Products Used (products + used)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hair dye contact allergy: quantitative exposure assessment of selected products and clinical cases

Heidi SØsted
Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p -phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m -aminophenol (0.015 to 0.38%) and p -aminophenol (0.16 to 2.1%) were found in 3 products. The concentration levels were similar in the patient's products compared to a random sample of 16 hair dye products. The concentration present of toluene-2,5-diamine elicited allergic reactions in concentrations that were 10-fold lower than the legal EU limit of 10%. Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, and the current regulation is insufficient in protection of the users. A preventive strategy is needed. [source]

FS06.7 The new fragrance mix II , test results of a multicentre European Study

Peter Frosch
A new fragrance mix (FM II) with 6 frequently used chemicals was evaluated in consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. 28% FM II contained 5% Lyral, 1% citral, 5% farnesol, 5% coumarin, 1% citronellol and 10% alpha-hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (AHCA); in 14% FM II the single constituents' concentrations was lowered to 50% and in 2.8% FM II to 10%. Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to fragrances: certain, probable, questionable and none. The frequency of positive reactions to the currently used 8% fragrance mix (FM I) and the new mix in 1703 patients was as follows: FM I, 6.6%; 2.8% FM II, 1.3%; 14% FM II, 2.9%; 28% FM II, 4.1%. The number of doubtful/irritant reactions was 7.2% for FM I and ranged from 1.8% to 10.6% for FM II. 8.7% of tested patients had a certain fragrance history. Of these 25.2% were positive to FM I, reactivity to FM II was dose-dependent and ranged from 8.1% to 17.6% in this subgroup. Comparing 2 groups of history , certain and none , values for sensitivity (sens) and specificity (spec) were calculated. Sens: FM I, 27.2%; 2.8% FM II, 8.7%; 14% FM II, 15.9%; 28% FM II, 21.5%. Spec: FM I, 96.3%; 2.8% FM II, 99.5%; 14% FM II, 98.7%; 28% FM II, 97.9%. 31/70 (44.3%) patients positive to 28% FM II were negative to FM I. In the group of patients with a certain history a total of 6 patients was found reacting only to FM II. Simultaneous break-down testing with the single constituents produced positive reactions in 54.3% for 28% FM II and 48% for 14% FM II. Lyral was the dominating single constituent with positive reactions (37.1% for 28% FM II, 36% for 14% FM II), followed by citral, farnesol, citronellol, AHCA and coumarin. Chemical analysis for the 6 constituents of FM II was performed on 25 products used by 12 patients being patch test positive to FM II. Lyral was detected in 76% of these products, citral in 16% and AHCA in 8%. In conclusion, the new FM II detects additional patients with contact allergy to fragrances missed by the currently used FM I. The medium concentration, 14% FM II, is probably the most useful one for diagnostic screening. [source]

Understanding herb and dietary supplement use in patients with epilepsy

EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2009
Kitti Kaiboriboon
Summary Objective:, To determine the prevalence of herb and dietary supplement use and to provide a comprehensive analysis of factors influencing the use of these products in patients with epilepsy. Methods:, We performed a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires in a selected group of patients who were receiving care at a tertiary epilepsy center. Logistic regression was used to measure the association between the demographic variables and herb and dietary supplement use. In addition, we performed a MEDLINE search for each of the herb and dietary products used by our patients to determine the effect of these products on seizures and on their potential for interactions with other drugs metabolized by the liver. Results:, One hundred eighty-seven patients completed the survey. Fifty-six percent of this group of patients with epilepsy used herbs and dietary supplements at the time of the survey. A considerable portion (71%) of these patients reported the use of these products to their physician, and most of them relied on their physicians as the primary source of information. Most of the patients used dietary supplement for health promotion rather than to specifically benefit their epilepsy condition. Approximately one-third of patients used herb or dietary supplements that had the potential to increase seizures (16%) or to interact with hepatically metabolized drugs (19%). The most powerful independent predictors of herb and dietary supplement use were partial epilepsy [odds ratio (OR) 3.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27,8.88] and Caucasian race (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.11,11.34). Conclusion:, Patients with epilepsy commonly used dietary supplements along with their antiepileptic medications. The majority of these patients used herb and dietary supplements for health promotion rather than because of dissatisfaction with conventional treatment. It is important that physicians involved in the care of patients with epilepsy routinely inquire about the use of dietary supplements and that they make use of reliable resources to assess the safety of these products with regard to modification of seizure risk and the potential for interactions with antiepileptic drugs. [source]

Prediction of fire classification for wood based products.

A multivariate statistical approach based on the cone calorimeter
Abstract Wood has long traditions as a building material, and is often used in construction elements, and as interior and exterior surfaces in the Nordic countries. In most applications, there are reaction to fire requirements to products used as surfaces, e.g. in escape routes and larger public spaces. Most wood products will therefore have to be treated with fire retardant (FR) agents to fulfil the strict requirements to properties connected to heat release and flame spread. Unfortunately, FR agents usually also increase the smoke production, as they cause a more incomplete combustion of the wood. The wood product manufacturers seek to find the optimal amount of FR additives where both heat release and smoke production in the classifying test are within the requirements given in the building regulations. This paper describes models for prediction of the European reaction to fire classes of wood products. The models are based on multivariate statistical analysis, and use test results from the cone calorimeter test as input. The presented models are, with very good precision, able to predict which Euroclass and additional smoke class a wood based product would obtain if it were to be tested in the single burning item test. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The widespread use of skin lightening creams in Senegal: a persistent public health problem in West Africa

Pascal Del Giudice MD
Background The use of skin lightening creams is common in the female population of some African countries. The long-term use of certain products for several months to years may cause cutaneous adverse effects. Methods From 1992 to 1993, we conducted an epidemiologic and clinical study in Dakar, Senegal. Women were questioned about the use of skin lightening creams and examined for potential adverse skin reactions. Six hundred and eighty-five Senegalese women participated in the study. Results Twenty-six per cent of women were using skin lightening creams at the time and 36% had used them at some time. The most common products used were hydroquinone and corticosteroids, but 25% of women had used products of unknown composition. Seventy-five per cent of women using such creams showed cutaneous adverse effects. Facial acne was the most common adverse effect. Conclusions A major part of the female adult population of Senegal used skin lightening creams. The long-term use of these creams is responsible for a high rate of cutaneous adverse effects. This practice has also been reported in other countries from sub-Saharan Africa and suggests a widespread use in the African population. [source]

Relaxing/straightening of Afro-ethnic hair: historical overview

Tania Cristina De Sá Dias MSc
Summary Afro-ethnic hair, when compared with naturally straight hair, presents some important variations such as differences in diameter in many points of the thread, ellipsoidal threads, and low trend of hydrating the scalp thus turning the hair drier, because the natural sebum distribution is irregular along the thread. This kind of hair may be straightened through both chemical and thermal methods. Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, the products used are formulated in a cosmetic emulsion with high pH. In this review, we present the historical development of hair straightening or relaxing through the evolution of the product categories. [source]

From microcredit to microfinance: evolution of savings products by MFIs in Bangladesh

Asif Dowla
This paper chronicles how the microfinance industry in Bangladesh has evolved from its initial focus on credit, disbursing standardized loan products and collecting obligatory savings to the development of flexible savings products. We describe the process through which the industry gradually moved away from compulsory savings and introduce flexible savings. We provide detailed descriptions of various savings related products used by MFIs in Bangladesh. We point out the numerous problems that can arise when MFIs collects savings especially from non-members without a proper legal framework. We conclude the paper by suggesting prudent regulation of MFIs to ensure the security of the meager savings of the poor. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Health of the nation: an individual or a corporate social responsibility?

A preliminary investigation into consumer perceptions
Britain is increasingly mirroring a number of nations in terms of the continued growth in prevailing levels of illnesses related potentially to human food consumption. As this issue fast becomes global, the question of whose responsibility it is, has come to the forefront of the debate. Other groups, apart from the Governments with direct involvement in this crisis are the Consumers and the Marketers. Using the food industry as the basis, the study primarily focuses on the consumers' perceptions of the nature and the extent of the problem. To investigate, three products used in the study are placed on a continuum; Chocolates represent one end and Genetically manufactured foods the other. Fast foods are represented in the middle. This framework highlights variations in consumer perceptions based on product differences: manufacturers have been held responsible for the provision of pertinent information in the case of genetically manufactured products; in the context of fast foods and Confectionery both manufacturers and consumers have been seen as responsible for consumers' existing consumption patterns. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


ABSTRACT Sensory stickiness (sticky mouthfeel) was hypothesized to result from the viscoelastic and adhesive properties of a foodstuff. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relative importance of these two properties. Measurements consisted of compression , decompression cycles on a texture analyzer, with product, type of surface, the presence or absence of saliva and compression regime as variables. Products included commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and warm sauces, varying in apparent viscosity (at shear rate of 10 s,1) between 0.3 and 18.3 Pa.s. Fairly good models were obtained, predicting sensory stickiness with R2 = 0.85,0.92. The predictive value of the mathematical models did not increase when the surface characteristics approached those of the human tongue (use of porcine lingual mucosa). Different surfaces or the use of saliva resulted in differences in the absolute values of the parameters, but their relative values when comparing different products did not change. The parameters appearing in the predictive models represented product characteristics only. The type of surface was not an important factor in determining differences in sensory stickiness between these samples. For the products used in this study, adhesion was large enough to prevent detachment of the sample from the surfaces, i.e., adhesion was not limiting. Variations in perceived stickiness could be explained with R2 = 0.86, based on only two product characteristics: consistency and ,long behavior' (the extent to which necking occurs during decompression). This was better than the correlation between sensory stickiness and apparent viscosity (R2 = 0.77),, confirming, the relevance of ,long behavior' for sensory stickiness. [source]

A brief review of the past, present and future of wood preservation

Tor P Schultz
Abstract Wood products used in exterior applications must be protected against biodeterioration by decay fungi, insects such as termites, and other organisms. Traditionally, wood products for residential or industrial applications have been protected by treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) or older inexpensive organic biocides, but environmental and disposal concerns and governmental regulations have resulted in a rapid and dramatic worldwide shift to copper-based systems. The current development trend is towards employing totally organic biocides based on relatively benign and expensive agrochemicals, with continuing research directed towards developing non-biocidal methods to protect wood. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Increasing herbal product consumption in Thailand,

Arthorn Riewpaiboon PhD
Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate expenditures and categories of herbal product consumption in drugstores in Thailand. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive research. Study population was drugs and foods produced from herbs sold in all registered drugstores in Thailand. Regarding sampling, one province was selected from each of 13 regions by convenience sampling. Drugstores in each province were included at a proportion of 1% of the population by a convenience sampling method. Purchasing documents of the drugstores were collected for two consecutive months in 2001 and 2003. The medians of prices were used to estimate value of the whole country. Results The sample included 129 and 121 drugstores in 2001 and 2003, respectively. Total consumption was 27 and 32 million US$ (1 US$,=,40 Thai baht) in the year 2001 and 2003, respectively. At constant prices, this represented an increase of 11%. The five top-ranked categories of products used in 2003 were haematonics, post-delivery drugs, anti-constipation, anti-cough, and cardiotonics. Conclusions Herbal product consumption increased by 11% from 2001 to 2003. To cover the full range of consumption of herbal products, further studies should include other outlets, for example hospital and direct sales. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Contact urticaria caused by a fluorescent dye

Keiji Sugiura
ABSTRACT A 28-year-old man developed urticaria while he was working in the garage. We suspected contact urticaria, which can be caused by some products used in his field, and we carried out a prick test using his work gloves and shoes. His gloves were orange and black in colour, his shoes were black and white in colour, and the materials they were made of were unknown. The results of the prick test using the gloves and shoes were positive. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was applied, and a fluorescent dye was found to be present in his gloves and shoes. The results of a prick test using the fluorescent dye were positive. His urticaria improved after he stopped using these gloves and shoes. This was a rare case of contact urticaria caused by a fluorescent dye in clothing. [source]