Productive Value (productive + value)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Productive Value

  • protein productive value

  • Selected Abstracts

    Effects of Restricted Feeding Regimes on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata

    Orhan Tufan Eroldo
    The effect of restricted feeding on growth, feed efficiency, and body composition was studied in juveniles of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Juveniles (6.4 g) were stocked into 12 tanks at a density of 16 fish per tank. Four different feeding schedules were tested on triplicate groups of juvenile fish: (1) control fed for 48 d without deprivation, (2) starvation for 1 d and then refed for 2 d (S1), (3) 50% satiation for 2 d and then refed to apparent satiation for 2 d (R2), and (4) 50% satiation for 6 d and then refed to apparent satiation for another 6 d (R6). Results indicated that all fish subjected to cycled restricted feeding regimes were unable to achieve catching up with control group. The specific growth rate of fish in the control was significantly higher than those in S1, R2, and R6, which were not significantly different from each other. Protein efficiency and protein productive value were significantly higher in R2 compared to control, S1, and R6. Fish in R2 had lowest feed conversion ratio (1.12) compared to the control (1.17). Body protein composition in R6 was less than that of the control, S1, and R2, while moisture, lipid, and ash content were not significantly different compared to the control. [source]

    Dietary digestible lysine requirement and essential amino acid to lysine ratio for pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Abstract To determine the digestible lysine requirement for pacu juveniles, a dose,response feeding trial was carried out. The fish (8.66 ± 1.13 g) were fed six diets containing the digestible lysine levels: 6.8, 9.1, 11.4, 13.2, 16.1 and 19.6 g kg,1 dry diet. The gradual increase of dietary digestible lysine levels from 6.8 to 13.2 g kg,1 did not influence the average values of the parameters evaluated (P > 0.05). The increase of dietary digestible lysine level to 16.1 g kg,1 significantly improved weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), protein productive value (PPV), protein efficiency rate (PER), and apparent feed conversion rate (FCR), but was not different from fish fed diets containing 19.6 g kg,1 lysine. Fish fed diets containing 16.1 and 19.6 g kg,1 digestible lysine showed lower body lipid contents than fish in the other treatments. The digestible lysine requirement as determined by the broken-line model, based on average WG values, was 16.4 g kg,1. The other essential amino acid requirements were estimated based on the ideal protein concept and the value determined for lysine. [source]

    Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and energy productive value of pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at different salinities

    X.Z. ZHU
    Abstract A 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and energy productive value of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei, at 30 and 2 ppt, respectively. Nine practical diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (380, 410 and 440 g kg,1) and three lipid levels (60, 80 and 100 g kg,1). Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of 30 shrimps per tank (260 L). The effects of salinity and an interaction between dietary protein level and lipid level on growth and energy productive value of shrimp were observed under the experimental conditions of this study. At 30 ppt seawater, shrimp fed with 440 g kg,1protein diets had significantly higher weight gain (WG) than those fed with 380 g kg,1 protein diets at the same dietary lipid level, and the 60 g kg,1 lipid group showed higher growth than 80 g kg,1and 100 g kg,1 lipid groups at the same dietary protein level. At 2 ppt seawater, the growth of shrimp was little affected by dietary protein treatments when shrimp fed the 80 and 100 g kg,1 lipid, shrimp fed the 80 g kg,1 lipid diets had only slightly higher growth than that fed 60and 100 g kg,1 lipid diets when fed 380 and 410 g kg,1 dietary protein diets. A significant effect of salinity on growth of shrimp was detected with the growth responses at 30 ppt > 2ppt (P < 0.05). Final body lipid content, body protein content and energy productive value of shrimp was significantly higher in animals exposed to 30 ppt than in shrimp held at 2 ppt. [source]

    Effects of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus

    Y.C. YUAN
    Abstract A growth experiment was conducted to investigate effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Myxocyprinus asiaticus (initial mean weight: 10.04 ± 0.53 g, mean ± SD). Nine practical diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (340, 390 and 440 g kg,1), each with three lipid levels (60, 100 and 140 g kg,1), in order to produce a range of P/E ratios (from 22.4 to 32.8 mg protein kJ,1). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 20 fish in 400-L indoors flow-through circular fibre glass tanks provided with sand-filtered aerated freshwater. The results showed that the growth was significantly affected by dietary P/E ratio (P < 0.05). Fish fed the diets with 440 g kg,1 protein (100 and 140 g kg,1 lipid, P/E ratio of 31.43 and 29.22 mg protein kJ,1) had the highest specific growth rates (SGR) (2.16 and 2.27% day,1, respectively). However, fish fed the diet with 390 g kg,1 protein and 140 g kg,1 lipid showed comparable growth (2.01% day,1), and had higher protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein productive value (PPV) and energy retention (ER) than other groups (P < 0.05). No significant differences in survival were found among dietary treatments. Carcass lipid content was positively correlated with dietary lipid level, but irrespective of protein level and inversely correlated with carcass moisture content. Carcass protein contents increased with increasing dietary lipid at each protein level. The white muscle and liver composition showed that lipid increased with increasing dietary lipid level (P < 0.05). Dietary protein concentrations had significant effect on condition factor (CF), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI) (P < 0.05). However, dietary lipid concentrations had no significant effect on CF, HSI (P > 0.05). Based on these observations, 440 g kg,1 protein with lipid from 100 to 140 g kg,1 (P/E ratio of 29.22 to 31.43 mg protein kJ,1) seemed to meet minimum requirement for optimal growth and feed utilization, and lipid could cause protein-sparing effect in diets for juvenile Chinese sucker. [source]

    A dietary energy level of 14.6 MJ kg,1 and protein-to-energy ratio of 20.2 g MJ,1 results in best growth performance and nutrient accretion in silver barb Puntius gonionotus fingerlings

    Abstract Five iso-nitrogenous (300 g protein kg,1 diet) and iso-lipidic (80 g kg,1 diet) semi-purified experimental diets with variable energy levels of 10.5 (D-1), 12.5 (D-2), 14.6 (D-3), 16.7 (D-4) and 18.8 (D-5) MJ kg,1 diets were fed to Puntius gonionotus fingerlings (average weight 1.79 ± 0.02 g) in triplicate groups (15 healthy fishes per replicate) for a period of 90 days to assess the optimum dietary energy level and protein-to-energy ratio (P/E). Fifteen flow-through cement tanks of 100 L capacity with a flow rate of 0.5 L min,1 were used for rearing the fish. Maximum specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive value, RNA : DNA ratio, whole body protein content, digestive enzyme activity and minimum feed conversion ratio was found in fish-fed diet D-3 with 14.6 MJ kg,1 energy level. There were no improvements in all these parameters with the further rise in dietary energy level. Hence, it may be concluded that the optimum dietary gross energy level for maximum growth and nutrient utilization of silver barb is 14.6 MJ kg,1 diet with a resultant P/E ratio of 20.2 g protein MJ,1 diet, when the dietary protein and lipid are maintained at optimum requirement levels of 300 and 80 g kg,1 diet, respectively, for this species. [source]

    Effect of dietary pantothenic acid supplement on growth, body composition and intestinal enzyme activities of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    Z.-P. WEN
    Abstract A 9-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile Jian carp to study the effect of dietary pantothenic acid (PA) on growth, body composition and intestinal enzyme activities. Semi-purified diets with seven levels (4.0, 15.5, 25.6, 36.1, 45.9, 56.1 and 65.9 mg PA kg,1) of supplemental calcium d -pantothenate were fed to Jian carp (13.0 ± 0.0 g). PA improved specific growth rate (SGR), protein productive value (PPV), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and lipid production value (LPV) (P < 0.05). Fish fed the control diet had significantly lower feed efficiency (FE) than that in any other group (P < 0.05). Body protein content increased with increasing PA levels (P < 0.05), but moisture, lipid and ash of fish carcasses were negatively related to the graded PA levels (P < 0.05). Intestine protein content (IPC), hepatopancreas protein content (HPC) and activity of ,-amylase, lipase, trypsin, Na+,K+ -ATPase, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (,-GT) were all positively affected by the dietary PA levels (P < 0.05), while intestine index (ISI) and hepatopancreas index (HSI) decreased with the increment of supplemental levels of PA (P < 0.05). These results suggested that PA could enhance fish growth and intestinal enzyme activities. The dietary PA requirement of juvenile Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian (13.0,73.0 g), for optimal growth estimated by the broken-line analysis was 23.0 mg PA kg,1 diet. [source]

    Performance factors, body composition and digestion characteristics of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fed pelleted or extruded diets

    B. VENOU
    Abstract The effects of steam pelleting or extrusion of a commercial feed on performance of 2 g (small) and 40 g (large) gilthead sea bream was studied. In addition the apparent digestibility of diets, gastric evacuation time (GET) and trypsin and amylase activities were measured in large fish. Fish size significantly increased protein and energy productive value, body protein and lipid, liver glycogen and liver lipid, however decreased daily growth index, feed intake and feed utilization, body moisture and hepatosomatic index. Extrusion processing decreased feed intake, more strongly for small fish, and increased daily growth index, feed utilization, protein and energy productive value, body protein and lipid. Digestibility of starch and energy increased with extrusion and GET of extruded feed was double that of steam-pelleted conditioned feed (i.e. 544 min versus 284 min). Digestive enzyme activities approached maximum values after 240 min for the pelleted diet, while those of the extruded continued to increase, at higher rates for amylase than trypsin. Pelleted diet indicated higher moisture for stomach digesta, while the moisture of the intestinal precipitate indicated a higher water-binding capacity for the extruded diet. The overall results indicate a better assimilation of the extruded diet, which could result from its prolonged gastric evacuation. [source]

    Effects of dietary protein, and fat level and rapeseed oil on growth and tissue fatty acid composition and metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared at low water temperatures

    Abstract A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to elucidate the interactive effects of dietary fat, protein contents and oil source on growth, whole body proximate composition, protein productive value (PPV) and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle and liver in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)` at low water temperatures (4.2 °C). Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (initial weight 1168 g) were fed six isoenergetic diets, formulated to provide either 390 g kg,1 protein and 320 g kg,1 fat (high-protein diets) or 340 g kg,1 protein and 360 g kg,1 fat (low-protein diets). Within each dietary protein/fat level, crude rapeseed oil (RO) comprised 0, 30 or 60% (R0, R30, R60, respectively) of the added oil. After 12 weeks, the overall growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were very good for all treatments [thermal growth coefficient (TGC): 4.76 (±0.23); FCR: 0.85 (±0.02)]. Significant effects were shown owing to the oil source on specific growth rate and TGC only. The liver and muscle FA compositions were highly affected by the graded inclusion of RO. The PPV was significantly affected by the dietary protein level. The results of this study suggest that more sustainable, lower protein diets with moderate RO inclusion can be used in Atlantic salmon culture at low water temperatures with no negative effects on growth and feed conversion, no major detrimental effects on lipid and FA metabolism and a positive effect on protein sparing. [source]

    Optimum arginine requirement of juvenile black sea bream, Sparus macrocephalus

    Fan Zhou
    Abstract An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary arginine requirement of juvenile black sea bream Sparus macrocephalus in 18 350 L indoors flow-through circular fibreglass tanks. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to contain graded levels of l -arginine (1.85%, 2.23%, 2.51%, 2.86%, 3.20% and 3.46% dry diet) from dietary ingredients and crystalline arginine. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 25 juvenile fish (10.51±0.15 g) twice daily (08:00 and 16:00 hours) to apparent satiation. Results showed that the specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary arginine levels up to 2.51% and remained nearly the same thereafter. Feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and protein productive value all showed an increasing tendency and then levelled off. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy significantly improved up to 2.86% arginine diet and decreased at different extents thereafter. Fish fed 1.85% arginine diet had significantly lower protein content in the whole body and dorsal muscle than those fed diets supplemented with or >2.86% of arginine. Lipid content decreased and lower value occurred at 3.46% of dietary arginine. The dietary essential amino acid composition in the whole body of the black sea bream was significantly influenced by dietary arginine. Arginine retention increased with an increasing dietary arginine level from 1.85% to 3.20%, then declined slightly at 3.46% arginine diet. Serum biochemical parameters were significantly affected by the dietary arginine level except for the cholesterol content. Broken-line regression based on SGR and second-order polynomial regression based on PER indicated that the optimum dietary arginine requirements for juvenile black sea bream were 2.79% and 3.09% diet, corresponding to 7.74% and 8.13% of the dietary protein respectively. [source]

    Effect of dietary probiotic Biogen® supplementation as a growth promoter on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    E R EL-Haroun
    Abstract Probiotic microbial feed supplements are gaining wide acceptance in livestock production, and may be applicable to aquaculture production systems. The present study was conducted to examine probiotic treatment in the fingerling diet of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). A total of 240 of Nile tilapia fingerlings (weight ranged from 22.96 to 26.40 g) were divided into five experimental groups. The experiment was conducted for 120 days. Experimental diets were identical in all, except for the variation in probiotic levels. A probiotic (Biogen®) was used at 0% (diet 1), 0.5% (diet 2), 1.5% (diet 3), 2.0% (diet 4) and 2.5% (diet 5) inclusion rates in the experimental diets. The growth performance and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia including weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive value and energy retention were significantly (P,0.01) higher in the treatment receiving probiotic (Biogen®) than the control diet. No differences were observed for moisture, ash and protein content (P,0.01) among the experimental diets. The lowest gross energy and lipid contents were recorded for fish fed the diet containing 0.5% Biogen® (P,0.01). The production performance and subsequent cost,benefit analyses clearly indicated that the diets containing probiotic biogen recorded the highest net return and the lowest total cost compared with the control diet. [source]

    Terrestrial leaf meals or freshwater aquatic fern as potential feed ingredients for farmed abalone Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus 1758)

    Ofelia S Reyes
    Abstract Three terrestrial leaf meals, Carica papaya, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oliefera and a freshwater aquatic fern, Azolla pinnata were evaluated as potential ingredients for farmed abalone diet. All diets were formulated to contain 27% crude protein, 13% of which was contributed by the various leaf meals. Fresh seaweed Gracilariopsis bailinae served as the control feed. Juvenile Haliotis asinina (mean body weight=13.4±1.6 g, mean shell length= 38.8±1.4 mm) were fed the diets at 2,3% of the body weight day,1. Seaweed was given at 30% of body weight day,1. After 120 days of feeding, abalone fed M. oliefera, A. pinnata -based diets, and fresh G. bailinae had significantly higher (P<0.01) specific growth rates (SGR%) than abalone fed the L. leucocephala- based diet. Abalone fed the M. oliefera -based diet had a better growth rate in terms of shell length (P<0.05) compared with those fed the L. leucocephala -based diet but not with those in other treatments. Furthermore, protein productive value (PPV) of H. asinina was significantly higher when fed the M. oliefera -based diet compared with all other treatments (P<0.002). Survival was generally high (80,100%) with no significant differences among treatments. Abalone fed the M. oliefera -based diet showed significantly higher carcass protein (70% dry weight) and lipid (5%) than the other treatments. Moringa oliefera leaf meal and freshwater aquatic fern (A. pinnata) are promising alternative feed ingredients for practical diet for farmed abalone as these are locally available year-round in the Philippines. [source]

    Effects on digestibility and growth of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum) fed fish or crab silage protein

    D.T.N. MACH
    Abstract The study was conducted in Cam Ranh, Vietnam, in 1000-L tanks supplied with recirculated and biofiltered saltwater (33, and 28.4 °C) to evaluate the potential use of lizard fish (Saurida undosquamis) or blue crab (Portunus pelagicus) acid silage protein for juvenile cobia (23,25 g). Six isoenergetic test moist diets (4915,5125 kcal kg,1), using either raw fish diet, fish silage diet (FSD), raw crab diet, crab silage diet (CSD), mixed raw fish/raw crab diet or mixed fish/crab silage diet (MSD), as part of the protein sources in the steam-cooked diets, were fed to satiety to triplicate groups of 20 fish each for a 6-week growth trial. Y2O3 was added as an inert indicator to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for macro nutrients and gross energy. Weight gain (185,286%) and specific daily growth rate (2.5,3.2% per day) were significantly higher in cobia fed the raw-based diets and FSD than in fish fed CSD and MSD (34,90 and 0.7,1.5% per day). Feed conversion ratios (FCR) were significantly higher in the groups fed CSD and MSD diets (2.1,6.5) than the groups fed the other diets (1.0,1.2), resulting in significantly lower protein productive values (0.1,0.2) in the groups fed CSD and MSD than in the other groups (0.3,0.4). The FCR results were confirmed by significantly lower ADC values in fish fed CSD and MSD than those in fish fed the other diets. We thus conclude that the present raw-based diets were better utilized by juvenile cobia than silage-based diets, particularly the diet made from crab silage. [source]

    Effects of processing on physical characteristics of diets with distinct levels of carbohydrates and lipids: the outcomes on the growth of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)

    Abstract The use efficiency and feed conversion of extruded and pelletized diets were compared. Eight isoproteic diets (220 g kg,1 digestible protein) were assayed for 90 days in a 2 × 2 × 2 multifactorial design with two carbohydrate levels (400 and 500 g kg,1), two lipids levels (40 and 80 g kg,1) and two diet processing (pelletization and extrusion) with three repetitions. The growth of Piaractus mesopotamicus fed with these diets and the quality control indices of diets were gauged. The density of extruded diets was lower as carbohydrate level was 400 g kg,1 and lipid 40 g kg,1. The interaction carbohydrate and diet processing presented higher leaching value for low carbohydrate level in extruded diet. Fish fed with extruded diets presented the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio. When high levels of carbohydrate and lipid are combined, the weight gain is impaired. The interaction between diet processing diet and lipid levels resulted in the best fish performance when pelletized diets with 40 g kg,1 lipid or extruded diets with 80 g kg,1 lipid were considered. The protein efficiency ratio increased with the increment of carbohydrates in the pelletized diets. The fish show low tolerance to lipids and a preference for carbohydrate when the lipid productive values are taken into account. [source]