Productivity Patterns (productivity + pattern)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Previous studies have confirmed the interdisciplinary nature of the field of public administration (Mosher 1956; Ventriss 1991; Forrester 1996; Rodgers and Rodgers 2000; Schroeder et al. 2004) and encouraged the exploration of one important indicator of interdisciplinarity: research collaboration. One way that collaboration patterns are explored is through the study of co-authorship among faculty members (Smart and Bayer 1986; Forrester 1996; Katz and Martin 1997). In the field of public administration, studies on co-authorship and productivity of scholars are sparse. In this article, we use bibliometric data to explore collaboration patterns as they relate to productivity levels and quality of publications within the field of public administration. Our study finds that more productive scholars, as well as those with the highest impact, are less likely to collaborate than their colleagues. Our results also indicate that there are gender differences in collaboration patterns and productivity within the field of public administration. [source]

Impact of the Cropping Systems of a Minor Dry Season on the Growth, Yields and Nitrogen Uptake of Maize (Zea mays L) Grown in the Humid Tropics during the Major Rainy Season

U. R. Sangakkara
Abstract A field study evaluated the residual effect of a cropping system in two minor (dry) seasons on the productivity pattern and nitrogen utilization of a maize crop grown in the subsequent major (wet) seasons. The cropping systems established in the minor seasons, where evaporation exceeds rainfall, were either monocultures of maize (Zea mays L), or maize intercropped with either common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) or sunhemp (Crotolaria juncea L). In addition, monocultures of two green manures, namely sunhemp (Crotolaria juncea) or Tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia), were established. The residues of maize and beans and the green manures were incorporated at the end of the minor season; at the onset of rains in the major season, maize crops were established on the same plots. Germination of maize was not affected by the previous cropping system. In contrast, crop growth and yields of maize and nitrogen utilization were affected by the previous cropping system. Optimum growth and highest yields were procured in maize that was grown after a green manure crop. Similarly, although the yields were high, the planting of a green manure crop reduced nitrogen utilization by maize in the major season, thereby indicating its potential contribution to sustainability, due to its lower mining of soil nitrogen. On the basis of the results of this two-year study, the impact of cropping systems in minor seasons on the productivity of maize, a very important highland cereal in the tropics, grown under rain-fed conditions in a major season, is presented. [source]

Meta-ecosystems: a theoretical framework for a spatial ecosystem ecology

Michel Loreau
Abstract This contribution proposes the meta-ecosystem concept as a natural extension of the metapopulation and metacommunity concepts. A meta-ecosystem is defined as a set of ecosystems connected by spatial flows of energy, materials and organisms across ecosystem boundaries. This concept provides a powerful theoretical tool to understand the emergent properties that arise from spatial coupling of local ecosystems, such as global source,sink constraints, diversity,productivity patterns, stabilization of ecosystem processes and indirect interactions at landscape or regional scales. The meta-ecosystem perspective thereby has the potential to integrate the perspectives of community and landscape ecology, to provide novel fundamental insights into the dynamics and functioning of ecosystems from local to global scales, and to increase our ability to predict the consequences of land-use changes on biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services to human societies. [source]

Space,time patterns of co-variation of biodiversity and primary production in phytoplankton guilds of coastal marine environments

Maria Rosaria Vadrucci
Abstract 1.The relevance of biodiversity to ecosystem processes is a major topic in ecology. Here, we analyse the relationship between biodiversity and productivity of the nano- and micro-phytoplankton guilds in coastal marine ecosystems. 2.The patterns of variation of species richness, diversity and primary productivity (as 14C assimilation) were studied in two marine areas: a eutrophic,mesotrophic area beside the River Po delta (northern Adriatic) and an oligotrophic area around the Salento peninsula (southern Adriatic,Ionian). The study was carried out at 23 sites in the northern area and at 45 sites in the southern area. Sites were arranged on expected spatial and temporal gradients of primary productivity variation, according to distance from the coast, optical depths and seasonal period. 3.167 taxa were identified in the northern area and 153 taxa in the southern area. In both areas, the taxonomic composition of the nano- and micro-phytoplankton guilds exhibited greater temporal than spatial variation. The latter was much higher in the southern area than in the northern area (average dissimilarity between stations being 70.7±0.8% and 44.7±4.2% respectively). 4.Primary productivity varied in space and time on the gradients considered. Phytoplankton species richness and diversity exhibited significant patterns of variation in space and time; overall, these were inversely related to the primary productivity patterns in the northern area, whereas they were directly related in the southern area. 5.The small individual size and the high turnover rate of phytoplankton are likely to underlie the observed relationships, which emphasized a threshold response to nutrient enrichment in agreement with the ,paradox of enrichment'. Under resource enrichment conditions, the high turnover of producers leads to hierarchical partitioning of the available resources with an increasing dominance of a few species. Therefore, the relationship observed here seems likely to be explained by the complementarity hypothesis. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Modeling and Measuring Productivity in the Agri-Food Sector: Trends, Causes and Effects

Catherine J. Morrison Paul
This article overviews recent trends in modeling and measuring productivity patterns, and in distinguishing their determinants and implications, for the agri-food sector. Theoretical methodologies as well as empirical implementation and results are discussed, with a view toward identifying those with potential for facilitating understanding of productivity measures, and ultimately using them for policy guidance. Productivity growth evidence for the food systems of the U.S., Canada and the U.K. is summarized, and recent studies distinguishing underlying causes of production structure patterns and linking them with market-structure patterns are reviewed, as a basis for assessing the key messages from and trends in this literature. L'auteurfait un survol de révolution récente dans les domaines de la modélisation et de la mesure des courbes de productivité ainsi que de la caractérisation de leurs determinants et de leurs significations pour le secteur agroalimentaire. Il passe en revue les méthodes théoriques aussi bien que les applications empiriques et leurs résultats afin d'en dégager ceux qui pourraient faciliter la comprehension des mesures de la productivité et qui, éventuellement, pourraient servir de guide awe décideurs. L'auteur analyse les signes de croissance de la productivité des filières agroalimentaires observés aux Etats-Unis, au Canada et au Royaume-Uni. Enfln il examine les études récentes sur les causes sous-jacentes des évolutions des structures de production et sur leurs liens avec l'évolution des structures de marché, dans le but d'en dégager les messages et les tendances dés. [source]