Professional Bodies (professional + body)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Support for teenage mothers: a qualitative study into the views of women about the support they received as teenage mothers

Ank De Jonge MSc HBOV RM RGNArticle first published online: 7 JUL 200
Support for teenage mothers: a qualitative study into the views of women about the support they received as teenage mothers Aim of the study.,To gain insight into the support teenage mothers received during pregnancy, birth and their child's pre-school years and young women's perceptions of the usefulness of a support group for teenage mothers. Background.,Most qualitative studies have focused on teenage mothers around the time of the birth of their first child. For this study, women were recruited several years after the birth (median 85 years), so that they would have had time to reflect on the support they had received. Design.,The qualitative method of semi-structured interviews was chosen to obtain in-depth information and to allow teenage mothers' own views to be heard. Ten individual interviews and one paired interview were undertaken. Findings.,Recruitment was difficult because taking part in research was not a priority for many of the women. The study confirmed the strong link between deprivation and teenage pregnancy found in other studies, and suggested that mental health problems in teenage mothers may be more difficult to detect. Teenage women need more information on mental health and on services available to them. The fear, expressed by some of the women in this study, of becoming different from other women in their social network should be considered by health workers when establishing intervention programmes. Conclusions.,Professional bodies of health workers should lobby government to provide a minimum standard of living and sufficient child-care to combat deprivation. Former teenage mothers should be involved in the recruitment, planning and implementation stages of research and interventions. Health professionals should be aware that mental health problems in teenage mothers may be particularly difficult to detect. Key community health workers or a support group may provide information on services, mental health and education facilities available that would benefit teenage mothers. A support group may also give emotional support. [source]

Competence in the musculoskeletal system: assessing the progression of knowledge through an undergraduate medical course

Subhashis Basu
Background, Professional bodies have expressed concerns that medical students lack appropriate knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine despite its high prevalence of use within the community. Changes in curriculum and teaching strategies may be contributing factors to this. There is little evidence to evaluate the degree to which these concerns are justified. Objectives, To design and evaluate an assessment procedure that tests the progress of medical students in achieving a core level of knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine during the course. Participants and Setting, A stratified sample of 136 volunteer students from all 5 years of the medical course at Sheffield University. Methods, The progress test concept was adapted to provide a cross-sectional view of student knowledge gain during each year of the course. A test was devised which aimed to provide an assessment of competence set at the standard required of the newly qualified doctor in understanding basic and clinical sciences relevant to musculoskeletal medicine. The test was blueprinted against internal and external guidelines. It comprised 40 multiple-choice and extended matching questions administered by computer. Six musculoskeletal practitioners set the standard using a modified Angoff procedure. Results, Test reliability was 0.6 (Cronbach's ,). Mean scores of students increased from 41% in Year 1 to 84% by the final year. Data suggest that, from a baseline score in Year 1, there is a disparate experience of learning in Year 2 that evens out in Year 3, with knowledge progression becoming more consistent thereafter. All final year participants scored above the standard predicted by the Angoff procedure. Conclusions, This short computer-based test was a feasible method of estimating student knowledge acquisition in musculoskeletal medicine across the undergraduate curriculum. Tested students appear to have acquired a satisfactory knowledge base by the end of the course. Knowledge gain seemed relatively independent of specialty-specific clinical training. Proposals from specialty bodies to include long periods of disciplinary teaching may be unnecessary. [source]

Ethical evaluations and behavioural intentions of early career accountants: the impact of mentors, peers and individual attributes

Lisa McManus
I20; M40; M41 Abstract This study examined how mentoring support, peer influence and individual attributes of early career accountants (ECA) influence their ethical evaluations and behavioural intentions. Respondents indicate that their evaluation of the seriousness of the ethical conflict is affected by the perceived standard of ethical conduct of their peers, their personal ethical orientation, the extent of ethics education at university, and gender. ECAs' evaluation of a senior colleague's unethical behaviour is affected by mentoring support and the perceived standard of ethical conduct of peers. In terms of ECAs' willingness to contact accounting professional bodies for ethical advice, the size of the accounting firm and the extent of their ethics education at university are significant factors. Furthermore, the likelihood of respondents choosing a more ethical decision is correlated with his or her individual ethical orientation and the extent of ethics education at university. [source]

Accounting graduates' perceptions of skills emphasis in undergraduate courses: an investigation from two Victorian universities

Paul De Lange
121 Abstract This study investigated the emphasis placed on technical and generic skills developed during undergraduate accounting courses from the graduate perspective. It is motivated by two issues. First, calls by the accounting profession and international education committees regarding the professional adequacy of graduates. Second, the challenge facing educators and professional bodies to design accounting courses that address a diverse range of needs from students, the educational philosophy of the institution, and the changing dynamics of global business. Data obtained from 310 graduates from two Victorian universities provided insights into the types of skills development considered necessary for a successful accounting career. [source]

The Impact of Research and Teaching Quality Inputs on the Employment Outcomes of Postgraduates

Peter Urwin
In this paper we analyse the extent to which the quality of teaching and research inputs, as measured by Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) and Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) scores, can account for variations in the employability of taught postgraduates. Pooling data from the 1997, 1998 and 1999 First Destinations Surveys we estimate regression equations for male and female UK postgraduates. Our results suggest that the lack of direct financial rewards associated with a higher QAA score may have persuaded many institutions to adopt a ,threshold' approach to Subject Review. However, the impact of RAE score suggests that students in institutions with a stronger research culture do have enhanced levels of employability. This is in line with the strong emphasis on active research input mandated by many professional bodies at the postgraduate level. When considered alongside recent policy pronouncements, this suggests that many institutions choosing to become teaching-only, may ultimately risk becoming undergraduate-only. [source]

Acute Pain Teams in England: current provision and their role in postoperative pain management

Ann Mcdonnell BSc
Summary ,,This survey describes the current provision of multidisciplinary Acute Pain Teams (APTs) in acute English hospitals performing adult in-patient surgery (excluding maternity). Associations between the presence of an APT and a number of organizational and clinical initiatives for the management of postoperative pain are also explored. ,,Postal questionnaires were sent to the Clinical Director of Anaesthetics or head of the APT at every acute English hospital providing separate anaesthetic services. ,,After written and telephone reminders, the response rate was 86% (n = 226). ,,Eighty-four per cent (n = 190) of respondents had an APT in their hospital. The presence of an APT was associated (P,0.05) with higher estimates of patient controlled analgesia and epidural use, regular in-service training for nurses and junior doctors, written guidelines/protocols for management of postoperative pain, routine use of postoperative pain measurement systems and audit/research in relation to postoperative pain issues. ,,Acute Pain Teams, in which nurses play a major role, have a pivotal influence not only in relation to postoperative analgesia but also in wider service development. Since 1995, the number of hospitals offering in-patient surgery that are covered by an APT has risen. However, despite repeated endorsements from professional bodies, some acute hospitals still have no APT and recent evidence indicates that some APTs face financial problems and provide a ,token' service only. Recent policy recommendations may have little impact on the current situation. [source]

Legislating Professionals: Private Bills for Entry to Practise Professions in Ontario, 1868,1914

This paper explores profession-state relations, through a case study of the Ontario government's historical practice of granting individual petitioners the right to circumvent requirements for entry to practise established by professional bodies. Through this practice, the Ontario legislature implicitly challenged professions' right to determine competence and expertise. While some have argued that states regulate professions to regulate expertise, this analysis suggests that state acceptance of professional expertise was a gradual process that came several decades after the establishment of professions in the province. [source]

The development and regulation of lobbying in the new member states of the European Union

Conor McGrath
This paper focuses on lobbying as a political activity and the emergence of lobbying regulation in 10 new member states of the European Union (EU). The analysis begins with general observations about lobbying in post-communist states and on the development of lobbying in three of the larger new member states: Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. Key to how lobbying will continue to develop in the future in these 10 countries is how it will be regulated and controlled. Therefore, the paper examines this in some detail. The analysis concludes with some recommendations on the role that could be played by professional bodies, which represent lobbyists in gaining more acceptance for interest groups in these new member states. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Practitioner Review: The contribution of attachment theory to child custody assessments

James G. Byrne
Background:, The area of child custody assessments continues to fail to meet the evidence-based threshold now established in clinical practice. This is despite the existence, for many years, of published guidelines governing the practice of custody assessments available from a number of professional bodies. Methods:, This article reviews the potential of attachment theory to contribute to the conceptualization of custody evaluations, clinical assessment, and the development of evidence-based practice. Particular attention is paid to specific instruments used to assess attachment in clinic and non-clinic settings. Results:, Guidelines concerning child custody assessments highlight the particular importance of assessing attachment and parent,child relationship quality. However, measures often used in the course of a custody assessment are not backed up with empirical research, and the measures that are supported by empirical research have been slow to influence practice. There may be conceptual and measurement advantages of considering an attachment research-informed custody assessment. Discussion:, Attachment theory has obvious conceptual relevance for the child custody context. Further clinical research is needed to demonstrate the usefulness of attachment research measures; research of this kind may shed important light on the development and resilience of affectional bonds. [source]

Integrated river basin management in England and Wales: a policy perspective

G. Mance
Abstract 1.There is now an irresistible momentum for a truly integrated and strategic approach to river basin management. As a consequence, the framework within which individual organizations can carry out their roles and responsibilities in a co-ordinated and sustainable way can be determined. 2.Extreme events such as floods and droughts have severe social and economic consequences. ,Traditional' engineered responses, which take little account of fluvial processes and ecosystem functioning, often exacerbate these problems and can have severe adverse consequences on the environment. 3.Bringing together a range of scientific, technical and engineering disciplines to address catchment management has many advantages. Identifying and implementing innovative solutions that benefit local communities and the environment is the only sustainable way forward for river management. 4.Public understanding of risk assessment and management is vital to the success of an integrated approach. So too is a strategic dimension to inform the town and country planning system and major investment decisions by major utilities and public bodies responsible for water supply, pollution control and flood management. 5.There are major challenges ahead for public utilities, agencies and professional bodies in terms of attracting, retaining and blending together skilled scientific, engineering and technical specialists. These skills need to be complemented by the ability to convey sophisticated information in readily understood language. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Anomalies in the Oversight of Australian Auditors

Graeme L. Wines
This commentary identifies and comments on anomalies in the oversight of Australian auditors and audit firms. Regulatory and professional oversight and inspection of Australian auditors and audit firms arise from a number of sources, highlighting its multi-faceted nature. This makes it impossible to identify a single body with ultimate responsibility for auditor oversight. Three recent Australian reviews commissioned by the Financial Reporting Council, together with an evaluation of the roles of the various regulatory and professional bodies, are used in this commentary as a platform from which to identify a number of significant anomalies in oversight processes. Major anomalies highlighted arise from the overlapping nature of the duties and functions of the various bodies and the variation in oversight across different categories of audit service providers. Policymakers should closely examine the issues raised in the paper if auditor oversight is to be undertaken in an effective and efficient manner. [source]

The frontline and the ivory tower: A case study of service and professional-driven curriculum

Sue Lenthall
Abstract Objective:,To describe the development of a postgraduate, multidisciplinary program designed to meet the needs of remote health professionals, present formative evaluation findings and to offer an analysis of the difficulties and lessons learnt. Design:,Case study. Setting:,University Department of Rural Health in a remote region. Participants:, University staff, students and stakeholders involved in the development of the remote health practice program. Results:,Formative evaluation suggests that a curriculum driven by service and professional groups, such as the Flinders University Remote Health Practice program, is able to better prepare remote health practitioners and improve their effectiveness. Difficulties in development included a lack of recognition by some university academics of the value of practitioner knowledge and a reluctance to accept a clinical component in a masters program. Lessons learnt included the importance of: (i) respect for practitioner knowledge; (ii) explicit and appropriate values; (iii) high-quality academics with strong service links; (iv) appropriate length of lead time; (v) institutional links between university and both relevant professional organisations and health services; (vi) a receptive university; (vii) location; and (viii) ongoing engagement with services and professional responsive development. Conclusion:,The success of the program was due in large part to the relationship with professional bodies and close links with remote health services. We have described a number of lessons learnt from this experience that can be useful to other educational groups developing or revising their educational programs. [source]

Determining the skills for child protection practice: from quandary to quagmire?

Marjorie Keys
Abstract This article, the first of two, provides an account of an extended literature review that was undertaken in order to establish the evidence base for the learning and teaching of skills for child protection practice. It considers the contribution to the knowledge base from child abuse inquiries and from policies, guidelines and other documents from governmental departments and professional bodies. The subsequent analysis of terminology used for the review illustrates the complexity of searching for evidence that relates to concepts about which there are many differing perspectives, and also highlights the relevance to the study of activities undertaken by practitioners from a wide range of backgrounds. The paper describes the review method beginning with an initial search from which several hundred articles were located, only six of which generated evidence of value to the study. These six, however, highlighted a range of skills that provided the basis for a second, more focused search. Following an account of organisation and analysis of material, the paper concludes with discussion of some of the challenges presented during the process of this review, the complexities of which are reflected in the paper's title. A second paper will present the findings. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Will Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms improve our understanding of the disease burden posed by allergic disorders?

C. R. Simpson
Summary Analysis of data collected through the use of high-quality computerized systems is vital if we are to understand the health burden from allergic disease. Coding systems currently used, such as the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases and the Read system, have however been criticized as being unduly restrictive and hence inadequate for the detailed coding of allergic problems. Greater granularity of coding can be achieved by using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) system, which will be adopted by several countries including the United States and United Kingdom. Before the introduction of SNOMED-CT, it is important that several issues are resolved, including ensuring that adequate mapping occurs from existing systems, that the SNOMED-CT is trialled before general implementation, and that training is provided for users new to coding as part of their clinical practice. Of particular importance is that the allergy fraternity bring to light any gaps in allergy coding through the creation of a working group to advise the newly formed International Healthcare Terminology Standards Development Organisation. There is also a role for allergy experts, working in conjunction with government agencies and professional bodies, to determine a recommended set of codes, which will obviate some of the inevitable challenges raised by a very fluid coding structure for those wishing to undertake secondary analysis of health care datasets. [source]

Measurement of testosterone in the diagnosis of hypogonadism in the ageing male

M. J. Wheeler
Summary Many males in their old age demonstrate symptoms consistent with hypogonadism. With the introduction of new and more convenient methods of testosterone replacement treatment of these males is more practical. The diagnosis of hypogonadism in the older male has been controversial with some clinicians suggesting that symptoms should be treated without due reliance on testosterone concentrations. However, most professional bodies have proposed that a low testosterone concentration should be part of the diagnosis. This is, in turn, reliant on the testosterone measurement being reliable and read against an appropriate reference range. This review looks at the factors that can influence the interpretation of testosterone results for the ageing male. [source]

Do the learning needs of rural and urban general practitioners differ?

James A. Allan
Abstract Introduction:,The challenges of rural general practice have given rise to a separate rural training stream and a separate rural professional body. The differences are characterised by the nature of the work undertaken by rural GPs and reflected in the continuing medical education topic choices made when surveyed. Methods:,In 2001 a survey was designed and distributed by the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners and Divisions of General Practice in South Australia and Northern Territory. The survey utilised a list of 104 topics. The topic choices of rural and urban GPs were compared. Results:,The survey was distributed to approximately 1762 GPs and yielded 578 responses (33%). Rural GPs were more likely to select the following topics: Anaesthetics, Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander health, Population Health, Renal medicine, Cardiology, Teaching skills, Obstetrics, Neonates, Arrhythmias, Fracture management, Tropical medicine and Therapeutics. Urban GPs were more likely to select Menopause, Travel medicine and Palliative care (P < 0.05). Discussion:,Many of the areas of difference reflected aspects of rural general practice. There were also many similarities in topic choices between these two groups. [source]