18/33) of samples stained with calretinin at a strong (3+) intensity. While only 12% of samples showed >75% immunoreactivity for HBME-1, 58% of samples showed >75% of cells immunoreactive for calretinin. Calretinin is the preferred marker in identifying mesothelial cells in cytologic samples, showing the highest sensitivity for mesothelial cells, as evidenced by a more intense staining reaction in a higher percentage of cells than with HBME-1. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2001;25:158,161. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The use of economic, social and environmental indicators as a measure of sustainable development in Spain

    CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2006
    Isabel Gallego
    Abstract In recent years the concept of corporate social responsibility has gained prominence among academics from a wide range of disciplines. According to the Green Paper issued by the Commission of the European Communities in July 2001, corporate social responsibility is defined as a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. The problem is how firms have made known the information on corporate social responsibility. With this in mind, we undertook the present work in an attempt to verify empirically how certain Spanish firms present their economic, social and environmental information, how they use the indicators proposed by the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) that are accepted in all countries and how this information can affect sustainable development. To perform this study we examined some Spanish firms that present economic, social and environmental information according to the GRI framework. Certain relevant conclusions indicate that in Spain in the last few years there has been an increase and an improvement in the information given by firms on economic, social and environmental concerns and that the information most presented by firms has to do with the social indicators related to labour, practices and decent work, strategy and management, non-discrimination, freedom of association, child labour and forced and compulsory labour as well as the environmental indicators related to energy, water, biodiversity and emissions, effluents and waste. This information reveals the great importance afforded in Spain to social and environmental information for sustainable development. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    Full Scope of Effect of Facial Lipoatrophy: A Framework of Disease Understanding

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 8 2006
    BENJAMIN ASCHER MD
    BACKGROUND Facial lipoatrophy has been observed to occur in a variety of patient populations, with inherited or acquired disease, or even in aging patients as a natural progression of tissue change over time. There is currently no framework from which physicians of all medical specialties can communally discuss the manifestations, diagnoses, and management of facial lipoatrophy. OBJECTIVE The aim of this assembly was to derive a definition of facial lipoatrophy capable of being applied to all patient populations and develop an accompanying grading system. RESULTS The final consensus of the Facial Lipoatrophy Panel encompasses both aging and disease states: "Loss of facial fat due to aging, trauma or disease, manifested by flattening or indentation of normally convex contours." The proposed grading scale includes five gradations (Grades 1,5; 5 being the most severe), and the face is assessed according to three criteria: contour, bony prominence, and visibility of musculature. CONCLUSION Categorizing the presentation of facial lipoatrophy is subjective and qualitative, and will need to be validated with objective measures. Furthermore, during the assembly, several topics were exposed that warrant further research, including the physiology of volume loss, age and lipoatrophy, and human immunodeficiency virus and lipoatrophy. [source]


    Prosodic structure and syntactic acquisition: the case of the head-direction parameter

    DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2003
    Anne Christophe
    We propose that infants may learn about the relative order of heads and complements in their language before they know many words, on the basis of prosodic information (relative prominence within phonological phrases). We present experimental evidence that 6,12-week-old infants can discriminate two languages that differ in their head direction and its prosodic correlate, but have otherwise similar phonological properties (i.e. French and Turkish). This result supports the hypothesis that infants may use this kind of prosodic information to bootstrap their acquisition of word order. [source]


    St Columba and the convention at Druimm Cete: peace and politics at seventh-century Iona

    EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE, Issue 3 2007
    James E. Fraser
    Attendance at the ,convention of kings' at Druimm Cete in north-east Ireland is one of the most famous episodes in the career of St Columba or Colum Cille, who died in 597. Discussion of the significance of this shadowy summit, largely informed by unreliable late evidence, has hitherto focused upon what (may have) transpired there between kings based in Ireland and Scotland. The result has been the neglect of the hagiographical dimension of the presentation of Druimm Cete in our principal source, Adomnán's Vita Sancti Columbae, composed c.700. Analysis of this material shows that Adomnán's information about the convention came from his principal source, composed some sixty years earlier. It reveals moreover that Druimm Cete assumed prominence within the Columban dossier in the 640s for what it represented, rather than because of what actually happened there. Once the hagiographical agenda of Vita Sancti Columbae and its principal source is restored to its rightful place in evaluating the text, it emerges that several of its best-known stories , including the story of Columba's ordination of a Scottish king , are much more problematic as witnesses to sixth-century history than is conventionally supposed. As scholars begin to lose their grip upon the historical Columba, however, they grow better able to grasp seventh-century political history in north-east Ireland and Gaelic Scotland. [source]


    Diet dynamics of the juvenile piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA, 1997,1998

    ECOLOGY OF FRESHWATER FISH, Issue 4 2001
    M. E. Pelham
    Abstract , We assessed temporal dynamics and variation among species and age-classes in the diets of age 0 and age 1 piscivorous fish species in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA during 1997 and 1998. Species included walleye Stizostedion vitreum, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white bass Morone chrysops. Thirty taxa were identified in diets, including 12 species of fish. We found dramatic differences in diets among species, among age-classes within species and over time. Walleye, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass and white bass were piscivorous at age 0. Black crappie began piscivory at age 1. Yellow perch also began piscivory at age 1, but fish were a very small fraction of age-1 diets. The primary temporal pattern, seen in several species and age-classes, was an increase in piscivory from spring to fall. This pattern was due to the lack of small, age-0 prey fish in spring. Although some patterns were evident, the taxonomic composition of the diets of all species was highly variable over time, making generalizations difficult. A surprising result was the absence of yellow perch in the diet of age-0 walleye, despite their abundance in Spirit Lake and prominence in diets of age-1 walleye and other age 1-piscivores. Age-0 yellow perch were consistently too large to be eaten by age-0 piscivores, which preyed primarily on invertebrates and smaller fish such as johnny darters Etheostoma nigrum and age 0 bluegill Lepomis macrochirus. This finding suggests that predator-prey interactions and resulting population dynamics may be quite different in Spirit Lake than in other systems dominated by walleye and yellow perch., [source]


    Is the crisis problem growing more severe?

    ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 32 2001
    Michael Bordo
    The crisis problem is one of the dominant macroeconomic features of our age. Its prominence suggests questions like the following: Are crises growing more frequent? Are they becoming more disruptive? Are economies taking longer to recover? These are fundamentally historical questions, which can be answered only by comparing the present with the past. To this end, this paper develops and analyses a data base spanning 120 years of financial history. We find that crisis frequency since 1973 has been double that of the Bretton Woods and classical gold standard periods and is rivalled only by the crisis-ridden 1920s and 1930s. History thus confirms that there is something different and disturbing about our age. However, there is little evidence that crises have grown longer or output losses have become larger. Crises may have grown more frequent, in other words, but they have not obviously grown more severe. Our explanation for the growing frequency and chronic costs of crises focuses on the combination of capital mobility and the financial safety net, including the implicit insurance against exchange risk provided by an ex ante credible policy of pegging the exchange rate, which encourages banks and corporations to accumulate excessive foreign currency exposures. We also provide policy recommendations for restoring stability and growth. , Michael Bordo, Barry Eichengreen, Daniela Klingebiel and Maria Soledad Martinez-Peria [source]


    Eating disorders in Italy: a historical review

    EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 5 2001
    Giovanni Maria Ruggiero
    This paper reviews the history of medical knowledge of eating disorders in Italy. It starts with the first examples of the medical interpretation of starvation during the Middle and Renaissance Ages, continues with the seminal figure of Brugnoli in the late XIX century, describes the neurological interpretations of the 1930s, the return to psychiatry in the 1940s and 1950s, the rise to international prominence of Mara Selvini Palazzoli in the 1960s and 1970s and ends with a description of the present state of the art. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


    Changes in alternative brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcript expression in the developing human prefrontal cortex

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 7 2009
    Jenny Wong
    Abstract In this study, we determined when and through which promoter brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcription is regulated during the protracted period of human frontal cortex development. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we examined the expression of the four most abundant alternative 5, exons of the BDNF gene (exons I, II, IV, and VI) in RNA extracted from the prefrontal cortex. We found that expression of transcripts I,IX and VI,IX was highest during infancy, whereas that of transcript II,IX was lowest just after birth, slowly increasing to reach a peak in toddlers. Transcript IV,IX was significantly upregulated within the first year of life, and was maintained at this level until school age. Quantification of BDNF protein revealed that levels followed a similar developmental pattern as transcript IV,IX. In situ hybridization of mRNA in cortical sections showed the highest expression in layers V and VI for all four BDNF transcripts, whereas moderate expression was observed in layers II and III. Interestingly, although low expression of BDNF was observed in cortical layer IV, this BDNF mRNA low-zone decreased in prominence with age and showed an increase in neuronal mRNA localization. In summary, our findings show that dynamic regulation of BDNF expression occurs through differential use of alternative promoters during the development of the human prefrontal cortex, particularly in the younger age groups, when the prefrontal cortex is more plastic. [source]


    Glycine cleavage system in neurogenic regions

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 9 2004
    Akiko Ichinohe
    Abstract The glycine cleavage system (GCS) is the essential enzyme complex for degrading glycine and supplying 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate for DNA synthesis. Inherited deficiency of this system causes nonketotic hyperglycinemia, characterized by severe neurological symptoms and frequent association of brain malformations. Although high levels of glycine have been considered to cause the above-mentioned problems, the detailed pathogenesis of this disease is still unknown. Here we show that GCS is abundantly expressed in rat embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells in the neuroepithelium, and this expression is transmitted to the radial glia,astrocyte lineage, with prominence in postnatal neurogenic regions. These data indicate that GCS plays important roles in neurogenesis, and suggest that disturbance of neurogenesis induced by deficiency of GCS may be the main pathogenesis of nonketotic hyperglycinemia. [source]


    Sociopolitical Activist or Conversational Partner?

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 1 2003
    Collaborative Therapies, Distinguishing the Position of the Therapist in Narrative
    In this article, we explore the similarities and differences of two contemporary family therapy approaches: narrative and collaborative therapies. These therapies are contrasted by describing positioning of the narrative practitioner as sociopolitical activist and the collaborative practitioner as conversational partner. The article begins with a brief overview of the two therapies. Subsequently, we outline their epistemological genealogies and the practice similarities that arise from the theoretical assumptions underpinning these therapies. The remainder of the article addresses the theoretical and therapeutic differences in narrative and collaborative approaches reflected in the positioning of therapist as either sociopolitical activist or conversational partner. While narrative and collaborative approaches share more similarities than differences in relation to their emphasis on the constitutive characteristics of language, focus on socio,elational contexts, and critique of singular objective truths, prominence is given to the starker contrasts in narrative and collaborative understandings of politics, power, dialogue, and discourse. It is proposed that by outlining some provocative contrasts between narrative and collaborative approaches, new conversations and generative practices will emerge in the therapy room. [source]


    Fiscal Forecasting: Lessons from the Literature and Challenges,

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 3 2008
    Teresa Leal
    H6; E62; C53 Abstract. While fiscal forecasting and monitoring has its roots in the accountability of governments for the use of public funds in democracies, the Stability and Growth Pact has significantly increased interest in budgetary forecasts in Europe, where they play a key role in EU multilateral budgetary surveillance. In view of the increased prominence and sensitivity of budgetary forecasts, which may lead to them being influenced by strategic and political factors, this paper discusses the main issues and challenges in the field of fiscal forecasting from a practitioner's perspective and places them in the context of the related literature. [source]


    Urban Ethnography of the 1920s Working Girl

    GENDER, WORK & ORGANISATION, Issue 3 2007
    Jaber F. Gubrium
    The 1920s was the era of the city. The urban population of the USA for the first time exceeded the population of rural areas and the nascent institutions of city life were flourishing. This article discusses the urban ethnography of the era with a focus on the way women and work was conceptualized, especially how ,the city' figured in explanation. Three ethnographies are examined ,Frances Donovan'sThe Woman Who Waits (1920) and The Saleslady (1929) and Paul Cressey'sThe Taxi-Dance Hall (1932). Donovan and Cressey presented their empirical material to show that the so-called working girl faced a multifaceted world of opportunity in employment, not of disadvantage, as commonly emphasized in today's ethnographic studies of women and work. The conclusion reflects on the past, present and future in terms of the city's explanatory prominence in various eras. [source]


    Cell dissociation experiments reveal that positional information operates in the chicken frontonasal mass

    GENESIS: THE JOURNAL OF GENETICS AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2006
    Masayoshi Kawakami
    Abstract In this study we examined the role of cell,cell affinity in patterning the avian frontonasal mass,the facial prominence that forms the prenasal cartilage and premaxillary bone. Reconstituted cell pellets derived from undifferentiated, frontonasal mass mesenchyme were recombined with facial epithelium and grafted to host embryos to continue development. We determined that the cells reestablished a recognizable frontonasal mass pattern and were able to induce egg teeth in overlying ectoderm. Further analysis revealed there were region-specific differences in the cartilage patterns such that central recombinations were more likely to form a straight cartilage rod, whereas lateral mesenchyme pellets were more likely to form complex, branched cartilage patterns. The basis for the pattern differences was that central mesenchyme cells showed preferential clustering in the cartilage condensations in the center of the graft, whereas lateral cells were spread throughout as determined by dye labeling and quail chicken chimeras. The disruption of cell contacts temporarily delayed onset of gene expression but by 48 h both Msx2 and Dlx5 were expressed. Msx2, in particular, had very clear edges to the expression domains and often the pattern of expression correlated with type of cartilage morphology. Together, these data suggest that an important patterning mechanism in the face is the ability of mesenchymal cells to sort out according to position and that Msx2 may help repress chondrogenic potential in the lateral frontonasal mass. genesis 44:105,114, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    CLASSIFYING PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES: THE CASE OF MANINKA FARMERS IN SOUTHWESTERN MALI

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2008
    Chris S. Duvall
    ABSTRACT. This article argues that understanding how people classify physical geographic features is necessary for identifying fundamental, cross-cultural geographic concepts that are required for successful communication of geographic knowledge. Academic geographers have not given sufficient attention to systems of local geographic knowledge, even though promising theoretical frameworks exist, particularly in the field of ethnoecology. However, the research approach that has characterized ethnoecology is insufficient to develop ethnogeography as a field of inquiry, because ethnoecologists have overemphasized limited aspects of local knowledge systems, such as soils, which has often led researchers to incompletely sample local knowledge systems. Using ethnographic methods, this article analyses the content and structure of physical geographic knowledge in the Maninka language as spoken in southwestern Mali, and compares Maninka knowledge to that of other cultural groups. The results suggest that broad physical geographic concepts may be shared pan-environmentally, but that most physical geographic knowledge is contained in culturally specific classifications embedded within a broad cross-cultural framework. Academic geographers should expect only broad correspondence between their categories of physical geographic variation and those of people who classify biophysical features according to local knowledge systems. Finally, this article also shows that ethnoecological research will be advanced if geographic theories of place are given more prominence in ethnoecological studies. [source]


    Endemic species and ecosystem sensitivity to climate change in Namibia

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    WILFRIED THUILLER
    Abstract We present a first assessment of the potential impacts of anthropogenic climate change on the endemic flora of Namibia, and on its vegetation structure and function, for a projected climate in ,2050 and ,2080. We used both niche-based models (NBM) to evaluate the sensitivity of 159 endemic species to climate change (of an original 1020 plant species modeled) and a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) to assess the impacts of climate change on vegetation structure and ecosystem functioning. Endemic species modeled by NBM are moderately sensitive to projected climate change. Fewer than 5% are predicted to experience complete range loss by 2080, although more than 47% of the species are expected to be vulnerable (range reduction >30%) by 2080 if they are assumed unable to migrate. Disaggregation of results by life-form showed distinct patterns. Endemic species of perennial herb, geophyte and tree life-formsare predicted to be negatively impacted in Namibia, whereas annual herb and succulent endemic species remain relatively stable by 2050 and 2080. Endemic annual herb species are even predicted to extend their range north-eastward into the tree and shrub savanna with migration, and tolerance of novel substrates. The current protected area network is predicted to meet its mandate by protecting most of the current endemicity in Namibia into the future. Vegetation simulated by DGVM is projected to experience a reduction in cover, net primary productivity and leaf area index throughout much of the country by 2050, with important implications for the faunal component of Namibia's ecosystems, and the agricultural sector. The plant functional type (PFT) composition of the major biomes may be substantially affected by climate change and rising atmospheric CO2, currently widespread deciduous broad leaved trees and C4 PFTs decline, with the C4 PFT particularly negatively affected by rising atmospheric CO2 impacts by ,2080 and deciduous broad leaved trees more likely directly impacted by drying and warming. The C3 PFT may increase in prominence in the northwestern quadrant of the country by ,2080 as CO2 concentrations increase. These results suggest that substantial changes in species diversity, vegetation structure and ecosystem functioning can be expected in Namibia with anticipated climate change, although endemic plant richness may persist in the topographically diverse central escarpment region. [source]


    Post-maritime transnationalization: Malay seafarers in Liverpool

    GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 4 2007
    TIM BUNNELL
    Abstract The lives of seafarers may provide examples of transnational connections prior to the globally interconnected era in which ,transnationalism' has risen to prominence. In this article, I examine the long-distance connections of seafarers from Southeast Asia who settled in Liverpool, UK. Drawing on oral history/life story interviews with Malay pakcik-pakcik (elders) in Liverpool, I examine the ways in which connections with Southeast Asia have changed over the course of their lives. Much of this concerns political geography, which is often overlooked in the literature on transnationalism. During the period of Liverpool's pre-eminence as a seaport, irrespective of the depth or intensity of maritime linkages with Southeast Asia, connections did not involve the crossing of ,national' borders. Ironically, transnational connections are being forged in the post-maritime stages of the lives of pakcik-pakcik in Liverpool. I also show how Malay ,transnationalization' has resulted from expanded technological possibilities for long-distance travel and communications. Post-maritime transnationalization takes place in a ,community' clubhouse in Toxteth where the lives, emotional attachments and memories of pakcik-pakcik are intertwined with those of people with diverse connections to contemporary Malaysia and Singapore. [source]


    Impact of aboriginal ethnicity on HCV core-induced IL-10 synthesis: Interaction with IL-10 gene polymorphisms

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Koko Bate Aborsangaya
    The host immune response is a critical determinant in viral infection outcome. Epidemiological studies indicate that North American indigenous peoples are more resistant to chronic HCV infection than other populations. Due to the prominence of IL-10 in chronic HCV infection, we investigated the genetic tendency to produce IL-10 in Caucasian (CA) and First Nation (FN) populations. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CA subjects had a greater tendency to produce IL-10 defined by allelic polymorphisms, as well as genotypes and haplotypes, at the -1082, -819, and -592 positions of the IL-10 promoter. More importantly, we directly evaluated the influence of ethnicity on the ability of HCV core protein to induce IL-10 synthesis and found significantly higher IL-10 production by PBMCs isolated from healthy CA subjects compared with FN subjects. Further examination of the underlying relationship between core-induced IL-10 with the high, intermediate, and low phenotypes at the -1082, -819, and -592 position revealed that spontaneous and core-induced IL-10 synthesis tended to interact negatively with defined polymorphisms. This was particularly evident for the FN cohort, in which the relationship was strengthened by a stronger interaction of core with the low,IL-10,producing phenotypes. As with previous studies, concanavalin A induced IL-10 synthesis from the CA cohort positively associated with defined genetic phenotypes. Conclusion: Cells from FN subjects had a reduced capacity to produce IL-10 in response to HCV core protein, suggesting that reduced susceptibility of FN immunity to virally induced IL-10 synthesis might contribute to epidemiological observations of enhanced HCV clearance. (HEPATOLOGY 2007;45:623,630.) [source]


    Late postnatal maturation of excitatory synaptic transmission permits adult-like expression of hippocampal-dependent behaviors

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 5 2005
    Theodore C. Dumas
    Abstract Sensorimotor systems in altricial animals mature incrementally during early postnatal development, with complex cognitive abilities developing late. Of prominence are cognitive processes that depend on an intact hippocampus, such as contextual,configural learning, allocentric and idiocentric navigation, and certain forms of trace conditioning. The mechanisms that regulate the delayed maturation of the hippocampus are not well understood. However, there is support for the idea that these behaviors come "on line" with the final maturation of excitatory synaptic transmission. First, by providing a timeline for the first behavioral expression of various forms of learning and memory, this study illustrates the late maturation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive abilities. Then, functional development of the hippocampus is reviewed to establish the temporal relationship between maturation of excitatory synaptic transmission and the behavioral evidence of adult-like hippocampal processing. These data suggest that, in rats, mechanisms necessary for the expression of adult-like synaptic plasticity become available at around 2 postnatal weeks of age. However, presynaptic plasticity mechanisms, likely necessary for refinement of the hippocampal network, predominate and impede information processing until the third postnatal week. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Henry VII in Context: Problems and Possibilities

    HISTORY, Issue 307 2007
    STEVEN GUNN
    Clearer understanding of Henry VII's reign is hindered not only by practical problems, such as deficiencies in source material, but also by its liminal position in historical study, at the end of the period conventionally studied by later medievalists and the beginning of that studied by early modernists. This makes it harder to evaluate changes in the judicial system, in local power structures, in England's position in European politics, in the rise of new social groups to political prominence and in the ideas behind royal policy. However, thoughtful combination of the approaches taken by different historical schools and reflection on wider processes of change at work in Henry's reign, such as in England's cultural and economic life, can make a virtue out of Henry's liminality. Together with the use of more unusual sources, such an approach enables investigation for Henry's reign of many themes of current interest to historians of the later Tudor period. These include courtly, parliamentary and popular politics, political culture, state formation and the interrelationships of different parts of the British Isles and Ireland. [source]


    Ageism, early exit, and British trade unions

    INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2000
    Colin Duncan
    Union responses to ageism and the early exit phenomenon are here examined, based on documentation received from some 40 British unions. Our results show that though age discrimination is now accorded some prominence in union agendas, policies towards exit are only partially informed by current conceptions of ageism. [source]


    Financial Times Business School Rankings: A Nontraditional Assurance Case in Three Parts,

    ACCOUNTING PERSPECTIVES, Issue 1 2007
    Andrea B. Davies
    ABSTRACT The Financial Times of London (FT) is a business newspaper, with daily editions published in the United Kingdom, continental Europe, the United States, and Asia, and an estimated daily readership of 10 million people. In 1999 the FT began to publish a ranking of what it considered to be the top business schools in the world. Since their inception, these rankings have become increasingly relied upon by potential students and business school administrators worldwide. The FT's ranking is unique compared with other rankings because of its special international focus. Given the prominence of these rankings and the FT's position as a well-respected business newspaper, the question of providing assurance over the business school rankings that the FT provides is particularly challenging. [source]


    A posteriori error approximation in EFG method

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 15 2003
    L. Gavete
    Abstract Recently, considerable effort has been devoted to the development of the so-called meshless methods. Meshless methods still require considerable improvement before they equal the prominence of finite elements in computer science and engineering. One of the paths in the evolution of meshless methods has been the development of the element free Galerkin (EFG) method. In the EFG method, it is obviously important that the ,a posteriori error' should be approximated. An ,a posteriori error' approximation based on the moving least-squares method is proposed, using the solution, computed from the EFG method. The error approximation procedure proposed in this paper is simple to construct and requires, at most, nearest neighbour information from the EFG solution. The formulation is based on employing different moving least-squares approximations. Different selection strategies of the moving least-squares approximations have been used and compared, to obtain optimum values of the parameters involved in the approximation of the error. The performance of the developed approximation of the error is illustrated by analysing different examples for two-dimensional (2D) potential and elasticity problems, using regular and irregular clouds of points. The implemented procedure of error approximation allows the global energy norm error to be estimated and also provides a good evaluation of local errors. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Information and Communications Technology and Auditing: Current Implications and Future Directions

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AUDITING, Issue 2 2010
    Kamil Omoteso
    This exploratory study assesses, from a structuration theory perspective, the impact information and communications technology (ICT) tools and techniques are currently having on audit tasks, auditors (internal and external) and the organisations they work for from the point of view of coordination, control, authority and structure. Based on a triangulation of interview and questionnaire techniques, the findings indicate that ICT is re-shaping auditors' roles and outputs as well as audit organisations' structures. The findings also project the view that continuous auditing, artificial intelligence and CobiT are expected to gain more prominence while a need was also seen for new software development to help auditors match the complexity of their clients' information systems. The study's results reveal the current state of affairs of the relationship between ICT and auditing against the backdrop of continuous global ICT sophistication thereby updating ICT audit literature and the likely future direction of this relationship. [source]


    Consumer empowerment: global context, UK strategies and vulnerable consumers

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSUMER STUDIES, Issue 4 2008
    Carol Brennan
    Abstract Globalization has created new consumer needs and wants, and resulted in consumer confusion regarding the increasing complexity of products and services. This has stimulated global interest in educating and empowering consumers. The UK government has made a very ambitious commitment to ensure that the framework for consumer empowerment and support is at the level of the best in the world by 2008. The government, many consumer organizations and regulators believe that empowered consumers are key to the success of competitive markets. Two national strategies to co-ordinate activities in the UK have been developed by the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) and the Financial Services Authority (FSA). The OFT consumer education strategy aims to deliver targeted, effective consumer education by increasing co-ordination and making the best use of available resources. The FSA is leading a financial capability strategy designed to deliver change to improve the UK's financial capability. Both strategies share a vision of educated and confident consumers making informed choices about the products and services they buy, and both aim to empower vulnerable consumers. Given the global interest and the development of national strategies, it is useful to consider what is meant by the term consumer empowerment. Is there a shared view of consumer empowerment internationally? Does the education of consumers result in empowered consumers? To what extent do the national strategies address the empowerment of vulnerable, disadvantaged, excluded or susceptible consumers? These questions will be addressed in this article which reviews the global context for the consumer education and empowerment agenda and considers key UK developments, with particular reference to the needs of vulnerable consumers. The study found that the language of consumer empowerment is gaining prominence in policy and strategy documents at the highest levels internationally in the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development and the European Community, and nationally in the UK. [source]


    Mouse models in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis research

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Quentin M. Anstee
    Summary Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a histological spectrum of liver disease associated with obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance that extends from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. As well as being a potential cause of progressive liver disease in its own right, steatosis has been shown to be an important cofactor in the pathogenesis of many other liver diseases. Animal models of NAFLD may be divided into two broad categories: those caused by genetic mutation and those with an acquired phenotype produced by dietary or pharmacological manipulation. The literature contains numerous different mouse models that exhibit histological evidence of hepatic steatosis or, more variably, steatohepatitis; however, few replicate the entire human phenotype. The genetic leptin-deficient (ob/ob) or leptin-resistant (db/db) mouse and the dietary methionine/choline-deficient model are used in the majority of published research. More recently, targeted gene disruption and the use of supra-nutritional diets to induce NAFLD have gained greater prominence as researchers have attempted to bridge the phenotype gap between the available models and the human disease. Using the physiological processes that underlie the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD as a framework, we review the literature describing currently available mouse models of NAFLD, highlight the strengths and weaknesses of established models and describe the key findings that have furthered the understanding of disease pathogenesis. [source]


    Feminism, legal reform and women's empowerment in the Middle East and North Africa

    INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 191 2008
    Valentine M. Moghadam
    The issue of women's rights in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has gained prominence in research studies, policy debates and feminist activism. Area experts contend that for women to play a larger role in the economy and society is vital to the region's progress. But women in MENA still face gender discrimination that prevents them from reaching their potential, despite impressive gains in education and health. To varying degrees across MENA countries, discrimination against women is built into cultural attitudes, government policies and legal frameworks. The region's family laws codify discrimination against women and girls, placing them in a position subordinate to men in the family , a position that is then replicated in the economy and society. I briefly discuss recent trends in women's activism and family law reform in the MENA region, with a spotlight on Morocco, which adopted an entirely new family law in early 2004. The new Moroccan law drew on international standards and norms on women's and children's rights, the imperatives of national development and Islam's spirit of justice and equality. That a feminist campaign succeeded in altering family law in a MENA country, where laws are based on Sharia, or Islamic law, shows that effective coalitions can be built in MENA countries by linking social and economic development to women's rights. The Moroccan case demonstrates the links among research, activism and policy. [source]


    Westphalian Eurocentrism in International Relations Theory

    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES REVIEW, Issue 2 2010
    Turan Kayaoglu
    In the past 10,15 years, an increasing number of revisionist scholars have rejected the most significant elements of the argument about the centrality of the Peace of Westphalia (1648) to the evolution and structure of international society. At the same time, the prominence of this argument has grown in the English School and constructivist international relations scholarship. I deconstruct the function of the Westphalian narrative to explain its pervasiveness and persistence. I argue that it was first developed by nineteenth century imperial international jurists and that the Westphalian narrative perpetuates a Eurocentric bias in international relations theory. This bias maintains that Westphalia created an international society, consolidating a normative divergence between European international relations and the rest of the international system. This dualism is predicated on the assumption that with Westphalia European states had solved the anarchy problem either through cultural or contractual evolution. Non-European states, lacking this European culture and social contract, remained in anarchy until the European states allowed them to join the international society,upon their achievement of the "standards of civilization." This Westphalian narrative distorts the emergence of the modern international system and leads to misdiagnoses of major problems of contemporary international relations. Furthermore, their commitment to the Westphalian narrative prevents international relations scholars from adequately theorizing about international interdependencies and accommodating global pluralism. [source]